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An Essay towards an Analyfis of the Principles by which 

Men naturally judge concerning the Condu6l and 

Charadter, firft of their Neighbours, and aftcrwardg 

of themfelves. 


A Diflertation on the Origin of Languages* 


Fellow of the Royal Societies of London and JEdinburgh ; 

One of the Commiflioners of His Maje(ly*s Cuftoms in Scotland; 

and formerly Profeflbr of Moral Philofophy in the 

Univetfity of Glafgow. 




Printed for T. CADELt and W. Dayibs in the Strand ; and 

W. CiLS£CH| and Bell and Bradfvte, Edinburgh. 






V^F the Influence of Custom and 
Fashion upon the Sentiments of Mgral 

ApprobatioijL and Difapprobation* . , 

- a • ■ • 

Chap. I. Of the Influence of Cuflom and Fajbion upon our^ 
notions of Beauty and Deformity. - P**gc I 

Chap II. Of the Influence of Cuftom and Fajbion upon 
Mortal Sentiments. - * - 15 



Of the Character of Virtue* 

iNTRODUCtlON* - i PagC 43 


Of the Charafter of the Individual, fo far as it 
aShSts his own Happinefs i or of Prudence. 



Of the Charafler of the Individual, fo far as it 
can afFeft the Happinefs of other People. 

Introduction. • - • - 58 

Chap. L 0/ the Order in which Individuals are recoru'- 

mended ty Natur e to our care and attention. 60 

Chap. II. Of the Order in which Societies are i^ Nature 

recommended to our Beneficence. - 8 1 

Chap. III. Of univerfal Benevolence.. • ^*j 


Of Self-command. - . • 104 

Conclusion of the Sixth Part. - 161 



PART va. 

Of Syst^mJ^ of Moral Phulosofht. 


Of the Qu«ftIons which ought td be examined in a 
Theory of Moral S^niioxeats* Page i6^ 


Of the different Accounts which have been givea 
of the Nature of Virtue* 

Introductiok* • - - 173^ 

Chap. I. Ofthofe S^m %vkici make Virtue eonjift in Pr9* 
prietj. . . • • tyj 

Chap. II. Of ihofe Syjenu v>bich male Virtue conjijl Im 
^ Prudence.^ f - • - - '' - 2^% 

Chap. III. Of thofe Sterns which make Virtue confifl in 
Benevolence^ - *• - - 245 

Q^^v.Vf^ Of HcenfyusSj/lemu - ^S^ 




0( the diflFcrent Syftetns which have been formed 
cancernmg the Prindple of Approbation* 

Ikteoduction* * T • Page 277 

Cbap. I. Of thofe Sy[fteins which deduce the Principle of 
Approbation from Setfrlove. r • 279 

Ckap-Q- Of thefe Sterns nvhich make Reafon the Prin* 
dpie of Approbation. - • 284 

CliAFr IIL Of thofe Syfems which make Sentiment th^ 
Principle of Appr^atioti^ % -^ 2j^ 


Of the Manner in which different Authors have 
Ue^^ted of the praQical Rules of Morality. ^07 

Cimfderations concerning the firfl Formation of Languages^ 
, pnd ike dij^erenl^ Genius of original and compounded Lan- 
jftmges. - - w ^ 34^ 



T H E O R Y 




Of the Influence of Custom and 
Fashion upon the Sentiments of Moral 
Approbation and Difapprobation. 

Confifting of One SeSiOT. 

CHAP.. I. 

Of the Influence ofCuJlom and Fajbion upon our 
Notions of Beauty and Deformity. 

^npHEUE are other principles befides thofe 
^ already enumerated, which have a con- 
fiderable influence upon the moral fentiments 
of mankind, and are the chief caufes of the 
many irregular and difcordant opinions 
ivhich prevail in different ages and nations 
voi,. II. s con- % 

2 0/*/*^ Influence Part V, 

concerning what \s b|ameable or praife- 
worthy. Thefe principles are duftom and 
fafliion, principles which e:?f:tend their domi-^ 
nion over our judgments concerning beauty 
of every kind. 

When two objeds have frequently been 
feen together, the imagination requires a 
habit of pafling eafily from the one to the 
other. If the firft appear, we lay our ac- 
count that the fecond is to follow. Of their 
own accord they put us in mind of one an- 
other, and the attention glides eafily along 
them. Though, independent of cufton^, 
there fhould be no real beauty in their union, 
yet when cuRom has thus conneded them 
together, we feel an impropriety in their 
feparation. The one we think is awkward 
when it appears without its ufual companion. 
We mifs fomething which we expedled tq 
find, and the habitual arrangement of our 
ideas is difturbed by the dif^ppointment, A 
fuit of clothes, for example, feems to want 
fomething if they are without the moft in- 
fignificant ornament which ufually accompa- 
nies them, and we find a meannefs or awk- 
wardnefs in the abferice even of a haunch 
button. When there is any natural propriety 
in the union, cuftom increafes our fenfe of 
it, and makes a different arrangement appear 

Chap. I. ^Custom. 3 

dill more difagreeable than it would other- 
wife feem to be. Thofe who have been ac- 
cuftomed to fee things in a good tafte are 
more difgufted by whatever is clumfy or 
awkward. Where the conjimdion is im- 
proper, cuftom either diminiflies, or takes 
away altogether, our fenfe of the impro- 
priety. Thofe who have been accuftomed 
to flovenly diforder lofe all fenfe of neatnefs 
or elegance. The modes of furniture or 
drefs which feem ridiculous to ftrangers, give 
no offence to the people who are ufed to 

Fafliion is different from cuftom, or rather 
is a particular fpecies of it. That is not the 
fafhion which every body wears, but which 
thofe wear who are of a high rank, or char 
rader. The graceful, the eafy, and com- 
manding manners of the great, joined to the 
ufual richnefs and magnificence of their 
drefs, give a grace to the very form which 
they happen to beftow upon it. As long as 
they continue to ufe this form, it is con- 
neded in our imaginations with the idea of 
fomething that is genteel and magnificent, 
and though in itfelf it fhould be indifferent, 
it feems, on account of this relation, to have 
fomething about it that 13 genteel and magnii. 
^cept too. As foon as they drop it, it lofes 
9 3 all 

4 (y/)^^ Influence Part V. 

all the grace, which it had appeared to pof- 
fefs before, and being now ufed only by the 
inferior ranks of people, feems to have fome-- 
thing of their meannefs and awkwardnefs. 

Drefs and furniture are allowed by all the 
world to be entirely under the dominion of 
cuftom and fafhion. The influence of thofe 
principles, however, is by no means confine4 
to fo narrow a fphere, but extends itfelf to 
whatever is in any refped the objedl of t^fte, 
to mufic, to poetry, to architedure. The 
modes of drefs and furniture are continually 
changing, and that fafhion appearing ridi^ 
culous to-day which was admired five years 
ago, we are experimentally convinced that it 
owed its vogue chiefly or entirely to cuftom 
and fafltiion. Clothes and furniture are not 
made of very 'durable materials. A well- 
fancied coat is done in a twelvcrmonth, and 
cannot continue longer to-Tpropagate, as the 
fafliion, that form according to which it was 
made. The modes of furniture change lefs 
rapidly than ^hofe of drefs ; becaufe Jfurni- 
ture is commonly more durable. In fi^ve or 
fix years, however, it generally undergoes an 
(entire revolution, and every man in his own 
time fees the fafhion in this refpedt change 
many different ways. The produdions of 
the pther arts are much more lafting, and,- 

Chap. t. ^Cusfowt. J 

when happily imagined, may dbrititiue to 
propagate the fafhion of their make for a 
much longer time. A well-contrived build- 
ing may endure many centuries : a beautiful 
air may be delivered down by a fort of tra- 
dition through' many fucceflive generations : 
a well-written poem may laft as long as the 
world ; and all of them continue for ages 
together, to give the vogue to that particular 
ftyle, to that particular tafte or manner, ac- 
cording to which each of them was compofed* 
Few men have an opportunity of feeing in 
their own times the fafhion in any of thefe 
arts change very confiderably. Few men 
have fo much experience and acquaintance 
with the different modes which have ob- 
tained in remote ages and nations, as to be 
thoroughly reconciled to them, or to judge 
with impartiality between them, and what 
takes place in their own age and country* 
Few meri therefore are willing to allow, that 
cuftom or fafhion have much influence Upon 
their judgments concerning what is beautiful, 
or otherwife, in the productions of any of 
thofe arts; but imagine, that all the rules, 
which they think ought to be obferved in 
each of them, are founded upon reafon and 
nature, not upon habit, or prejudice. A 
Very little attention, however, may convince 
B 3 them 

6 Cy/^^ Influence PartV, 

them of the contrary, and fatisfy them, that 
the influence of cuftom and fafhion over 
drefs and furniture, is not more abfolute than 
over architefture, poetry, and mufic. 

Can any reafon, for example, be afligned 
why the Doric capital fhould be appropri- 
ated to a pillar, whofe height is equal to 
eight diameters ; the Ionic volute to one of 
nine ; and the Corinthian foliage to one of 
ten ? The propriety of each of thofe appro- 
priations can be founded upon nothing but 
habit and cuftom. The eye having been 
ufed to fee a particular proportion connected 
with a particular ornament, would be offend- 
ed if they were not joined together. Each 
of the five orders has its peculiar ornaments, 
which cannot be changed for any other, 
without giving offence to all thofe who know 
any thing of the rules of architedure. Ac- 
cording to fome architeds, indeed, fuch is 
the exquifite judgment with which the an- 
cients have affigned to each order its proper 
ornaments, that no others can- be found which 
are equally fuitable. It feems, however, a 
little difficult to be' conceived that thefe 
forms, though, no doubt, extremely agree- 
able, fhould be the only forms which can 
fuit thofe proportions, or that there fhould 
not be five hundred others, which, ante- 

Chap. I. ^/^ Custom. j 

cedent to eftablifhed cuftom, would hare 
fitted them equally well. When cuftom^ 
however, has eftablifhed particular rules of 
building, provided they are not abfolutely 
unreafonable, it is abfurd to think of altering 
them for others which are only equally good, 
or even for others which, in point of ele- 
gance and beauty, have naturally fome little 
advantage over them. A man would be ridi- 
culous who (hould appear in public with a 
fuit of clothes quite different from thofe 
which are commonly vvorn, though the new 
drefs fhould in itfelf be ever fo graceful or 
convenient. And there feems to be an ab- 
furdity of the fame kind in ornamenting a 
houfe after a quite different manner from 
that which cuftom and fafhion have prefcrib- 
ed J though the new ornaments fhould in 
themfelves be fomewhat fuperior to the com- 
mon ones. 

Accprding to the ancient rhetoricians, a 
certain meafure or verfe was by nature ap- 
propriated to each particular fpecies of writ- 
ing, as being tiaturally expreffive of that cha- 
radicr, fentiment, or paffion, which ought to 
predominate in it. One verfe, they faid, was 
fit for grave, and another for gay works, 
which could not, they thought, be inter- 
changed without the greateft impropriety. 

B 4r The 

S Of the Influence Part V. 

The experience of modern times, however^ 
feems to contradict this principle, though in 
itfelf it would appear to be extremely pro- 
bable. What is the burlefque verfe in En- 
glifii, is the heroic verfe in French. The 
tragedies of Racine and the Henriad of Vol- 
taire^ are nearly in the fame verfe with, 

Let me haTe your advice in a weighty afiajr« 

The burlefque verfe in French, on the con- 
trary, is pretty much the fame with the he- 
roic verfe of ten fyllables in Engliflh. Cuf- 
tom has made the one nation affociate the 
ideas of gravity, fublimity, and ferioufnefs^ 
to that meafure which the other has con- 
nefted with whatever is gay, flippant; and 
ludicrous. Nothing would appear more ab- 
furd in Englifli, than a tragedy written in 
the Alexandrine verfes of the French ; or in 
French, than a work of the fame kind in 
verfes of ten fyllables. 

An eminent artift will bring about a qon- 
iiderable change in the eilablifhed modes of 
each of thofe arts, and introduce a new 
fafhion of writing, mufic, or architedure* 
As the drefs of an agreeable man of high 
rank recommends itfelf, and how peculiar 
and fantaftical foever, comes foon to be ad* 


Chap. !• of Custom. 9 

mired and imitated ; fo the excellencies of 
an eminent mafter recommend his peculiari- 
ties, and his manner becomes the fafliionablc 
ftyle in the art which he pradlifes. The tafte 
of the Italians in mufic and architedure has, 
within thefe fifty years, undergone a confi- 
derable change, from imitating the peculiari- 
ties of fome eminent mafters in each of thofc 
arts. Seneca is accufed by Quintilian of 
having corrupted the tafte of the Romans, 
and of having introduced a frivolous pretti- 
nefs in the room of majeftic reafon and maf- 
culine eloquence. Salluft and Tacitus have 
by others been charged with the fame ac^ 
cufation,though in a different manner. They 
gave reputation, it is pretended, to a ftyle, 
which though in the higheft degree concife> 
elegant, expreflive, and even poetical, want- 
ed, however, eafe, fimplicity, and nature, 
and was evidently the produdlion of the 
moft laboured and ftudied affedation. How 
many great qualities muft that writer poffefs^ 
who can thus render his very faults agreed- 
able? After the praife of refining the tafte of 
a nation, the higheft eulogy, perhaps, which 
can be beftowed upon any author, is to fay, 
that he corrupted it. In our own language^ 
Mr. Pope and Dr. Swift have each of them 
introduced a manner different from what was 


lo (y/A^ Influence Part V^ 

pradifed before, into all works that are writ- 
ten in rhyme, the one in long verfes, the 
other in ftiort. The quaintnefs of Butler 
has given place to the plainnefs of Swift. 
The rambling freedom of Dryden,.and the 
corred, but often tedious and profaic languor 
of Addifon, are no longer the objeds of imi- 
tation, but all long verfes are now written 
after the manner of the nervous precifion of 
Mr. Pope. 

Neither is it only over the produdions of 
the arts, that cuftom and faftiion exert their 
dominion. They influence our judgments, 
in the fame manner, with regard to the 
beauty of natural objeds. What various 
and oppofite forms are deemed beautiful in 
different fpecies of things ? The proportions 
which are admired in one animal, are altoge- 
ther different from thofe which are efteemed 
in another. Every clafs of things has its 
own peculiar conformation, which is ap- 
proved of, and has a beauty of its own, 
diftind from that of every other fpecies. 
It is upon this account that a learned Jefuit, 
father Buffier, has determined that the beauty 
of every objed confifts in that form and co- 
lour, which is moft ufual among things of 
that particular fort to which it belongs. 
Thus, in the human form, the beauty of 


Chap. I. 5f Custom. h 

each feature lies in a certain middle, equally 
lemoved from a variety of other forms that 
are ugly. A beautiful nofe, for example, is 
one that is neither very long, nor very fhort, 
neither very ftraight, nor very crooked, but 
a fort of middle among all thefe extremes, 
and lefs different from any one of them, than 
all of them are from one another. It is the 
form which Nature feems to have aimed at in 
them all, which, however, fhe deviates from 
in a great variety of ways, and very feldom 
hits exactly ; but to which all ihofe devia- 
tions ftill bear a very ftrong refemblance. 
When a number of drawings are made after 
one pattern, though they may all mifs it in 
fome refpeds, yet they will all refemble it 
more than they refemble one another ; the 
general charader of the pattern will run 
through them all ; the moft fmgular and odd 
will be thofe which are moft wide of it ; and 
though very few will copy it exadly, yet the 
moft accurate delineations will bear a greater 
refemblance to the moft carelefs, than the 
carelefs ones will bear to one another. In 
the fame manner, in each fpecies of crea- 
tures, what is moft beautiful bears the ftrong- 
eft characters of the general fabric of the 
fpecies, and has the ftrongeft refemblance to 
the greater part of the individuals with which 


12 ^/Zr^ Influence Part V. 

it is clafled. Monfters, on the contrary, or 
what is perfedly deformed, arc always moft 
fingular and odd, and have the leaft refem- 
blance to the generality of that fpecies to 
which they belong. And thus the beauty 
of each fpecies, though in one fenfe the rareft 
of all things, becaufe few individuals hit this 
middle form exadily, yet in another, is the 
moft common, becaufe all the deviations 
from it refemble it more than they refemble 
one another. The moft cuftomary form, 
therefore, is in each fpecies of things, accord- 
ing to him, the moft beautiful. And hence 
it is that a certain practice and experience in 
contemplating each fpecies of objects is requi- 
fite, before we can judge of its beauty, or 
know wherein the middle and moft ufual 
form confifts. The niceft judgment con- 
cerning the beauty of the human fpecies, will 
not help us to judge of that of flowers, or 
horfes, or any other fpecies of things. It is 
for the fame reafon that in different climates, 
and where different cuftoms and ways of liv- 
ing take place, as the generality of any fpe- 
cies receives a different conformation from 
thofe circumftances, fo different ideas of its 
beauty prevail. The beauty of a Moorifh is 
not exadly the fame with that of an EnglifK 
horfe* What different ideas are formed in 


Chap. I. of Custom. ij 

different nations concerning the beauty of 
the human (hape and countenance? A fair 
complexion is a fliockirig deformity upon the 
coaft of Guinea. Thick lips and a flat nofe 
are a beauty. In fome nations long eiirs that 
hang down upon the fhoulders are the ob- 
jeds of univerfal admiration. In China if a 
lady's foot is fo large as to be fit to walk 
upon, (he is regarded as a monfter of ugli- 
pefs. Some of the favage nations in North- 
America tie four boards round the heads of 
their children, and thus fqueeze them, while 
the bones are tender and griftly, into a form, 
that is almoft perfedly fquare. Europeans 
are aftonifhed at the abfurd barbarity of thid 
pradice, to which fome miffionaries have 
imputed the Angular ftupidity of thofe na- 
tions among whom it prevails. But when 
they condemn thofe favages, they do not re- 
jSed that the ladies in Europe had, till within 
thefe very few years, been endeavouring, for 
near a century paft, to fqueeze the beautiful 
roundnefs of their natural fhape into a fquare 
form of the fame kind. And that, notwith- 
ftanding the many diftortions and difeafcs 
which this practice was known to occafion, 
cuftom had rendered it agreeable among fome 
of the moft civilized nations which, perhaps^ 
tfee wprld cvet beheld, 


14 (y/^^ Influence Part V. 

Such is the fyftem of this learned and in- 
genious Father, concerning the nature of 
beauty ; of which the whole charm, accord- 
ing to him, would thus feem to arife from its 
falling in with the habits which cuftom had 
imprefTed upon the imagination, with regard 
to things of each particular kind. I cannot, 
however, be induced to believe that our fenfe 
even of external beauty is founded altogether 
on cuftom. The utility of any form, its fit- 
nefs for the ufeful purpofes for which it was 
intended, evidently recommends it, and ren- 
ders it agreeable to us, independent of cuf- 
tom. Certain colours are more agreeable 
than others, and give more delight to the eye 
the firft time it ever beholds them. A fmooth 
furface is more agreeable than a rough one» 
Variety is more pleafing than a tedious un- 
diverfified uniformity. Conneded variety, 
in which each new appearance feems to be 
introduced by what went before it, and ia 
which all the adjoining parts feem to have 
fome natural relation to one another, is more 
agreeable than a disjointed and diforderly 
affemblage of unconnected objects. But 
though I cannot admit that cuftom is the 
fole principle of beauty, yet I can fo far al- 
low the truth of this ingenious fyftem as to 
grant, that there is fcarce any one external 


Chap-L ojT Custom, 15 

form fo beautiful as to pleafe, If iquite con- 
trary to cuftom, and unlike whatever we 
have been ufed to in that particular fpecies 
of ihijnc;s: or fo deformed as not to be 
agreeable, if cuftom uniformly fupports it, 
and habituates us to fee it in every (ingle 
individual of the kind. 

CHAP, n. 

Of the^ Influence of Cuflom and Fafhion upon 
Moral Sentiments. 

SINCE our fentiments concerning beauty 
of every kind are fo much influenced by 
cuftom and faftiion, it cannot be expedled 
that thofe, concerning the beauty of condudt, 
fliould be entirely exempted from the domi- 
nion of thofe principles. Their influence 
here, however. Teems to be much lefs than 
it is every where elfe. There is, perhaps, 
no form of external objeds, how abfurd and 
fantaftical foever, to which cuftom will not 
reconcile us, or which fafliion will not ren- 
der even agreeable. But the charadlers and 
ConduQ: of a Nero, »or a Claudius, are what 
po cuftom will ever reconcile us to, what no 


i6 QT/Z^^ Influence Part V, 

fafhion will ever render agreeable ; but the 
one will always be the objedi of dread and 
hatred; the other of fcorh and, derifion. 
The principles of the imagination, upon 
which our fenfe of beauty depends, are of a 
very nice and delicate nature, and may 
eafily be altered by habit and education : 
but the fentiments of moral approbatioa 
and difapprobation, are founded on the 
ftrongeft and moft vigorous paflions of hu* 
man nature ; and though they may be fome- 
what warpt, cannot be entirely perverted. 

But though the influence of cuftom and 
fafhion upon moral fentiments is not alto- 
gether fo great, it is however perfedtly fimi- 
lar to what it is every where elfe. When cuf- 
tom and fafhion coincide with the natural 
principles of right and wrong, they*heightea 
the delicacy of our fentiments, and increafe 
our abhorrence for every thing which ap- 
proaches to evil. Thofe who have been 
educated in what is really good company, 
not in what is commonly called fuch, who 
have been accuftomed to fee nothing in the 
perfons whom they efteemed and lived with, 
but juftice, modefty, humanity, and good 
order J are more ihocked with whatever 
feems to be inconfiftent with the rules 
which thofe virtues prefcribe. Thofe, on. 


Chap. IL DfCv^tok^ i^ 

the contrary, who have had the misfortune 
to be brought up amidft violence, licentiouf- 
nefs, falfehood, atnd injuftice; lofe, though 
not all fenfe of the impropriety of fuch con- 
dudl, yet all fenfe of its dreadful enormity, 
or of the vengeance and punifhment due to 
it. They have been familiarized with it 
from their infancy, cuftom has rendered 
it habitual to them, and they are very apt 
to regard it as, what is called, the way of 
the world, fomething which either may, or 
muft be praftifed, to hinder us from being 
the dupes of our own integrity* 

Fafhion too will fometimes give reputation 
to a certain degree of diforder, and, on the 
contrary, difcountenance qualities which de- 
ferve efteem. In the reign of Charles II. a 
degree of licentioufnefs was deemed the cha- 
radteriftic of a liberal education. It was con- 
neded, according to the notions of thofe 
times, with generofity, fincerity, magnani- 
mity, loyalty, and proved that the perfoa 
who adled in this manner was a gentleman, 
and not a puritan. Severity of manners, 
and regularity of condudl, on the other 
hand, were altogether unfafhionable, and 
were conneded, in the imagination of that 
age, with cant, cunning, hypocrify, and low 
manners. To fuperficial minds, the vices of 

VOL. !!• c the 

x8 Q/'/A^ Influence Part V. 

the great feem at all times agreeable. They 
conned' them,, not only with f:he fplendour* 
of fortune, but with many fuperior virtues, 
which they afcribe to their filperiors ; with 
the fpirit of freedom and, independency, with 
franknefs, generofity, humanity^ and polite^ 
nefs. The virtues of the inferior ranks of 
people, on the contrary, their parfimonious 
frugality, their painful induftry, and rigid 
adherence to rules, feem to them meanithd, 
difagreeable. They connect them, both with 
the mcannefs of the ftation to which ithbfe 
qualities commonly belong, and with^many 
great vices, which, they fuppofe, ufually ac* 
company them j fuch as an abjed, cowardly, 
ill-natured, lying, pilfering difpofitiom 
' The cbjeds with which men in the dif- 
ferent profcflions and dates of life are con^ 
verfant, being very different, and habituating 
them to very different paffions, naturally 
form in them very different charaders and 
manners. We exped in each rank and pro- 
feffion, a degree of thofe manners, which, 
experience has taught us, belong to it. But 
as in each fpecies of things, we are pardcu* 
larly ple^fed with the middle conformation, 
v^^hich, in every part and feature, agrees moft 
^'exa<3Ty with the general ftandard which na- 
ture feenJ* to hate eftabliflied' vfor ihingit of 

- that 

Ghap^ II. ^ Custom* ig 

thkt kind ; fo in each rank, or, if I may fay 
fo, in each fpecies of men, we are particu- 
lacLyjpleaicdvif they have neither too much, 
nbr/kooJitde/9ifi the character which ufually 
accompantesn th^ir particular condition and 
fituitipil. n. f. ^ /man^ we fay, fhould look like 
his trade and profeilion ; yet the pedantry of 
every pjrofeffion is difagr^eable* The differ- 
te^periods of life have> for the fame reai^n, 
fliffertaijti mano^cra afligned to thep. We exr 
i^t£kf in old age, that gravity and iedatenefs 
y^h&h ' its infirmities^ it^ V^g. experience^ 
and itSi worbK3tu|: feniibilicy^ fe^n tQ render 
both natural a^nd refpedlab}e} and w^, lay 
jQUfciaoeouijt to fiod i» yflUth ithat fenfibility, 
that g^iijty 1^ i fpdghtjy vivacity ^hich ex- 
periente jteac{hc<9 us to expeft from the lively 
impreffion^ that allattterefting objeds are apt 
|0 m^^ npQfk the tender and unpradifed 
ieofes £^ that '^«^ly period of life. Each of 
thofcrtwo ages, however, may eafily have too 
mupb of thefe peculiarities which belong to 
jt. : The flirting levity of yoijth, and the 
impioves^ble infenfibility of old, age, are 
4qii^5^ 4ifagreeable. The young, accord- 
ingjito ithe common faying^, are moft agree- 
JStbk ^y^ef^ in their behaviour there is fome* 
Ain^^ of 4hie manners of the old, and the old, 
.n^hqn I they) ritaitL Something of the gaiety of 
3:^ c 2 the 

20 0/*/^^ Influence Part V. 

the youog. Either of them, however, may 
eafily have too much of the manners of the 
other. The extreme coldnefs, and dull 
formality, which are pardoned in old age, 
make youth ridiculous. The levity, the 
careleflhefs, and the vanity, which are 
indulged in youth, render old age con- 

The peculiar chara<Ser and manners which 
we are led by cuftom to appropriate to each 
rank and profcflion, have fometimes perhaps 
a propriety independent of cuftom ; and are 
what we fliould approve of for their own 
fakes, if we took into confideration all the 
different circumftances which naturally affedt ' 
thofe in each different ftate of life. The 
propriety of a perfon's behaviour, depends 
not upon its fuitablenefs to any one cireum- 
ftance of his fuuation, but to all the circum- 
ftances, which, when we bring his cafe 
home to ourfelves, we feel, fhould naturally 
call upon his attention. If he appears to be 
fo much occupied by any one of them, as 
entirely to negledJ: the reft, we difapprov.e of 
his condudt, as fomething which we cannot 
entirely go along with, becaufe not properly 
adjufted to all the circumftances of his fitu*- 
ation : Yet, perhaps, the emotion he ex- 
prcffes for the objedl which principally inter- 

13 efts 

Chap. 11. of CvsroM. ai 

efts him, does not exceed what we fhould 
entirely fympathizc with, and approve of, in 
one whofe attention was not required by any- 
other thing, A parent in private life might, 
upon the lofs of an only fon, exprefs without 
blame a degree of grief and tendernefs, 
which would be unpardonable in a general 
at the head of an army, when glory and the 
public fafety demanded fo great a part of his 
attention. As different objeds ought, upon 
common occafions, to occupy the attention 
of men of different profeflions, fo different 
paffions ought naturally to become habitual 
to them ; and when we bring home to our* 
felves their fituation in this particular refpeft, 
we muft: be fenfible, that every occurrence 
fliould naturally affedt them more or lefs, 
according as the emotion which it excites, 
coincides or difagrees with the fixt habit and 
temper of their minds. We cannot expert 
the fame fenfibility to the gay pleafures and 
amufements qf life in a clergyman, which 
we lay our account with in an officer. The 
man whofe peculiar occupation is to keep 
the world in mind of that awful futurity 
which awaits them, who is to announce 
what may be the fatal confequences of every 
deviation from the rules of duty, and who is 
c 3 himfelf 

J a Of the Influence Part V. 

himfelf to fet the example of the moft exaft 
conformity, feems to be ihe ' 'm^flenger ' of 
tidings, which cannot, in ]^ropriery;^'be de- 
livered either with levity or' itidifierence. 
His mind is fuppofed to be eoniihtiMly;'odcu- 
pied with what is too grand ^lifl {Slemri to 
leave any room for the imprefl^onsbf thofe 
frivolous' objedls whicniiH up'th'^'attention 
of the diffipated and tlie gay.' ' We readily 
feel therefore, that, independent of cti"ftbm, 
there is a propriety in the manners S&hich 
ciiftom has allotted to this profc!fli6n';^^nd 
that nothing can be more fuitable^ td the cHa-- 
rafter 6f a clergyman, than that g?aVe;'^hkt 
auftcre and abftraded feverity^ whict? v^e are 
habituated to expert in his bdiavloun 
Thefe reflexions are fo very bbvi6us/ that 
there is fcarce any man fo inconfider^te, as 
not, at fbme time, to have made them, and 
to have accounte|d \o himfelf iii this manner 
for his approbation of the ufual chafader of 
this order. '' ^ ' ' 

The foqrtdation of the cuftomary cl^3Lra;der 
of Tome other profeflions is libtio ^obvious, 
and our approbation of it is foukded^ entirely 
in habit, without bem^ ^iffief tiotifitmed, 
or enlivened, by any refle^ibris' bf thi^ kind. 
We are led by cuftom, for example, to an* 

Chap. IL g/* Custom* 23 

nex the charader of gaiety, levity, and 
fprightly freedom, as well as of fome degree 
of diffipation, to the military profeffion. 
Yet, if we were to cQnfider what mood or 
tone of temper woi^ld be moft fuitable to this 
fituation, we (hould be apt to determine, 
perhaps, that the moft ferious and thoughtful 
turn of mind would beft become thofe whofe 
lives are continually expofed to uncommon 
danger, and who fhould therefore be more 
cpnftantly occupied with the thoughts of 
death and its conVequences than other meru 
It is this very circumftance, however, which 
^ftnot improbably the occafion why the con- 
^^j^ary turi> of mind prevails fo much among 
jfxe^^ of thia profeffion. It requires fo great 
an, effort to conquer the fear of death, when 
we furvey it with fleadinefs and attention, 
that thofe who are conftantly expofed to it, 
find it ^afier to turn away their thoughts 
(from it altogether, to wrap themfelves up in 
carelefs fecurity and indifference, and to 
l^lii^pL themfelves, for this purpofe, into 
^^ery fort of aniufement and diflSpation, A 
.J Qar^p ip, not the element o( a thoughtful or a 
J ip^lanchoiy man : perfons of that caft, in- 
,de?d, pe. often abundantly determined, and 
are.capable, by a great effort, of going on 
with inflexible refolution to the moft un- 

c 4 avoidable 

24 (y/i&^ Influence Part V. 

avoidable death. But to be expofed to con- 
tinual, though lefs imminent' danger, to be 
obliged to exert, for a long time, a degree of 
this effort, exhaufts and depreffes the mind; 
and renders it incapable of all happinefs and 
enjoyment* The gay and carelefs, who 
have cxcafion to make no effort at aH, who 
fairly refolve never to look before them, but 
tolofe in continual pleafures and amufements 
all anxiety about their fituation, more eafily 
fupport fuch circumftances. Whenever, by. 
any peculiar circumftances, aa officer has no 
reafon to lay his account with being expofed 
to any uncommon danger, he is very apt- to^ 
lofe the gaiety and diffipated thoughtleffnefs. 
of his charadler. The captain of a city 
guard is commonly as fober, careful, and 
penurious an animal as the reft of his fellow- 
citizens. A long peace is, for the fame rea- 
fon, very apt to diminiQi the difference be-r 
tween the civil and the military charaftqr. 
The ordinary fituation, however, of men of 
this prQfefBon, renders gaiety, and a degree 
of diflipation, fo rpuch their ufual charad:er ; 
and cuftom has, in our imagination, fo 
flrongly conneded, this charader with this 
ftate of life, that we are very apt to defpife 
^ny man, whofe peculiar humour or fituation 
renders him incapable of acquiring it. We 


Chap. II. of Custom. 15 

laugh at the grave and careful faces of a city 
guard, which fb little refemWe thofe of their 
profeffion. Tbey themfelves feem often to 
be afliamed of ' the regularity of their own 
manners, and,' not to be out of the fafhion 
of their trade, are fond of afFedting that 
levity, Which is' by no means natural to 
them. Whatever is^ the deportment which 
we have been accuftomed to fee in a refpedl- 
able order of men, it comes to be fo aflbciated 
in our imagination with that order, that 
whenever we fee the one, we lay our account 
that we are to meet with the other, and 
when difappointed, mifs fomething which 
we expected to find. We are embarrafled, 
and put to a ftand, and know not how to 
addrefs ourfelves to a charafter, which plainly 
affeds to be of a different fpecies from thofe 
with which we ftiould have been difpofed to 
clafs it. • 

The different fituations of different ages 
and countries are apt, \vy the fame manner, 
to give different characters to the generality 
of thofe who live in them, and their fenti- 
ments concerning the particular degree of 
each quality, that is either blameable or 
praife-worthy, vary, according to that degree 
which is ufual in their own country, and in 
their own times. That degree of politenefs, 


26 C^/iJi^ Influence Part V. 

wliiclv .would be highly efteenied, perhaps, 
would be thought eflFeminajte adulation, in 
Ruiliaj would be regarded as rudenefs and 
barbarifm at the court of France, . That de- 
gree of order and frugality, which, in a Polifli 
nobleman, would be confidered 93 exceflive 
parfimony, would be regarded h^s^^ extrava- 
gance in a citizen of Amfterdam. Every 
age and country look upon that degree of 
each quality, which is commonly to be met 
with in thofewho are efteemed among them- 
felves, as the goldenmeangfith^t particular 
talent or virtue. And as this, varies, aceqrd-. 
ing as their different circumftances render 
different qualities, more or lefe -habitual to 
them, their fcntixnents concerning, the cxa£t 
propriety of chara£ker and behaviour vary 
accordingly, . 

Among civilized nations, the virtues 
which are founded upon humanity, are morq 
cultivated than thofe which are founded upon 
felf-denial and the command of the paffions. 
Among rude and barbarous nations, it is 
quite Qtherwife, the virtues of> felf-denial are 
more cultivated than thofe of humanity. 
The general fecurity and happinefsi whi^h 
prevail in ages of civility and politenefs, 
afford little exerqife to the contempt of dan- 
ger, to patience in enduring labour, hunger, 


Chap. 11. 5^ CiTsxoM. " 57 

and pain.^ Poverty may cafily be avoided, 
and the contempt of it therefore almoftceaies 
to be a virtues The abftinence from plea- 
fure becomes kiBneceflary, and the mind is 
more at liberty to unbend itfelf, and to in- 
dylge its natural inclinations in all thofe par- 
ticular refpeSs. 

Among fa vages and barbarians ii is quite 
Oth^rwife. Every favage undergoes a fort of 
Spartan difcipline, and by the neceiEty of his 
fituation is inured to every fort of hardfliip. 
He is in coi^tinual danger: he is often ex- 
pofed to the greateft extremities of hunger, 
and frequently dies of pure want. His cir- 
cumftances not only habituate him to every 
{on of diftrefs, but teach him to give way to 

/ftfotie of the paffions which that diftrefs is apt 
to excite. He can expert from his country- 
men no fympathy or indulgence for. fuch 
w^aknefs. Before we can feel much for 
'^<hers, we liiuft in fome meafur^ be at eafe 
dtirfelvee. If our own mifery pinches us 
veryfeverely, we have no leifute to attend to 
that of bur neighbour : and all 7 fa vages are 
;f 00 mubh occupied with their own wants 
^tid n^ceffitiesl, to give miich attention llo 

> ^tfeidfe of ki^other perfon. A favage, there- 
ifdrd, whatever be the nature of his diftrefs, 

. cxpeds no fympathy from thofe abqut him, 


28 0/*/^^ Influence Part V. 

and difdains, upon that account to expofe 
himfelf, by allowing the lead weaknefs to 
efcape him. His paffions, how furious and 
violent foever, are never permitted to difturb 
the ferenity of his countenance or the com- 
pofure of his condudl and behaviour. The 
favages in North America, we are told, 
affume upon all occafions the greateft indif- 
ference, and would think themfelves degraded 
if they ftiould ever appear in any refpedl to 
be overcome, either by love, or grief, or 
refentment. Their magnanimity, and felf- 
command, in this refpeft, are ahnoft beyond 
the conception of Europeans. In a country 
in which all men are upon a level, with re- 
gard to rank and fortune, it might be ex- 
pected that the mutual inclinations of the two 
parties fhould be the only thing confidered 
in marriages, and fhould be indulged with- 
out any fort of control; This, however, is 
the country in which all marriages, without 
exception, are made up by the parents, and 
in which a young man would think himfelf 
difgraced for ever, if he fhewed the lead pre- 
ference of one woman above another, or did 
not exprefs the mod complete indifference, 
both abou€ the time when, and the perfon to 
nvhom, he was to be married The weaknefs 
pf love, v^rliich is fo much indulged in ages 


Chap. II. of Custom. 29 

of humanity and politenefe, is regarded 
among favages as the raoft unpardonable 
effeminacy. Even after the marriage, the 
two parties feem to be afhamed of a con- 
nexion which is founded upon fo fordid a 
neceflity. They do not live together. They 
fee one another by Health only. They both 
continue to dwell in the houfes of their re- 
fpedive fathers, aqd the open cohabitation 
of the iwo fexes, which is permitted with- 
out blame in all other countries, is here con- 
fidered as the mdft indecent and unmanly 
fenfuality. Nor is it only over this agree- 
able paffion that they exert this abfolute felf- 
command. They often bear, in the fight of 
all their countrymen, with injuries, reproach, 
and the grofleft infults, with th0 appearance 
of the greateft infenfibility, and without ex- 
preffing the fmalleft refentment. When a 
favage is made prifoner of war, and receives 
as is ufual, the fentence of death from his 
conquerors, he hears it without exprefling 
any emotion, and afterwards fubmits to the 
moft dreadful torments, w^ithout ever be- 
moaning himfelf, or difcovering any other 
paffion but contempt of his enemies. While 
he is hung by the fhoulders over a flow fire, 
he derides his tormentors, and tells them 
with how much more ingenuity he himfelf 


JO Of the lN]?LtJ£*tCE Part V. 

h^d tormiented fuch of their countryraen as 
had fallen into his hands* After he has 
been fcorched and burnt, and lacerated in all 
the moft tender and fenfible pajrts of his body 
for feveral hours together, he is oftea allowed, 
in order to prolong his miiery, a fhort re- 
fpite, and is taken down from the ftaJkei: be 
employs this interval in talking upon all in- 
different fubjcdts, inquires after the news of 
the country, and feems indifferent about no^ 
thing but his own fituation. The fpedators 
cxprcfs the fame infenfibility ; the fight erf 
fo horrible an objedl feems to make no 101^ 
preflion upon them ; they fcarce look at(th^ 
prifoner, except when they lend a hand to 
torment him. At other times they fmokc 
tobacco, and amufe themfelvcs with any 
common objcd, as if no fuch matter was 
going on. Every favage is faid to prepare 
himfelf from his earlieft youth for this dreads 
ful end. He compofes, for this purpofe, 
what they call the fong of death, a fotig 
which he is to fing when he has fallen into 
tlie hands of his enemies, and is expiring 
under the tortures which they iftflift upon 
him. It confifts of infults upon his tor- 
xnentors, and expreffes the higheft cont(^n^pt 
of death and pain. He fings this fong upoa 
jtll extraordinary occafions^ when he goes (Mtf 


Chap. 11. 5/* Custom, 31 

to war, when he meets his enemies lA the 
fields or whenever he has a mind to fhow 
that he feis familiarifed his imagination to 
the mcft dreadfui misfortunes, and that lio 
human event cail daUHt his refolution, or 
alter* his purpofek The fame contempt of 
death atld torture prevails among all othet 
favage nations; There is not a negro from 
the coaft of Africa who does not, in this re^ 
fpe<a, poflefs a degree of magnanimity which 
the foul of his fordid mafter is too often 
fcatce capable of conceiving. Fortune never 
exerted moi« cruelly her empire over man- 
kind, than when fbe fubjeded thofe nations 
of heroes tothejefufe of ^the jails of Europe, 
to wretches who poffcfs the virtues of neither 
of the countries which they come from, nor 
of thofe which they go to, and whofe levity, 
brutality, ^nd bafenefs, fo juftly expofe them 
to the contempt of the vanquifhed. 

This heroic and unconquerable firmnefs 
^ich the cuftom and education of his coun- 
try demand of every favage, is not required 
of thofe who are brought up to live in civil- 
i2e<l focieties. If thefe laft complain when 
they are in pain, if they grieve when they 
iitt ISl diftrefs, if they allow themfelves either 
to be overcome by love^ or to be difcompofed 
hf attg^fi they are eafily pardoned. Such 


3^ O/'/ZTtf Influence Part V. 

weaknefles are not aplprehended to affe6t the 
effential parts of their charader. As long 
as they do not allow thenifelves to be tranf- 
ported to do any thing contrary to juftice or 
humanity, they lofe but little reputation^ 
though the ferenity of their countenance, or 
the compofure of their difcourfe and beha- 
viour, fhould be fomewhat ruffled and dif- 
turbed, A humane and polifhed pepple, 
who have more fenfibility to the paflions of 
others, can more readily enter into an ani- 
mated and paffiQnate l)ehaviour, and can 
more eafily pardon fome little excefs. Tb^ 
petfon principally concerned is fenfible of 
this; and being aflured of the equity. of his 
judges, indulges himfelf in' ftronger e^&pref- 
lions or paflion, and is lefsafraidiof expofmg 
himfelf to their contempt by the violeace of 
his emptians. We can venture to exprefa 
more emotion in the prefence of a friend 
than in that of a firanget^ becaufe wc expe<9; 
more indulgence from the one than frbra the 
other. And in the fai^ie TOaomer the rules 
of decorum among civilized nations, admit 
of a more animated jbehaviour, xhm is ap-. 
proved' of among barbarians. The firft cocM 
verfe together with the opennefs of friend^-; 
the fecond, with the referve. of ftmnger*.! 
Tb« amotion rndfyivikcky mih vrhiofa the 
. \. Fretfch 

Chap. II. y Custom. 35 

French ^nd the Itklians, the two moft po- 
liihed nations upon the continent, exprefs 
themfelves on ocoafions that are at all inte^ 
rcftingf furprife at firft thofe ftrangers wh6 
faappien to be travelling among them, and 
who, havirrg been educated among a people 
of duller fenfibility, cannot enter into thii 
paffionate behaviour, of which they have 
never feen any example in their own coun* 
try, A young Frencfl nobleman will weeji 
ift the prefence of the whole court upon be* 
ing refufed a regiment. An Italian, fays the 
abbot Du Bos, expreflcs more emotion oA 
bting condemned in a fine of twenty (hil- 
lings, than an Engliftiman on receiving the 
feiitence of dtath. Cicero, in the times of 
the higheft Roman politenefs, could, without 
degrading himfelf, weep with all the bitter- 
nefs of forrow in the fight of the whole fe- 
nate and the whole people ; as it is evident 
ht muft have done in the end of almoft 
every oration. The orators of the earlier 
and ruder ages of Rome could not probably, 
confident with the manners of the times, 
have exprefled themfelves with fo much 
emotion. It would have been regarded, I 
fuppofe, as a violation of nature and pro- 
priety in the Scipios, in the Leliufes, and in 
the elder Cato, to have cxpofed fo much ten- 
TOL. II* J} derQe& 

34 0/ tbe luf,LV^vcE Part V, 

derncfs to the view of the public. Thofe 
^ncient warriors coiild exprefs themfelvei 
with order, gravity, and good judgment j 
but are faid to have been ftrangers to that 
fublime and paflionate eloquence which wa$ 
iprft introdpced into [R^ome, qot many ytir$ 
}>efore the birth of Cicero, by the, tw;Q Qr^c-» 
phi, by CJr^flus, ^d by Sulpitius, This *pi* 
Slated eloquence;, which has been long praj:^-* 
tifed, with or withouMfuccefs, both in Franoe 
and Italyf is but jud beginning to be intro- 
duced intp England* So wide ^s the differ-? 
0nce between the degrees of , fi^lf-conimand 
which are required in civilizec) and in barb%7 
rous natiofis, and by fuch different ftandards 
do they judge^of the pftpriety of behaviour, 

T))is difference gives occasion to fijany 
others that are not lefs effential. A poliihed 
peoplo being accuftomed to giy? .way, in 
fome meafure, to the movement^ qf namre^ 
become frank, open, and finqeri^* :, Bt^rb^-*^ 
rians, on the contrary, being obliged, to Imp^ 
^her and cqnceal the appearance of evi?ry pa(^ 
iion, neceffarily acquire the. habits of falfe^ 
hood and diffioiulation, l\ isobferved by 
all thpfe who have been converfant with fa«^ 
vage nations, whether; in, Afia, Africa, ;i or. 
Anierica, that they are all equally imp^pe-. 
ttftble, and that, wh?n they hav^ a roind to 


Chap. II. ^jTCusTOM* 3$ 

conceal the truth, no examination is capable 
of drawing it from them. They cannot be 
trepanned by the moft artful queftions. TKc 
torture itfelf i^ incapable of making theni 
confefs any thirig ^hich they have no miiid 
to tclK The pafiidns of a favagetoo^ though 
they neVer exprefs themfelves by any out- 
ward emotion, but lie concealed in the bread 
<^ th* fuffefer, are, notwithftanding, all 
modtiled to the higheft pitch of furyl 
Though he feldom Aews any fymptom^ of 
angier, yet his vengeance, wheil he combs 
fo^ give way to it> is always fanguinary "and 
dreadful. The leaft affront drives him to 
defpair. His codntetiance and difcourfe in- 
deed are ftill ibber and oompclrfbd, and expreA 
adthing but the iJnoft perfeft ' tranquillity of 
mind : biit his afliions are often the mod 
furious and violent. Amorig the North- 
Americans it is not uncommon for perTons 
of the tendcreft age and more fearful fex: to 
di^ovi'n 'themfelvcs upon receiving orfly a 
flight tepriinand' froiiP their mopers,^ and 
this^ io& without expreffiVg ^r^v paffion, or 
faying any thing, exciept, you jhcill no logger 
hnvta ddugbtef. Tn civiKzed hatil)ris thd 
paflidhis^or men are not corhmonfy fb furiolis 
cfTO'defpferatel The'y zH^ often chmorous 
Arid^tfoHyi' yiit'ir^Tclrfbiii' Wy liuftftJI Jarid 
- -^--: p 2 feem 

36 Of the Influinck Part V. 

feem frequently to aim at no other fatisfac- 
tion, but that of convincing the fjpedlatdr, 
that they are in the right to be fo mtich 
moved, and of procuring bisfynipathy ahd 

All thefe efFe£ts of cuftbm and faflribh, 
however, upon the moral fentiments of man- 
kind, are inconfiderable, in comparifoh of 
thofe which they give occafion to in fomc 
other cafes ; and it is not concerning the*^e- 
neral ftyle of charafter and behaviour, tlJat 

' thofe principles produce the greateft pei^ver- 
' (ion of judgment, but concerning the ^0^ 
priety or impropriety of particukt ufagesi ^ 

The different manners which ciiftdm 
Jfeaches us to approve of in ^he different 
profeffions and ftates of life, do not cbncera 
things of the greateft importance: We ex- 
pedl truth and juftice from an old 'marinas 

well ^8 from a young, ffom a dergymati^ as 
well as from an officer; and it is in' matters 
^of fmall moment only that we Ibolc for the 
diftinguifhing'marks of their refpedtive cfia-» 

^rafters. With" regard to thefe top, there is 
often fbme tmobferved circiimftance wMdh, 
if k was attended- td, would ^ flidw usf tBit, 
tti&pendcnt of truftom, there ^s a prdffHSty 
in the charadcr which ' cutlote Ki.'d'&\i|]ft^^ 
%o ftllpt tp each profeflion. We caanot com^ 

Ghap. IL 5^ Custom. ' 57 

piftin, therefore, in this cafe, that the perver- 
fit>a of natural fentiment is very great* 
-Though the manners of different nations 
require different degrees of the fame qua- 
lity, in the charafter which they think 
worthy pf efteem, yet the worft that can 
^e faid^to. li^ppen even here, is, that the du- 
ties of one virtue are fometimes extended fo 
.^^s ta encroach a little upon the precinds of 
.^fon>0 Qther. The ruftic hofpitality that is ia 
^falhipn ^mong the Poles encroaches, perhaps^ 
,a litUe* upon oeconomy and good order; and 
the frugality that is efteemed in Holland, 
upon generofity and good fellowfhip. The 
,*h|Li-dinei^ demanded of favages diminifhes 
v4beir humanity; and, perhaps, the delicate 
fenfibility required in civilized nations fome- 
4ime3 deftroys the mafculine firmnefs of the 
.chatrader. In general, the ftyle of manners 
which takes place in any nation, may com* 
,.mo^ly upon the whole be faid to be that 
., which ia mod fuitable to its fituation. 
,Hardiaefs is the chara^er moft fuitable to 
, the circumftancea of afaVage; fenfibility to 
.ll^fe of pne who lives in a very civilized fo- 
ciety* Eycp here, therefore, we cannot com- 
, iWq ^at the #ioral fentimenta of men are 
v^ g^ofsly perverted* 

3$ 0/ thelvithvzi^ct l^arlV. 

It is not therefore in the general ftyle of 
ccmdud or behaviour that cuftom authorifes 
the wideft departure from what is the natural 
ftfqpriety of aftion. With regc^rd to partis ' ^ 
cular ufagea^ its influence is often much more., 
deftrudive of goQd mopals, and it ia capable 
of efkbliflitng^ as hm£\il and blametbf% |iar-^r . 
ticulAT a&loBs^ which (hock the plaladO: prin^ if 
dpks of right and wBong*, ^ . bn u 

Can there he gijeatcif bfrbiarity, for exrrdj i^ 
^;nple, thatn to hurt an infentMls belfAeflfc ^; 
nefo^ its inwcQB^c?e^ttfl^B9*iJWi^i^f c^l foot^^j 
t^econipaflion^ eyee of anjenjemy,;an4,ft0t .,,1 
U? /pare tha$ teqder age is r^4rd^r ?is^4he). p 
UW^, furix>jUSi egort :^ of m enraged m^ cm? l| . . ^ 
cK)»ilUjE»os, What theij ihould iWieinfiag^ftei u; 
nHift^ be: ^be he?yrt qf a parQut wbOf Qould in*. ; 1 
iuiip t]hi%$ wea^nefe which even, at furious . 
enejq^y is a&aij* tg, yipl^ ^ Y^uhft/Cj^cpoj^ v 
tip?h,tb*t is,,tlw.«iuydr ^f newTbpr^;iftfe£vf?» { 
wa«. a pw^ice ^Ipwed of in: ajmpft ^^VJk^. , -^ 
ftatfi* of Greece,, even, aitapng the pplite 4R(t. j 
eiyjiji^ed: Atfe8Ria^Si:a»d whenQ^ep tfep q\x^ 
cmnftaiM*Sr of tfet parent riendw ed it iit|c^q?n r 
vepie^lt to jbring upi the; child, tq abAi^dq^^ 
it ftft) bw^eTi or-t^ vfildibeafts, k^3 reg^fde4 ^ 
WihoBt hljioifti ftr «€nfurg>u . This^.p^a^i^ i 
hail probably begun iai^W*? of ^ |]«# ^'jj - 

Chap. n. of Cvsrofi. 39^ 

vage barbarity. The imaginations of ment 
had been firft made familiar with it in that 
earKeft period of fociety, and the uniform 
continuance of the ctifiom had hindered 
them afterwards from perceiving its enor-» 
mity. We find, at this day, that this ptac« 
tice^^ prevails among all favage natiotis; arnd 
in that Ttfdeft and loweft ftate of fociety it ii 
undoubtedly more pardonable than in any 
other.^ The extreme indigence of a favage 
is oftea fucfa that he himfdf is frequeutly 
cxpofed to the greateft extremity of hunger/ 
be ofteii dies (Jf pure want, and it is fre- 
qqently impoflible for him to fupport both 
himfelf and his child. We cannot wonder^ 
therefore, that in this cafe he (bould abandoti 
it. One who," in flying from an enemy^ 
whom it was impoflible to refift, fliould 
throw down his infant, becaufe it retarded 
his flight, would furely be cxcufable; fince^ 
by attertfpting to fave it, he could only hope 
for tfte confoiatiott of dying with it. That 
in this ftate of fociety, thetefofe, a parent 
IhotiW be allowed to jadge whether he catf 
bring up his child, ought not to fufprife utf 
Co gffeatiy. Bn the latter ageer of Greece^ 
ho#^ver^ the fkme tfaSng was permitted ftotct 
viei*^- ttf feteote iritereft or convenience, 
wMch cbttld* hf no meant cxcufe it. Unin- 
p 4 terruptcd 

49 ^I i^^ Jt^ F j.y£ ^ c E Part V^ 

twrfitf^d cuft<)m had by this time fo tho- 
rpi^bly authorifed the grRftlce, that not 
jCMily the loofe maxims pf jths.wprld tol^r^t^d 
this barbarous preirogatiye, but iiey^ the do^jr 
trine of philoibphejs^ whi^h.PHght tft have 
bgen c^jpre juft apd. aQ^urjute, was led awisiy 
by the eftablKhed cuftom, and upon this, a3 
upon many other occafions, inftead of cen-^^ 
furing, fupported the horrible abiife, by far- 
fetched confiderations of public utility. Ari* . 
fiotle talks of it as of what the magiftrate 
ought upon many occafions to encourage. 
The humane Plato is of the fame opinion, 
and, with all that love of mankind which 
feems to animate all his writings, no where 
marks this pradice with difapprobation. 
When cuftom can give fandion to fo dread- 
ful a violation of humanity, we may well 
imagine that there is fcarce any particular 
pradlce fo grofs which it cannot authorife. 
Such a thing, we hear men every day fay- 
ing, is commonly done, and they feem to 
think this a fufBcient apology for what, in 
itfelf, is the moft unjull and unreafonable 

There is an obvious reafon why cuftom 
flbould never pervert our fentiments with 
regard to the general ftyle and dbarader of 
condud and behaviour, in the fame degree 

Chap. II. ef Custom. 41 

as with regard to the propriety or uolaw^ 
fulnefs of patdcular ufages. There never 
can be leiny ftich icuftom. No fociety could 
f«^ft a momeat, in which the nfud ftrain 
bf ^meii's coadu£t ^nd behaviour was of a 
^eci^ with the horrible prance I havejuil 
%ow mentioned. 


tt\' \, 

. P 








Of the Gbaragtebl c^ Virtos. 

Confifting o£ three Sedipns. 

WHEN we confider the charader of any 
iadividual, we naturally view it under 
two different afpeds ; firfl, as it may aSkCt 
Ui own happinefs ; and fecondly, as it may 
aiSeft that of other people. 

44 Of the Chakacthvl Part Vf . 


Cftbe CbaraStet of the Individual^ fo far as If 
{tjfeSis its own Happinefs; or of Prudence. 

^HE prefervation and healthful ftate of thd 
body feem to be the objedls which Na- 
ture firft recommends to the care of eveky 
individual. The appetites of hunger add 
thirft, the agreeable or difagreeable fenfatiofis 
of pleafure and pain, of heat and €dld, &<:# 
may be confidered as leffone delivered by the 
voice of Nature herfelf, diredling him what 
he ought to chttfe, and what h)S' ought ^to 
avoid, for this purpofe. The firft leflbns 
which he is taught by thofe to whom hia 
childhood is entrufted, tend, the greater part 
of them, to ike fame purpofe. Their prin- 
cipal obje£t is to teach him how to keep oiit 
of harm's way. i . 

As he grows up, he foon learns that foiile 
care and forefight are necefTafy for providing 
the means of gratifying thofe natural appe- 
tites, of procuring pleafure aiid avoidiag 
prain^ of procuring the agreeable^aQd avoid- 
ing the difagreeable temperature of heat^and 


Seft. I. of Virtue* .45 

cold. In the proper diredion of this care 
and forefight cotififlis the art of preferving 
and increafing what is called his external 

Though it is in order to fupply the necef- 

Xitieaan^ conveniencies of the Jbody, that the 

advantages of external fortune are originally 

recommended to us, yet we cannot live long 

.^ the world without perceiving that tjtic 

fpfpedl of our equals, our credit and rank in 

vthe fociety we live in, depend very much 

t#pon the degree in v^hich we poffefs, or arc 

•Aipppfed to poffefs, thofe advantages. . The 

d^fire of hccoining the proper objeds of this 

mfpfr)£^^ of deferving and obtaining this ere- 

rdit and rank among our equals, is perhaps^ 

-the <lrong/^ft- pf all our /defircs, and our 

canxkty to obtain the advantages of fortune 

is accordin^y much more excited and irri- 

stated by this defire, than by that of fupplying 

all the rMeceflities and conveniencies of the 

Jhfidy^ which are always very eafily fupplied. 

Our rank and credit among our equals^ 

5tori, jdepend very much upon, what, perhaps, 

^aivartuous man would wifb th^m tp depend 

^^tirdy^ our chsraQ;er and condu£ty or upon 

gthe^oofkfcncc^ efteem, and good- will, wj|ich 

ihi^ laaiurklLy. excite in the people^we Ijve 

46 0/ the Cha^a^tek P«tVI; 

The care of the healthy of the fortune^ of 
the rank and repjutatioi^^f the individual, the 
objeSs upon ^hich his comfort aad happi* 
nefs in th^s life 19^9 fuppofed principally to 
depend, 18 cpnfidered as the proper bufinefs 
of that virtjMiQ which is commonly called 
Prudence; h 

, We fuflFer more, it has ulready been ob* 
ferved, when we fall from a better to a wode 
fituation, than we ever eiyoy when^ we rife 
for a worfe to a better. Security, therefore, 
is the firft and the principal objeftxif pro* 
dence. It is averfe to expofis.our health, ;our 
fqrtune, our rank, or reputation, to any 
fort of hazard. It is rather cautious diai^ 
enterprifing, and jnore anxious to prcferve 
the advantages wl;(ich we already poiTefs, . 
than forward to p^mpt us to the acquitition 
of ftill greateradvantages. The methods of 
improving^ pup fprtjine,^ which it principally 
recommqjj^s tQ us^jare thofe which cxpofe 
to no lofs oi^^a25j((fd ; real knowledge and^ 
(kill in our trajid or profcffion, affiduity and 
indnftry] JjO the exercifc of it, frugality, and 
even ft) me degree of parfimony, in all our- 
expences. .^i > ♦ r^' ' ' 

The prudent mm nlways ftudiea^fcrioiifly 
and earneftly to ui^i^rftatkd whatever:) fate pro^^ 
fefles to undcrfl^pd, and- not xaei«lyjtaip«i?^> 


So6k^L' ^Virtue. 47 

fuade other people that he underftands itjt 
and though his talents may not always be 
very brilliant, they are always, perfectly 
genuine. He neither endeavours to impofb 
upon you by the cunning devices of an artful 
impoftor, nor by the arrogant airs of an 
afluming pedant, nor by the confident aflcr- 
tidns of a fuperficial and impudent pretender^ 
He k not oftentatious, even of the abilities 
which he really poffeffes. His converfatidiil 
is iimple and modeft, and he is averfe to all 
the qiiackiih arts by which other people fo 
frequently thruft themfelvcs into public no- 
tice and reputation. For reputation in his 
profeffion he is naturally difpofed to rely a 
good deal upon the folidity of his knowledge 
and abilities ; and he does not always think 
of cultivating the favour of thofe little clubs 
and cabals, who, in the fuperior arts and 
fciences, fo often eredk themfelves intb the 
fupreme judges of merit ; and who make it 
their bufinefs to celebrate the talents and 
vutues of one another, and to decry what« 
ever can come into competition with the^. 
If he ever conneds himfelf with any focicity 
of this kind, it is merely in felf-defence, not 
with a view to impofe upon the public, but 
to binder the public from being impofed 
upofi^ to his dif^dvaouge, hj the clamours(, 
* the 

48 Cy/i&f Characteh PartVl. 

the whifpers, or the intrigues, either of that 
particular fociety, or of fome other of the 
faime kind. 

The prudent xha& is always fincere, and 
feels horror at the very thought of expofing 
himfelf to the difgrace which attends upoti 
the dete^^n of falfehood. But though 
|i}ways fincere, he is not always frank and 
open ; and though he never tells any thing 
but the truth, he does not always thihk hito- 
felf bound, when not properly called upon, 
to tell the whole truth. As he is cautious 
in his actions, fo he is referved in his fpeech ; 
and never raflily or unneceflarily obtrudes 
his opinion concerning either things or per* 

The prudent man, though not always dtf^ 
tinguiftied by the moft exquifite fenfibility, 
ia always very capable of friendfhip. But 
his friendihip is not that ardent and paffion- 
ate, but too often tranfitory afFedkion, which 
appears fo delicious, to the generofity of youth* 
and inexperience. It is a fedate, but fleady 
and faithful attachment to a few well-tried 
and well-chofen companions; in the choice 
of whom he is not guided by the giddy ad-» 
miration of ihining accomplifliments, but 
by the fober efteem of modefty, difcretion, 
^d good conduft, But though capable of 


Sea. 1. hf ViR t « ti ' " ^5 

fricndfliip, he is not iatwk^s nStiih'dlfpbfeil 
to general fociality. lie ratrety ftequeiits^ 
and more rarely figures in tbofe convivial 
focieties which are diftingtiifted fot the joV 
lity and gaiety of their cdrivei^fafion. Theiaf 
way of life might too often interfere' with th^ 
fegulaiity of his teniperance, might interrupt 
the fteadinefs of his induftry, or break lA 
upon the ftrifknefs of his frugality. 

But though his converfation hiay noti 
always be very fprlghtly or diverting, itil 
always perfefily inoffenlive. He hates th* 
thought of being guilty of any petulance or 
mdenefs. tte never afluraes irapertiiiently 
over any body, aild, upon all common occa- 
fions, is willing to place himfelf rather below 
than above his equals. Both in his condud 
and ccJnverfation, he is J^n exaft obferver of 
decency, and refpeds, with an aimoft religi- 
ous fcrupulofity, all the eilablilhed decotum& 
and cfremonials of fdctety. And, iti this 
Vefpea, he fets a much better examjSle thatl 
has frequehfly been done by men of mucfe 
more fplendid talent^ aftd virtues ; who, in? 
all ages, from that of Socrates and Ariftippus, 
down to that'of Dr. Swift' and Voltaire, arid> 
from that of Philip and Alexander the Great, 
down to that of the great Czar Petisr* of 
Mufcovy, have too often diftinguifhed them- 

VOL, 11/ E felves 

5« 0/tBf Chakj^ctzu Vmyh 

l^d^ cpateaogit gi f\\ the pr^ip^i^ 1 4ficpi?*irv9 
pf , Ufe, t Aiid: cpniB^^f^tipn* ,9n4 wh^s Iw* 
t|«fK9^ fet the inpfl;ipfieQi?J<*8:«x*ro&k.*P 
^fecife iwfeo wjfla torefeniible tlifin, w4 wftp 
tPp rpftgn : content tbei©^lye?; y^jj;fe jtmitoJSBfe 
their follicp, vri^pijt ^eyeji: -aHempi^ngiito 
jittam.-thc;iE.perfedi<»w^-,'., ii,.ai .^if 
^Jn the fteadipefs jtf 14&««l«ftf7^>tt4li3*- 
galit35, .|n his ftea<JUy. faprxfi9ing,t|ie laafe a^ 
«njpym(?nl,,of the preJCTjtropnfient^J^ t^ 
pjqQb^Ue :es|)e^tion of l^e<\ftHl (gfp^^J^m^ 

Jiaftjng pcj^iod of tii)ac,.tjie,prudgntti«»^j|s 

aJywiys bot^i fui^o^te^a^d j:^w^ctedj b^ liic 

ifA^fr^pprpb^tion. pf ^ th^ |jppartifkl/pe<5bM;pr, 

a^d of t^e r rqpire^ntatiy©^ pi^i^tl^i ;ii9|)jtfji|d 

:fEg(£Utpr,nthe 5ian. witjiin tjbe breaft, aFhe 

4i?jp?jjrty»ljpje^ft^dpes, lipt Jeel himfejf Wip^ 

.,guti.hg^,-.thf,Bi^?fenj: labpu^^ of thpfe,, wi^e 

./fP^n^ .hc;>furyeyf J npr doqf he feel (»p^glf 

fo%ited by |lvQ;,ii5piprtn^afie; , cajlflii pfj ,t|ifar- 

fS^rfinj, appelUf 8., , , To J4ip ^ir pj^efenfet^nd 

, 'vv^at^Jikely ,tp b?; tlwir .fu^u^fii$f3LiatK)^^,ajre 

vmW ^^^h .% .C?nae r.h?:fse§.itheiw,9^t?i^t 

concerned, they are very far froq^ytfe^grjthe 
six ? ^ ♦ ^^"^^» 

fitme, Md dlM ^t^ tfi^ttiral^ifl^d fttmitik 
-»ery difibrwe itfaiineW ' ^e' cafinoT Hiereffete 
bur a{>pirGyefj '!&nd'^< eVeia applau4 ^at proper 

^hetn^ «o visa! 'id if their- prefetit and t^t 
|Qt4if« fitnatibn -a^died them tititXy in thi 
<&in^ e^f^tier in whkh they afie& hioii^ ' 

The man who Itres 'mtbin his iticome^ b 
«ailul?i%' eoniented with his fituation, wMch 
^f d<mttntial« though fmall accumulatitfhs; in 
'^\H^g better and better every daf< He i!s 
^blKd^adually to relax, both in the rigbtit 
^^tkii^pWfialOBy, atid in the ibv^ity ofhift 
^p^lkfeititinV aiad he feels with d^ble fatti^ 
^ffeOildnU^sf' ^I'adtial increafe of eafe and eb> 
»j^J^e«t,'#btai having felt beforeltfte'hard- 
^^'l#hi<*'at^Qded the Warit of theA; ' H« 
^^sls n(i aiikietjr to change ib c6mfc^abl(e> a 
fiWitidrij^ lahd -doeis not'g<y in itjueft of hew 
%^<£^iird^^ anid advehtureSj' which' tnigiit^n- 
%ittgeri^t could not well increafe/thi^tifc 
'*ttihq<tillity' which he afittally enjoys. '~Jf He 
'•tfet^S;^ into any new projeds dr< enterpdfes, 
Jlh«y ire likely to be welt concerted and'^well 
'TptcelJated.- tie can never be hurried ^r drdVe 
"iiirto ttleik fy'-imy ncccffity-but hifi'-ilways 
^^tTftie^aft^ leifiire' to^-deliberate fobetly; '^lid 
Xc6ttilf ^febncernihg what are likely td^be'tfi«r 
'^ibSfeicjdehccs: - V -- ■ r-A J. ■-:,.:., - 

• E 2 The 

52 Of tSeCnATSLActEii Part VI. 

- The prudent man is not willing to fubjeflt 
himfelf to any refponfibility which his duty 
does not impofe upon him. He is not a 
buftler in bufmefs where he has nb concern i 
is nbt a meddler in other people's affairs; is 
hot a profeffed counfellor or advifer, who ob- 
trudes his advice wh^re nobody is afking it. 
He confines himfelf, as much as his duty 
will permit, to his own affiiirs, and has no 
tafte for that foolifli importance which many 
people wifli to derive from appearing to have 
fbme influence in the iftanagement of ttioft 
^f other people. He is averfe to enter into 
any party difputes, hates fatSion, and is not 
always very forward to liften to tlie voice 
€ven of noble and great ambition. When 
diftinflly called updn, he will not decline the 
Service of his country, but he will not eabal 
in order to force himftlf into it, and would 
be miijch better pleafed that the public bufi- 
nefs were well managed by fome other perfon, 
tban^ that he himfelf fhould have the trouble, 
and iftcur the refpdnfibility, of managing if. 
In lite bottohi of his 'beart he would pirefei: 
the undiftarbed enjoyment of fecure tran^ 
tjuilTrtyi hbt only to all the vain fpleiidourpf 
fuccefsful ambition, but to the real and folid 
glbiry of 'performiiig the greateft and moft 
magnanimous adions^, ~ 

* -*- . -" " Prudence, 

Se£l. I; ^Virtue. 5^ 

Prudence, in fhort^ when direfted merely 
to the care of the health, of the fortune a^nd 
of the rank and reputation of the individual, 
though it is regarded as a mod refpei^ftble, 
and even in fome degree, as an aaiiable and 
agreeable ^quality, yet it never is conifidered 
as one^ either of the moft endearing, or of 
the moft ennobling^of the virtues. It conot^ 
mands a certain cold efteem, but feems not 
entitled to any very ardent love or ^diuira- 

Wife and judicious condud, when dire£fced 
to greater and nobler purpofes than the care 
of the health, the fortune, the rank and 
jeputation of the individual, is frequently 
and very properly called prudence. We 
talk of the prudence of the great general, 
of the great ftatefman, of the great legiflato^. 
Prudence is, in all thefe cafes, combined with 
many greater and more fplendid virtues, ^ith 
valour, with eitenfive ^nd ftrong benevo- 
lence, with a facred regard to the rules of 
juftice, and all thefe fupported by a proper 
degree of felf-command. This fuperior pru- 
dence, when carried to the higheft degree of 
perfediop, neceflarily fuppofes the art, the 
talent, and the habit or difpofition of afting 
with the moft perfedl propriety in every pof- 
fible circumftance and iitu^tion. It neceiTa-* 
P 3 rily 

5* Of tbi'd^A^A^TEi^ * PiitMi 

lAaedmbh lAid mcs&^fi^rii&^invidh It ooDt^ 
ftitfd^ very neafly AevidkanrCber icif the 

fyAer - prud^ae itoe$ - >ihat ^ of^) die Epkk^ 

liilkre impmd€tie€iyor>il^e mm wwfit ofedii§ 
c^adtytpiUka caDGrof ioae's fei^ is^rwidnctht 

^sp witfe^thofeoof kfe ddkaife fehtimsiitfi^ 
cflr«gteSki OP, an Jworft, lofr^cofatcmprf bai^ui^ 
'varotfe'haitited:; dr indignati©n.L Wiuea d^^ 
banedf iiiwkh btfaer^ vkis^ iioj¥(elT«r, it ag^at 
yatss^ hi thiB^highcftv degree <he infamy^a^ 
difgmJbetwfak^ ini^ould^daexn^H'? i^ 
JJIbt^artful kasmey ?9vfiofe. dexcerit 
drefe:3e?:cmpt himi |:hQugh lioi ffran^^JJisa^ 
&fpidon6v yet from ^miihmmt or ^d^^Mjaft' 

^idi yjadL indulgenco-M^ich; hsjh^.m) ^eaoj^ 
dek[vtS4i . Wbc uwkward/ andi fodifbqqpci^ 

is coniKid^d .ahd braugkt ItiOjipiinHhi^ei^rfe 
the oh^& c£ uiii:!^^fab lira^r^ dliibookiiip^ ^md 
dATifionv. Iri tctoWSiiwqji^brfiB i^^dH^^ 
irequently '.pafsiuirpuBi^e^ ttk^^pA jatepr 
, \]^ £ (fious 

ceaib to hnprdfe ibe pco|de Witib tMirhdnHite 

bdt dfie iaffffttdbiceniB ^cniverf diffiEmnb 

£a4it^ j^ the fbriber^ tltepacej^ 
confidered as fuch. In Italy, durii^ififaA 
gite^enfmft of>the fifi^teeodrctotin^ affiiiin* 
ad<>iih^^'t^Urd^iy fuod cyea murders/ tindct 
^aAjnnfe^ r^Q^jwre bee^ almoft ^unilfaur 
^ofica^itl^ fopetiibrxaioJaB^of people* Q»&r 
BorglalifQitiQAibtti^of .tbe little prioKtea Ip}^ 
adghbomrhdod, whociaU |K)fficfit4 lit^foTtv^ 
re^ties^ aod^ /dMhmaBde^d little armiiea '^ of 
didr/iDrm^ Cola fiicfidly-'^con&tende ii| Smii- 
ga^ifoy ^whfiiey^iur fcM^^ atriVed^ Im^pttt 

theittnalBf to- jdratthvi . TM& >ki£iimdua a^iddi^ 
dioa^h^iccTtaiQly not approved .of; even j Ui 
di^tAige Iff et»[£ei) fdema ta harvti cantxiimted 
4rei^4htletb the'difcreiKij^^a^^ ui:iil0p<lf^ 
tO£ the nii^^^ a£i tbsi perpetra^Ofi: : 'That 'ruH| 
Jbappehdd^fetr^yjsars^^illtQr £rdttl caufits-^albtv 
g^UtfAr difoQmiei3;ed:with> .^fd9h 
diiavel^ libtt indeed ^ man b£) the JditreflioDQiorai^ 
liiry tfv^n^for hii own ttrbes, wa^refidkloty^is 
^vAmAcviivom the repnblic' of Florencey at the 
fourt Kiyf €aDfitr l^rgvx when 4^is cdme wsfiS 

5« Oftbe^'CffLML'^c^TEik iPartVI. 

cotyanjitJWdi\¥S;/fty«ry particular ac-^ 
couaMl of Jt, : aioid .iq ) ll)at • purc^ elegant, ai^ 
finaqple lamgnoage iwhiclli fliflibigmfh^ all hi$ 
»rfMf)gs«i i He t^Iks :of .it . ^er;!: cooUy ; h 
|)iearia4>'a9itbv thfiiasMiilifs w^ ^vutllik^ C^efar 
Boirgiatidoi;L(iii£]:edit^ Jiasjimdbt:ccMDfce$iipt for 
the : ddperjz? i «id weakhofs of the : IklfBercrs ; 
bmiu) ;o(mpaflSioii; ^c.^thear imiferable and 
wU:iq^Ijufle^i|L^ indiho fart of i]&d^»3lion at 
the ciiruQ[^iaiid>£ii)fidsood ofi t&eiriiniirderen 
7h6iJ(ri(d£2das/andnu)gsii^^ of gtoat^optque^r 
ds :aarH (4tmlTega]:d£d.wifh fb^ 
mid idiiibrati0fi| ^i ihcHa^. of jpettDr tlui^ye^y xghr 
b(lra^i2Qdiia[tpcdfirecs^.wu^ hatred^ 

end iesiehl horror ^^pbn all dccafi€«Di8« . The 
£B)rH)ec^^tho%h thby are a huodi;«d ttnijes 
-iiior^ isiifidiiesdu6 jaM deftru£tiy^i y^ when 
fwpce&^l^v they> often pafsj for dedds fst tl^e 
^noft -heroic magnanimity. The tatter are 
alvvayg viewtd 'with hatred and arorfiony as 
this follies^ as well as the crtioies, of the lorn- 
eft and iDofk wbrthlefs jof ciianlditd. I . Thf ; |n- 
juftice of the former is certainly, at leaft, as 
great as that of the latter ; but thelfoUy. and 
imprudence^ are not near fo great; ; A wicked 
and worthlefs man of parts often goes diroi^h 
the world with much more credit than he 
deferves. A wicked and worthlefs fool ap- 
pears always, of all mortals, the rooft hate- 

Sea. I. gT Virtue. 57 

fill, as well as the moft contemptible. As 
prudence, combined with other virtues, con- 
ftitutes the tiobleft; fo impradence, com- 
bined with cither vicfes^ cbnftitutes the vileft 
of all characters. 

5ff Of tbe.CnMKA cte b. Pait H» : 

^■:uy'r .'.u ir-'n v.\. ..-:-Pno- ,J 

. »iq fiifh 

'iiiJi' , , ■ '■:,.(' J ^''.' :Jm J i..;.;.::'./ -J ;: 

-M ' if) 'Nil 

.,.ii£ 'ij;^ ^.i j.h. I ■:'■■■• ' : ] .•*■■:%/ '^.^••'■; 

.-)itjL (iriq 

^ >< i--^^^E-C'FI'd"N^'It/ 

^ r.!:^ijt; p 

df^y Charaaer of the IndiViaual^^'faf as'' 
* ^i?v:ik ifea'the Happinefe of other People;^ 

\r^ ^ih^' ■>^ INTRODUCTlbiNi. ■• ^.^-i: LsT^rl 
V; 'u: •'..■,■ .5, A...; ;. J : ^.:- ■■ j^ ■/,!.. ■ •. i^ ai^\\\:^ 

rjT^fiiE , chamber xrf .^very individjual^) fcf^j^ 
4i • «8f it iCiin affe^ the bappin^fe j^ qjthcf : 
ptjcq^lt^siuft d^io: ^Tlitfliciii^jpofitidn ekttKirittf 

,^ FVtfpfer re&i^tfitie^ CfMRipjuflfce attemptedi^ 
or a^iiallfvCcuUs^U^ is/theiiml^ii.ixu^iirei 
wbiobj indtbf Myfia; pf> the impardaL fpe^i-^^ 
tor,^ can * cjjafl^ifyrfcwr ^Uf ting^or diHuFbiagiin | 
ai;iy refpciSt thc^htppin(Bfs pf cair ncightboiir^! 
To do io ix6vxu9X\y\kOihQtmt!^^ 
violation of the .lawi^pf jtiifticei idiicfai £[^cel 
ot)gbt to be: employis^ citbey to i«flxain pr 
to ptjniih. Thp VBifd^-fn pf every ibte^ or 
cpQimonwealth enfJeayours; as w^l ast|tH:ain^ 
tp ^mplay the force of ithefopiety (Prefttain 
thofe ; who arc fnbjedk (fo its authority, frpm 
h]Srttiig Or difturliing thehappinefs^ of one 
aiiother. The yules wbich it cft^bliflies for 

Seft. IL - ' €/ Vt R T li E/ ^ ' ^ 55 1 

this purpofe, cpnftitute the civil and criminal 
law of each particular ftate or country. The 
principles upon which thofe rules either arc, 
or ought to bp founded,; are the fubjedt of a 
particular fcience, of all fciences by far the 
moft importarnt, but hitherto, perhaps, the 
leaft cultivated,^ that of natural jurifprudencc ; 
concerning which it belongs not to our pre- 
fent fubjed to enter into any detail. A 
facred and religious regard not to hurt or 
difturb in any refped the happinefs of our 
neighbour^ evenin thofe cafes where no laf 
ci» • prdperly proted him, conftitutes th^ 
chufader of the perfe6l)y innoceht and jiift/ 
man ; a charader which, whett carried t6 a 
cebrtdfpnd^Kcacy' of attentioii, b alwdys hi^ly 
re^e&able and even Tcoerable for its own 
fafeb^ and can fcarce ever fail lo be accotri- 
pah^d with many other virtues, with great 
feeibig fi>r other people, widi great l^umanity 
and gteistt beneroienoe* It is a chara£ter fuf- 
ficinitl^ underftood, and requit^es no further 
explaiKttlbii, nin the prefent fedlion I Ihatt 
only J eride^TOur to ca:plaia the foundation of 
tjiat <2nder wbkb nature fdems to have traced 
cmtLfdrntbe i|jiftributidn;of.out good offices,^ 
QrT(ftbir ,1^© diirciftLdn and-eihiiployineiit t)f onif ' 
verjir limkted i ppWera t of; bei^eficenc? r ^% ^ 
' i> '^o/H-vn n • t' (^-;ih*' •■^■'j" v^' towardt' 

6o QT/y^^ Character Part Vlt 

towards individuals j and fecondly, towards 

The fame unerring wifdom^ it will be 
found, which regulates every other part of 
her condud, direds, in this refpe(a too, the 
order of her recommendations; which are 
always ftronger or weaker in proportion as 
our beneficence is more or lefs neceffary, or 
can be more or lefs ufeful. 


Of the Order in which Individuals are 
recommended by Nature to our care and 

X^ VERY man, as the Stoics ufed to fay, ir 
^ firft and principally recommended to his 
own care; and every man is certainly, in 
^very refpeft, fitter and abler to take care of 
Kimfelf than of any other perfon. Every 
man feels his own pleafures and his own 
pains more fenfibly than thofe of other peo- 
ple. The former are the original fenfations; 
the latter the reflected or fympathetic images 


Sea. n. of YiKTVi. 6x 

of thofe fenfations* The former may be faid 
•to be the fubftance ; the latter the fhado^v* 

After himfelf, the members of his owa 
family, thofe who ufually live in the fame 
houfe with him, his parents, his children, 
his brothers and fifters^ are naturally the ob- 
jed:s of his warmed affedions. They are 
naturally and ufually the perfons upon whofc 
happinefs or mifery his conduct muft have 
the greateft influence. He is more habitu- 
ated to fympathize with them. He knows 
better how ' every thing is likely to affe£t 
them, and his fympathy with them is more 
precife and determinate, than it can be with 
the greater part of other people. It ap- 
proaches nearer, in fhort, to what he feds 
for himfelf. 

This fympathy too, and the afFedions 
which are founded on it, are by nature morfe 
^ftrongly diredted towards his children than 
towards his parents, and his tendernefe foi- 
the former feems generally a more adive 
principle, than his reverence and gratitude 
towards the latter. In the natural ftate 6f 
tfeings, it has already been obferved, the ex> 
iftence of the child for fome time after it 
comes into the world, depends altogether 
upon the care of the parent ; that of the 
parent does not naturally depeftd uponUhe 
^ ' 6 care 

fii Of the Cn A R A CT£R Part ¥!• 

care ofiibe child^ la thetye bf naturev it 

vrouljdifeerbif child id a nacire iifofKHtatit ob« 

jc£tthjan an old TOan ; aiid^itxcltes a much 

more lively, as well afi a much mojfe uftiver- 

^(1^1 fyojpathy. It ought to do fo. Every 

thing may he expedted or at leaft hoped 

from the child. In ordinary cafes, yery little 

can be either expeded orhoped from the 0)4 

man. Theweaknefa of chUdhbod jnt^i^etta 

the aSe<3:ions of the moft brutal and l^a/rd- 

hearted. It is osnly to the virtuous ^ndr Uii- 

fPfipp^that the infirmities of old age, ^rtgi not 

the objeds of contempt and averfiom ila 

ordinary cafes, an old man dks widioot lye* 

iifig much regretted by any body; Scal'ce' a 

child Can die without rending afunder the 

heart of fbm^bpdy. - 

L_ The earlieft friendfhips,' the friendfliips 

which are naturally contra£feed when the 

lieart is moft fufceptible of that feeliiig, are 

tliofe: among brathexs and fifters. Their 

g9od agreement, while they remain- in the 

fame family, m ncceflary for its tranquillity 

N^dhappiiiefs. : They arc capable of gwiiig 

ttore pleafure or -pain to one alnother ^n^to 

, the greater p^ri of other people. ' TH^r ftixx^ 

^ttfen renders their mutual fympathy of thfc^Ut-* 

3 tiioS^ ittvportanee to their common hipp?iitf(s ; 

X anii^ by tbi wifdoia of n^ure, th^iaihii fitik-- 

-^10. tioDi 

Jfefib^'fl. *^ ^ Virtue* j ^363 

} tlofli; ^btj iiblig^sig theaal to adcaoSunjodate to 
^^m^aaoOat^t tGnsd^rs that f^^mpathy nidceba- 

'bUfflal^ aad :thereby mOTe lively^ mibrd dif- 

nuBn32a^tmovsi determinate. 
{vrfEhc ^chiHren^ o£ brothers and fiftcrs are 
^fifCiirailyirfcciBneded by the friendfhip whidi, 
j\9&£V&f^3^n^^into dlfierent families^, eim- 
!)ttaiii3rtO)itak8rjiplaoe between their pkreats. 
'':flSfeiiiig()odriagirfen4ent' improves the eftjoy- 
-tn^tiQfithalffr'^viS^ip ; their difcord woMd 
^Hfltorb itu : As/th^y f^ldom live in the fatAe 
!(fenuljr^j;;|iDWover, though of more impoitt- 
ninceito ime another,/ thjot* to the greater -part 

jtf JOtb« pec^le,'they are. of much lefs than 
u hs9tbfiSis ^nA iiftera. ^^ As ' their mutual fy ffl- 
n|>^tfe3bMjlef9ri»€i3eirary^ is lefs habitual, 

and therefore proportionably^weaker. > 
gr/inTfhe^hilidreii of. (coufins^s being ftiir lefs 
,v<[«>nneQied, are of ftill kfs xnttportance^^i^^bile 
jfffigtl^tt^i acid the affiedJtiottigraduatty'iSwfi- 

mihcs as thieirelati^n grows n\OTe and:aulte 

(^}:liW^^^P ^^W^ is* 1^ realitysjffBb- 

5ffe¥5^;^tiJ?a^i^^ O^r coiic»a 

Jrh^ph^Sf^4h9^ n\ifft^ of thofe wfeajire 
H$^ 9fei?^^.9^,S?^'jl^^ call our afFe^bns; 
-iSWil^Sfi^ntP. FsWPt^^ the one j and tQjj»B- 
iJlSWcf^^^tfeMiii^re. either the aftuftl feding 
-itfjflh^il¥^M^H^L%iPpathy^ ftr. the nsc^&xf 

$4 Of tie Char ACTEK Part VI. 

confequences of that feeling. Relations be- 
ing ufually placed in fituations which natu- 
Tally create this habitual fy^npathy, it is ex- 
pelled that a fuitable degree of afiedlioti 
ihould take place among them. We gene- 
xally find that it aftuatly does take place ; we 
therefore naturally expe£t that it fhould; 
and we are, upon that account, more fhocked 
when, upon any occaiion, we find that it 
does not. The general rule is eftablifiied, 
that perfons related to one another in a cer-^ 
tain degree, ought always to be afieded to* 
wards one another in a certain manner, and 
that there is always the higheft impropriety, 
and fometimes even a fort of impiety, ini 
their being afFefted in a different manner^ 
A parent without parental tendemefs, a child, 
devoid of all filial reverence, appear men-' 
fters, the objects, not of hatted only, but of 

Though in a particular iiillance, the df- 
cumflances which ufually produce thofe tiah 
tural affedions^ as they arc called, may, by 
fome accident, not have taken place, yet 
refpedt for the general rule will frequently, 
5n fome meafure, fupply their plsure,, and 
produce fomething which, though not sils^ 
gether the fame, may bear, however, a verjc 
\:onfiderable reiemblance to tbofe aSediona. 

A father 

A father IS apt to be lefs attached to a child, 
who, by fome accident, has been feparated 
from him iii its infancy, and who does not 
return to him till it is grown up to manhood. 
The father is apt to feel lefs paternal tender- 
nefs for the child ; the child, lefs filial rever- 
ence for the father. Brothers and fitters, 
when they have been educated in diftant 
coutitries, are apt to feel a fimilar diminution 
of afFedion. With the dutiful . and the vir- 
tabus, however, refpedt for the general rule 
will frequently produce fomething which, 
thotigh by no means the fame, yet may very 
much refemble thofe natural afFe£lions. 
Even during the feparation, the father and the 
child, the brothers or the fifters, are by no 
means indifferent to one another. They all 
ccmiider on^ another as perfons to and from 
whom certain affedtions are due, and they 
live in the hopes of being fome time or an- 
Othier in a fituation to enjoy that friendftiip 
which ought naturatiy to have tia.ken place 
nmong perfons fo nearly connefled. Till 
they meet, the afefent fon, the abfent brother, 
are frequently the favourite fbn, the favour-* 
ktbroiher. They have never offended, or 
ii^tkitj have, it is fo long ago, that the 
oieace is forgotten, as fome childlfh trick 
tko^ wi>rth the rememberiag* Every account 
YOJL. II. F they 

€6 (y />&5 CiiAkAGTER Part VI. 

tb'^y liavc heard of one another, if convey^ 
by people of any tolerable good nature; h^ 
been, in the higheft degree, flattering . aftd 
favourable. The abfent fon, dte abfent br6^ 
ther, is hot like othet ordinary fonS itnd 
brothers; but an all-perfeft fon, an ail^er- 
fetft brother ; and the moft romantic hbp^ 
a:re entertained of the happlhefs to be En- 
joyed in the friendfhip and converfationf o{ 
fuch perfons. When they meet,! it fe' often 
with fo ftrong a difpofitioh to cdntdve ^JiSt 
habitual fympathy which cdnffitutfei^^fite 
family afFedion, that they are vei^-^^p^^fb 
fancy they hive ai^ually cbnceil^ed it, knd 
fo behave to one another as if ^:htjy^K^* 
Time and experience, however, I ani afl^aid, 
too frequently undeceive them. S 1-Fpofi 'li 
Ipiore familiar acquaintance, they fre^oetitfy 
Sifcover in one another haWts; KiimoiifsVaaitt 
iVidiriatidns, different from what^tfcey ti£-ii 
peSed, to which, from want ' of ittatSttidl 
fympathy, frorh want of thereld piStfcij^te 
and' foundation of what is pf6perly ndalfed 
family-iafFe£tioii, they canfadt now feafHj^kS- 
^omttiodate themfelVei. They^haVe-^iiVfir 
ii^eU in the fituationi^irhticih alinbft liecfeflirlly 
Jo*cste that eafy accomnbiodati^ni and^H^i?^ 
they may tio^tfbef liticeMf^defitbulB td^ai^ 
it,^,they have reaily^ become incapable of 


Sea. Ill . yViRtuB. 6f 

4smg to. Thfk familiar coQYerfadoii and 
jAtercQurfefaonbtcoiQ^ lets pleaiing to them^ 
Md, upoo th^tac^unt, lefs frequent, Th^y 
ipay continue to live with one another in 
the mutual exchange of all eflential good 
offices, and with every Other external ap« 
pearance of decent regard. But that cordial 
iatisfa£kion, that delicious fympathy, that 
^confidential opennefs and eafe, which natu-* 
rally take place in the converfation of thofe 
ti^ho have lived long and familiarly with on& 
{^pother, it feldom happens that they can 
(^mplet^y enjoy. 

[3 It is qnly, however, with the dutiful and 
.1^9. virtuous, that the general rule has even 
^ifejs flender authority. With the diffipated^ 
|h^ profligate, and the vain, it is entirely 
^^fr^garded* They are fo far from refpeding 
j^that they feldom talk of it but with the 
,i)Eipft; indecent derifioni and an early and 
^l^i^g f^p^^ratipn of this kind never fails to 
^gtfj^pgi^ thpm moft completely from one 
ify^qtfier., With luch perfons, refpe^l for the 
,gien^$il rifle can at beft produce only a cold 
^nd aflEb^qd .ciyijity (a very Hendcr femWancc 
-^fxjlja^) regard) 5 and even this, the flightefk 
(^S^^i the fmalleft, oppofition of intere(l» 
^9l«»Q?^ly puts an ei^d to altogether. 

1 2 The 

68 (y/if^ Character Part VI. 

The education of boys at diftant great 
fehools, of young men at diftant colleges, of 
young ladles in diftant nunneries and board- 
ing-fchools, feems, in the higher ranks of 
life, to have hurt moft eflentially the do- 
meftic morals, and confequently the domcftic 
happinefs, both of France and England. Do 
you wifh to educate your children to be duti- 
ful to their parents, to be Had and affec- 
tionate to their brothers and fitters ? put 
them under the neceffity of being dutiful 
childreti, of being kind and afFedionate bro- 
thers and fifters : educate them in your own 
' toufe. From thiir parent's hou/e they may, 
with propriety and advantage, go out every 
day to attend public fchools : but let their 
dwelling be always at home. Refpedl for 
you muft always knpofe a very ufeful re- 
ftraint upon their cbndud ; and refpeft fot 
them may frequently impofe no ufelefs re- 
ftiraint upon your own. Surely no acquire- 
meht, which can poffiWy be derived from 
tvhat is called a public education, can make 
any ibrt of compenfation for what is almoft 
certainly and neceflkrijy loft by it. iDo- 
meftic education is th6 inftitutlon of nature; 
public education the contrivunce of ixim^ 
It is furely unnecefisu?y to fay, which is Hkifely 
to be the wifeft. 

7 ^ 

Sea. II. of YiKTiJ E. ■ 69 

In fome tragedies and romances^, we meet 
with many beautiful and interefting fcencs, 
founded upon, what is called, the force of 
blood, or upon the wonderful affedion which 
near relations are fuppofed to conceive 
for* one another, even before they know that 
they have any fuch connexion. This fprce 
of blood, however, 1 am afraid, exifts no- 
where but in tragedies and romances. Even 
in tragedies and romances, it is never fup- 
ipofed to take place between any relations, 
but thofe who are naturally bred up in the 
fame houfe ; between parents and children, 
between brothers and fitters. To imagine 
any fuch myfterious afFedion between cou- 
fins,. or even between aunts or uncles, and 
nephews or nieces, would be too ridiculous. 

in paftoral countries, and in all countries 
where the authority of law is not alone fuf- 
ficient to give perfect fecurity to every mem- 
ber of the ftate, all the different branches c^ 
theTamfe family conlmbiily chufe to live in 
, the neighbourhood of one another. Their 
aribciation IS frequently neceflary for their 
common defence; They are all, from the 
higheft t5 the loweft, of more or lefs im- 
/^portance %" one another. Their concord 
urengtheris their neceflary aflbciation ; thefr 
F 3 difcord 

70 Of the CnkKAtrjiVL Part Vf» 

difcord always weakens, and might deftro7 
it. They have more intercourfe with brief 
another, than with the members of any other* 
tribe. The remoteft members of the fame ' 
tribe claim fome connection with one ano- 
ther ; and^ where all other circumftances are 
equal, exped to be treated with more diftin-? 
guifhed attention than is due to thofe who 
have no fuch pretenfions. It is not many 
years ago that, in the Highlands of Scotlatidi - 
the Chieftain ufed to confider the pooreft 'maii 
of his clan, as his coufia and relation. Th? 
fame exteqfive regard to kindred is faid to ^ 
tak^ place among the Tartars, the Arabs, the 7 
Turkomans, and I believe, among all other 
pations who are nearly in the fame ftatd of 
fpciety in which the Scots Highlanders wter?i 
libout the beginning of the prefent<:entliry. ■ 
In contimerciaV countries, where the iauthbr- 
rity of I4W is alway$ perfectly fuSicient tp ^ 
proteft the meaneft man in the ftate, the d*- 
fcertdarits of the fame family, having no fuch* 
motive for keeping tc^ether, naturally fepa^^ 
rate atid difperfe, as intereft or incliriatiicHi"^ 
iiSaiy direftt They foon ce^fe to be df ^ini^ 
pottarice to pfle apbther; and, '\ti S^fbW^ 
gehierration^, iiot only lof? all ' care abotfi ' *SiR 
gtt'otherjhur all ri^membrance of theiri&tfl^'^ 

StdiiT JL , q/., Vi kt jju , , - 71, 

moa oi^in, and ;^of the conpe^Iopi which . 
tOQk .place, ..among their anceftors. Regard 
for gemote rektion^.becomes, in every counr ' 
iry^ lefs and lef?,^c^ as this ftate of ^ 

civilization h^s heen longer and more coox- 
ple^ely eftablilhed* It has been longer and , 
mo^f^icompletely eftabliftied in England than- * 
inJSqptl^nd ; ^nd remote relations are, a<:-\!. 
coy dirRgly, . more confidered in the latter 7 
co^ptxy than in the former, though, Jn thia . 
reip^i the difference between the two counr , 
tripfyis growing lefs and lefs every day. , 
Grfiajf^ iprds, indeed, are, in every country^ ; 
prppd of remembering and acknowledging., 
the^ Qoppeftion with pne another, howev^er-r 
rqn^jqte*^^ The remembrance of fuqh illu,{^rj-^, 
oij^x^l^tit^iMi flatters not a little the- family \ 
pridQ pjF then* all J and it ia neither ir^pmr^ 
a5§f|^ipn, nor from any. thing which^^refem- 
blep ^^fl^e^io|l, bnt from the mpft frii^qloju^^ 
aojiidi^lkiiilt^ of all vanities, th^t, this xeipemr., 
biiysMft^Js fo carefully kj^pt Vj^ ShpuldvfQme ! 
m©!? ilx^wtjl^, though, perh^pa^ jnufli Q^rerC 

m»^ iflf .^^i^.r^ation.^a^ t^h^^rr. faimly,.^^^ 
(^vg^ foil tq .tell l}ii^.,|% they |i;?,,l?4ut 

in.^bat order, I am afraid, that we are to es> 

F 4 pea 

72 Q/*/^^ Character. Part VL^ 

P?(3; any extraprdinary e?cteafion of, what, 
is called, natural ^fFedipn, 

I confider what is called natural a£fed^ipn 
as more the effeft of the moral than of the 
fuppofed phyfical connexion between the 
parent and the child. A jealous b.ufband, 
indeed, notwithftanding the moral connec- 
tion, notwithftanding the child's having been 
educated in his own houfe, often regards,, 
with hatred and averfion, that unhappy* 
child which he fuppofes to be the offspring 
pf his wife's infidelity. It is the lafting ijuh 
nument of a moft difagreeable adventure i. of 
his own diflionour, and of the difgraceof 
his family* 

. An^ong well-drfpofed people, the neceffity 
or convcniency of mutual accommodation, 
very frequently produces a frieudfhrp n^t 
unlike that which takes place among thofe 
who are bora to live in the £^mt fafailyf 
Colleagues in ofl5|:c, partners in trad^, cal^l 
one anpther brothers ; and firequ^ptly fed 
towajds one another as if they really were fq* 
Their ^pod agreement is aa advantage, tq .^1 j 
;9nd, ,if they are tolerably reafooal^Je people, 
they ar;e natur;aHy ^ifpoftd tq agree, .^^ 
,(^pei9; that; th^y. ihoidd dp fp ; an^ t^r 
d.i|rag^)Cee.iir>9{it ,is a Soxt of a . (m^^lr fcan^^ 
[|rh^ l^onxaiJiS exprcfrc4^ thif (pit .^^ *ti^5?h-* 
^.^Y* ^ ment 

ment by the ^ord necejjitudo^ which, from 
the etymology, feems to denote that it waa 
fnipofed by the neceflity of the fituation. 

Even the trifling circUmftance of living in 
fhe fame neighbourhood, has fome effed of 
the fanje kind. We refpedJ: the face of a 
man whom we fee every day, provided he 
haa never offended us. Neighbours can 
be v^ry convenient, and they can be very 
trdublefome, to one another. If they are 
good' fort of people, rhey are naturally dif^ 
j)b(ed to agree. We expert their good 
ilgreemeht ; and to be a bad neighbour is a 
Very bad charader. There are certain fmall 
good offices, accordingly, which are univer- 
faliy allowed to be due to a neighbour in 
j^eference to aiiy other perfon who has no 
' fiieh conned ion. 
' Thi« natural difpofition to accommodate 
atid to affimilate, as much as we can, our 
own fentiments, principles, and feelings, to 
tliofe which we fee fixed and rooted in the 
perfons whom we are obliged to live arfd 
converfe a great deal with, is the caufe of the 
cdhti^ious effeds of both good and bad 
ttjmpaiiy. The man who alfociates chiefly 
"*fiih the wife and the virtuous, though he 
k^y'^not htmfelf become either wife or vir- 
tububf, cannot help conceiving a certain re-* 


74 Of the CHARACTER Part VI*, V^ 

fpe^ at leaft for wifdom and virtue ; and thc'jo 
man who aflbciates chiefly with .the profligate,, 
and the diflblutc, though he may not; himf^f 
Wpme profligate and diflblutq, S^^ft fopft . 
lofe^ at leaft, all his origiQal abhorrence ofr 
profligacy and diflblution of manners. . The. , 
fimilarity of family charafters, which we- fa 
frequently fee tranfmitted through ^veral; i 
fucceflive generations, may, perhap?,^ bi?,^ 
partly owing to this difpofitipn, to afliii^iJaJtpt. 
ourfelves to thofe whom we are obliged ptjp^, 
live aud converfe a great deal with. Th^^^ 
family charadier, however, like the %mly ; 
countenance, feems to be owing, not .a|to-f,j 
gether tp thiei»oral, butpajtlytothephjfiQ^l,^ 
cqnpe^ipEu The family countenance, ia cer- ^ ; 
tainly altogether owing to. the latter, , ^ 

, But of all attachments to an indiv|4u4l^ 
that which is founded altogether upon;efteen;i , 
and approbation of his good condud and beha- 
viour, confirmed by much experience and Ipn^^ ,, 
acquaintance, is, by far, the moft refpeftaqle, , 
Suchfriendihips, arifmg not from a con^r^ip- p 
ed fynapathy, not, from a fympathy which ^^^s^^ 
b^en itflumcd and rendered habijtual for th^^^^ 
fake of convenience and accommbdatipni put -^ 
from a natural lympathy, irom an involun- . 
tary feelmg that the perlons to wnon> we-^ 
attack oar/elvgs irp i;lie n.^tural aurf proper 
' _ objects 

EealL 5f Virtue/ 75 

obje<as of efteem and approbation; tan exJfl: ' 

only among men of virtue. Men of virtue ^ 

only can feel that entire confidence in the 

conduct and behaviour of one another, which ' 

can, at all times, aflure them that they can 

neVer either offend or be offended by one an- ' 

other. Vice is always capricious; virtue' 

only is regular and orderly. The attachment 

which is founded upon the love of virtue, as 

it is certainly, of all attachments, the moft 

virtuous J fo it is likewife the happieft, as ' 

well as the moft permanent and fecure. 

Such frlendfhips need hot be confined to a 

fingle perfon, but may fafely embrace all th6 

wife and virtuous, with whom we have been 

long and inti^iately acquainted, and upon 

whofe wifdom and virtue we can, upon that 

accbunt, entirely depend. They who would 

confine friendfhip to two perfons, feem to 

coiifound the wife fecurity of friendfhip witli 

thift jeaioufy and folly of love. The hafly, 

fond,' and foolifh intimacies of young people, 

founded, commonly, upon fome flight fimila- 

rit^'bfcharader, altogether unconnedted with '\ 

good cohduCl, up6n a tafle, perhaps, for the 

famd ftudies, tJhe fame amufements, the fame 

diverlions, or upoii their agrieement in tome 

firigular principle o^ not cbmmdnly 

fidpptedl ; thof^ intimacies which a freak be-*" 


jG 0/ tie Chakactilk Part VI, 

gins, and which a freak puts an end to, how ' 
agreeable foever they may appear while they 
laft^ oan by no means deferve the facred and 
venerable name of friendfliip. 

Of all the perfons, however, whom nature 
points out for our peculiar beneficence, there 
are none to whom it feems more pi^operly 
diredled than to thofe whofe beneficence we 
have ourfelves already experienced. Nature, 
which formed men for that mutual kindnefs, 
fo neceflary for their happinefs, render? 
every man the peculiar objedt of kindnefs, to 
the perfons to whom he himfelf has been 
kind. Though their gratitude (hould not 
always correfpond to his beneficence, yet the 
fenfe of his merit, the fympathetic gratitude 
of the impartial fpedlator, will always cor- 
refpond to it. The general indignation of 
other people, againfi the bafenefs of their in- 
gratitude, will even, fometimes, increafe the 
general fenfe of his merit. No benevolent 
man ever loft altogether the fruits of his 
benevolence. If he does not always gather 
them from the perfons from whom he ought 
to have gathered them, he feldom fails to 
gather them, and with a tenfold increafe, 
''from other people. Kindnefs is the parent 
of kindnefs; and if to be beloved by our 
brethren be the great objeCt of our ambition,' 


Sea. II. €f Virtue:. 77 

the fureft way of obtairiing it is, by our con- 
dudt to fhew that we really love them. 

After the perfons who are recommended 
to our beneficence, either by their connexion 
with ouirfelves, by their perfonal qualities, or 
by their paft fervices, come thofe who are 
pointed out, not indeed to, what is called, 
our friendftiip, but to our benevolent atten- 
tion and good offices ; thofe who are diftin- 
guiihed by their extraordinary fituation ; the 
greatly fortunate and the greatly unfortunate, 
the rich and the powerful, the poor and the 
wretched. The diftindion of ranks, the 
pfeace and order of fociety, are, in a great 
ttieafure, founded upon the refpeft which we 
naturally conceive for the former. The re- 
lief and confolation of human mifery depend 
altogether upon our compaffion for the latten 
The peace and order of fociety, is of mp^e 
importance than even the relief of the mife- 
rable. Our refped for the great, accordingly, 
is moft apt to offend by its excefs ; our fel- 
low-feeling for the miferable, by its defeft. 
Moralifts exhort tis to charity and compaf- 
fion. They warn us againft the fafcinatipa 
of greatnefsk This fafcination, indeed, is fa 
powerful, that the rich and the great arfe too 
ofteit preferred to the wife and the virtuoais. 
Nature has wifely judged thi^t the diilindioii 

l: '^ ' ^ ■-'-^' '''' ' '" "^ '^ *"' of 

y^ Of the Gh A R a cte r ^|rt Vt 

of ranks^ the peace and order of focietyv 
would r6ft more fecurely upoa the plain ^nd 
Jalpable difference of birth and fortune, tl\9-a 
upon the invifible and often uncertain, differr 
ence of wifdom and virtue, Th<j i^ndiftin- 
guifhing eyes of the great mob of mankind 
can well enough perceive. the former: it ia 
with difficulty that the nice difcernment of 
the wife and the virtuous can fometimes dif- 
tinguiih the latter. In the order of all thofe 
recommendations, the benevolent wifdoqi, of 
nature is equally evident* . , ; 

It may, perhaps, be unneceflary to pbferve^ 
that the combination of two, or more,, pf 
thofe exciting caufes of kindnefs, increaf?^ 
the kindnefs. The favour apd partiality 
which, when there is no envy in the cafp, 
v^e naturally bear to greatnefs, are much in»- 
creafed when it is joined with, wifdom and 
virtue. If, notwithftanding that wifdom ^pd 
virtue, the great man fhould fall into thofe 
misfortunes, thofe dangers and diftreOes, to 
which the moft exalted ftatipns are oft^ti jj^e 
nxoil expofed, we ar^ much more ikeply; in-- 
.tereftfid in W13 fortune tha^ we fc^^ 

th^t pf a perfon ec|U2^11y yirtuoiis, B^VfU Lf 
more humble fuuation* The n(U)f| int^riflt-^ 
ingfubjeas of tragedies and rptnvice| jtrc 
the;< misfortune? of virtuous , and Wgna;- 


Seianti '^^fyfiti^hi.' J§ 


Tihitti6uk kings "and 'pWnces. If, by tlie wif- 
iibin and manhood of their exertioiis, ihty 
ihould extricite thertifelves from thofe mif* 
fbrtutids, and recover coriipletely their former 
fiiperiSHty ind fecurity, we cannot help 
Haewihg them with the moft enthufiaftic and 
evi^n extravagant admiration. The grief 
Which we felt for their diftrefs, the joy 
Which we feel for their profperity, feem to 
"com1>ine together in enhancing that partial 
adHiltation which we naturally conceive both 
for the ftation and the charafter. 
; When thofe different beneficent affedions 
%i'apperi to draw different ways, to determine 
by any precife rules in what cafes we ought 
ip comply" with the one, and in what with 
the other, is perhaps altogether impoffible. 
tfe what cafes friendfliip ought to yield to 
gratitude, or gratitude to friendfhip j In what 
Tcafes the ftrongeft of all natural affedions 
xhight to yield to a regard for the fafety of 
thofe fuperiors upon whofe fafety often de- 
pends that of the whole fociety • and in whit 
cafe3 natural affedtion may, without impro- 
priety, prevail over that regard ; muft be left 
altogether to the decifion of the man within 
th6 breaft, the fuppofed impartial fpe^iatot, 
the great jiidge and arbiter of out cdf/dii^. 
U We place ourfclves compllrtdly in iifs fittfi- 
'^^-■: ' . tion, 

8af 0/ the CHAfL'A^tK P»t $1/ 

tion, if we really view ourfelvcs with his 
eyes, and as he views us^ and liften with dili^ 
gent and reverential attention to what he 
iuggefts to us, his voice will never deceive 
us. We (hall (land in need of no cafyiftic 
rules to dire^ our condud. Thefe it is oftea 
impoffible to accommodate to all the different 
ihades and gradations of circumftance, cha* 
ra£fcer, and fituation^ to differences and di^ 
tihiSlions which, though not imperceptible, 
are^ by their nicety and delicacy, often alto- 
gether undefinable. In that beautiful tragedy 
of Voltaire, the Orphan df China, while We ^ 
admire the magnanimity of Zainti, who i« 
willing to facrifice the life of his own child^ 
in order to preferve that 6f the only feeble 
remnant of his ancient fovercigns and ma& 
ters J we not only pardon, but love the ma- ' 
ternal tendernefs of Idame, whoj at the rifk 
of difcovering the important fecret of her ' 
hufband/ reclaims her infant from the cruel 
hands of the Tartars, into which it had been 


Sirfii 0. tfViKTvx, If 

ijHAP. it. 

Of the or^r in jwbicb Seckties arc by naturi 
f^ecommcnded to oar Beneficence. 

npHB 6me principles that dired thc*ordaJ 
' ia whkh individiuals are recommended 
to our benefioebee^ dtre£t that likewife m 
w|uch foCietics are recomniended to tti 
Tfapf6 ti> nvbkh ithis, or may be of moft 
imporiwoicei are firil aniJ pHocipally recooa^ 
meiided to it. . 

Tht ftate Qx foTe^eignty In which we havi 
hc^Xt bton. and ediuc^ted, and under the pro- 
tedtipn.of which; ;ytr^ continue to live, ifi, ini 
ordinary cafes, the greateft iociety upon 
whoTe happipefs or m^ry, our good or bad 
eondu£t can have much influence. It is ac<^ 
cordic^y^ by nature, moft |lrongly recom- 
mended to us. Not only we ourfelves, but 
all the objeds of our kindeft affe£tions^ our 
children, our parents, our relitiond, our 
friends, our benefaStprs, all thcsfe whom we 
naturally love and revere the moft, are com- 
monly comprehended within . it ; and theif 
profperity and fafety depend in fome mea- 
VOL. ii. a iuxe 

8{K 0/ tbf^Cn^A^tTEK fttt^I* 

fure upon its pxofperity ud ^iafetyi ' It fe hf 
jHfttuw, therefore, fendearedi to 1^8, not) only by 
all our felfifh, l^t by ^l j!)ur(pri!^ale hen^vot 
lent afie^ions. JJp9^ 9^!:Qunt ^ ^c own 
eonr^edion with it, its pirofperity ind glocy 
lentil to ' Tt&tSi foacie ifort ^ of , HoifkOJif npoti 
qurfelves* Wheo we cQQ^p9^ ic lyf^tb otit^ef 
focieties of tbe fame kind, WQt^afejPi'Q^d of 
its fvperbrity i > and mortified in fam4 d$ig2iie;ei 
if ;it apt^ars /in:any ref|>e^^(MF ;&efl|. o^ 
the illuftrious. chaiud^^ . wbicK it b^ ; ipge^ 
duped in iformer tixnes (faj:^4g^»flf thflfeTftf^y 
own times envy H^yfometlfiQLes f^i^iJ^^ifi%^ii$ 
a lUtk), its M^arriqrs^ its Mt^mp m pfl«tti 
its philofophejrs, and m^ Qi\l^tt1^r^l^rM 
kinds,; we are difptjied :tp!iVr(,^rwij^e^^ 
mod partial admir^iou, < ?«^^ to. j5»^fe.;thwii 
(fometimes Moft unjuftly) aboy^^jl^^fcof >9fl 
othisr nations. ,Th? .patfii^toVfbx^ My^idli^wn 
fih life for the faf«y, or i^v.efl fqrJr.tJ^^ ^^^ 
glory of this fooiety^ «|Skp{^a^% t^ ji^ v^^ltifee 
mpft ex^ift propriety,, ; He ^pp^ t^i.yi^ 
himfeif in tfeie light in, whicl^ $b? ifflpftflti^ 
fpe^Jiitpr iwti^rally and iai(stcflf^riJ(y j ^ < vJq^ 
ihir^, as but one of.the mi]lti^ud^,oii3i| ^$ 
eye of that equitable judge, pf np n^or#> cppr 
fequence than any ethef iiJi fit, fc^t heftji^^lit 
jkll times to f^erificC; and J^flta Mmfelf )tp 
tl^e fafety, tp the fer^iQ^^^ag^^^trpn tq^the 

glory of the greater number. But though 
^is facrifice appears to be perfedly juft and 
proper, we Jknpw how difficult it is to make 
iCi and how few people are capable Of makr 
lUgit* Hia(€iOJidu41:, therefore, excites not 
ealj our entire approbation, but our higheft 
wonck^ and ^tdmiralioD) and feems to merit 
^il tl^ applaufe which ean be due tq the moft 
hw<^e vktue. ' The traitor^ on the contrary, 
who, in ieme peculiar (ituation, faftcies he 
dsUTi pitotnQte hi$ own little intereft by be- 
ttttjrtti^tp the public enemy that of his- pa- 
ti^*^ ^pouutry ; who; regardlefs of the judg* 
iKefit! <3^f the iifian within the breaft, prefers 
Einifelf) * ifi this* refped: fo fham^fuHy and fo 
bafelJTi tp all thoCe^ with whom he haB any 
^o^nefticMi; appear^ to be of all villains the 
Wofl: deteftable. 

*' T^e love of our o nation often difpofes 
life to view; with- the mod malignant jealoufy 
aftd envy, the profp^erity and aggrandifement 
'(iff&riy pthfejri neighbouring nation. Inde- 
^pi^^ht' aiid neighbouring nations, having 
<fl6 tibm^oa Aipeii-iOT to decide their difpute^, 
^ live ih continual dread afad fufpicion of 
lahe* another/ ^adh fovereign, expe£bing lit- 
^e^j^iftioefreiU! his tieighbows, is difpofed to 
tJeat tll^m with as -little as hfe ekpeSs from 
^t£u The regard for the laws of nations, 
- - ^ G 2 or 

$4 Of tk GH.AKTACEK I^rryt 

or for tbore rules whkh mdependeot* ftftCes 

profefs or pretend to think themfelves boun^ 

to obfetve in their dealings with one aspthel^ 

b often* very little aa^re than mere fire^eis^e 

atrrd profeffion. From the, Ihialkft' tnterolty 

upon the flighteft provocation, we fettli^ 

rules cverf day, either evaded or, dkejSDf 

violated without ftiame or remoffe; Eai^ 

nation forefeet, or imagines it fdrefces^, jyt^ 

dwn fobjogation in the inereafibg power lafliJ 

arggrahdifemem of . any bf its neighbowia^ 

amd the mean principle of national pt^judig^ 

is ofteti founded upon the noble, oner o£#te 

love of our^own country. The feswjeiwr 

-vs^ith ^hich the elder Cato is &id tO; h^«B? 

concluded every fpeech whkh he 'ma4f .rifl 

the fenate, whatever might be^ the fubj<?j£i, 

^^ Jtiismji opinion Uhwife that Carthage \otjg]^ 

:^ f0 bt deflrojed^^ waa the natural exprefl^fifi 

of the ' favage pdtriotifm of a , ftro^gn bvit 

Gbarfe mind, enraged almoH-tp ijiad^jefe 

againft a foreign nation from which |4s|0^fi 

had fiaffered- fo much. The more h^ifnpane; 

:&iitence with which &eipk) N^fiqafja^ji^)^ ,tp^ 

iaWconcluded all his fpQeGbe$j '^^,riHh?^' 

^opinion lik^miif^ that Cartbag^.wgk^ynot.^fa^ 

** bedeftroyed^l was. th^ .liberaj ^?Cjye^o;^jpf 

a more enlarged and ealighj^ned^Wfiitd, yf^ 

fek no averfion tqthe^ f?^fB^^.Q^ ipren,pi, ^ 

Seift.n. gf Virtue. 85 

old CDCTiy, whefii reduced to a ftate which 
coobt no longer be forniidaWe to Home. 
J^fltfi^aiyi Ehgianjd nwiy each of them have 
fdflS6^^teafem <lo ^dr^ad the increafe of the na?- 
'i^kl^abd riiiiika^y power of the other ; hut for 
^Slh^r of fhretn to ^^vy tlie ' intjernal happincft 
ifad^^^tiofpcsrif y of die onher, the cultivation of 
Itsf iknds',' the advancement' of its^ maniiiac«« 
fares,^ the ihciieafe of its commerce, the^fecia^ 
tltyatt^QftijMber of ^its ports and^ harbours, v its 
pe^d^tic^'An all ithe liberal arts and icienc^s, 
ts-^AStdy ^*^e«h the dignity of twd fiicfe 
gtfeaJf ^ nattonsi ' » • Thefe are the real improve- 
ttftSftS^iof^thfe world we liiv^e in. Mankind 
Uftrfbettefo^^, huTHati nature is ennobled by 
%hcik^ '^ lu ^^f\skh ^ teiproretneats edch i nation 
jbUg^ie,* nx^> dirfv^tcs^tffideavoui^ kfelf to excd, 
'fe8t^i^^&f^-th^ 4Ve:of mankind to proniote, 
Ifl^^^^i^dMtetliaidg the excellence of its 
^fi^gAt)©l^rs, '^ 'Fhefe are all proper. objeas of 
M^^*fBl eiiiulkcifOnfi notof national prejtidice 

^HB^pi^i loit^'Of obt own country feeiiis ncJtto 
^e^S&)ii^&ftbtt( tWiovei^f mankind. The 
IbrttidV fentiiMiietttii altdgebhek^ ibdependent.of 
%^^?atl^J atid feenis fometimes^even tOvdif- 
^dK^#"Widi^ JncdnfriSeiitly with it. France 
iliV ^itfiitaiiii^^t^^haps, rieir thrfee times the 
Jfti&ja^fif IrifiXPitett^^ Great Britalk 

*^ 03 ^ containsv 

86 Of the CyLKiB.A6^iiti PartVL 


Contains. In the great fodcty of^ fliaftkind^ 
therefore, the profperity 6f Firafic* fhould ap^ 
prar to be an objed of much greater import- 
ance tban that to Great Britaiti. The BM<^ 
tilh fubjeft, however, who, upon that afe-' 
count, fliould prefer upott all occafiont the 
|>rofperity of the former to that of the latter 
country, would not be thought a good fcili- 
zen of Great Britam. We do not love our 
country ttierely as a part of the great focieiy 
of mankind: we love it for its own fake, 
and independently of any fuch confideratiotii 
That wifdom which contrived the fyftenr'bf 
human afFedVIons^ as well as that of cvti-y 
ether part of nature, feems to have jud'^d 
that theintereft of the great fociety of mafa-* 
kind would be beft promoted by dir^Qitig 
the principal attetition pf each individual *ta 
that particular portion of it, which wafe Ittioft 
within the fphere both of his abilities arid of 
his underftanding. j n : 

National prejudices and hatreds !&4d6m 
extend beyond neighbouring nations, 'l^e 
very weakly and fbolifhly, perhaps, ^calPtlie 
Trench our natural enemies j and th^y per* 
haps, as weakly and foolrflily, confrdtr iiSdn 
the fame manner. Neither they nor we^bear 
any fort of envy to the profperity of CHina 
6r Japan. It very rarely happeps,- hoW^er, 


3^^^ n. 5f ViRTtJE* ,67 

j^t; OiW g^odr^il jbotyards fuch diftaot ooun- 

tpegipiui'^^ ;^ect€4 vmb imich efiedt, > 

// /IlJie rapft ; extcnfive public benevoknee 

.fW^igb ?<:an rCQ9M»only be exerted with any 

.$£>a64er^le ^ffe<^^ is th^^ af the ilatefmea^ 

mh9, \ dfVPJpA and fornix alliances amopg 

Deiglitioumig or not. very diftant nations, 

fy^ ttos proferyation dither cf^ what M caUad, 

ihcc^baJaotce off power, or of die general peace 

/MdodramiuilUfy of the ^tes within the drcle 

. j9lf ;tlieir jiegociations.. The ilat^fn^en, how^ 

{^9^X9 W^ pl^ and execute fuoh treatieg have 

iSeidom any thing in view, but the intereft of 

7^e|r .refpefflive countries. Sometimes, i|v- 

lj^l0^f ikm yiewf are more eactenfive. The 

fCfOunt d^Vyau^t, the plenipotentiary of 

JPl^^, At the treaty of Munfterj would 

Ji^y^e be^n willing tofacrifice his life {ac« 

cordkig to the Gardioal de Retz, a man not 

otfi^-Qi'edulous in the virtue of other people), 

in order to have r^ftored, by that treaty, the 

ngeWBfal tr^quil|ity of Europe* King Wil- 

Jfam iegpas to have had a jreal zeal^for the 

jlibQty^d independency of the ^P^ter part 

:^9f ,j^^, foverfigu ftates of Enrope; whi^, 

jr^h^plf^ might be a good deal ftimulated by 

^ jj^s jjafti4fular averl^ to FraEice, the ftate 

hqmyffi^^ ^\inng his time, t;hi^t Ub^ty and 

ifx^epjfndp^ l^ danger, 

G 4 Some 

^8 Of the C H AR A c,T E R Part ^; 

•Some {hare of the fame fpirit feen^s to bay(| 
defcended to , the * firft mimftry of QgeCTi^ 
Annie. ^ j ^ , 

Every independent ftate is divided' iftltQ 
jnjiny different orders ah4 focietiejs, ejiqhof 
which has its own particular powers, privit, 
leges, and immunities^ Every individual ipi 
jiMurally more attached to his.own p^rtieu? 
Ur order or fociety, than to any other, ^i^^ 
own intereft, his own vanity, the intewft.au4r; 
vanity qf many of his friends and .c^itip^rit 
nions, are commonly a good deal conn^(|f4; \ 
with it tie is ^pibitipus to^exti^od^ts^pri? t 
vili^ges and immiunities. He is.-ze^quB tQ^i 
defend them againft the encrQacbmerits p£:> 
every other order or fociety. / i^ 

tJpon tlie manner in which any ftat^ \vi . 
divid^ iijto the dijffereat orders and foiciptie?^> 
which cbnipofe it, and upon the particulars ^ 
dii^ributipn which has beeu made of t^eirr 
reipeftive powers^ privileges, and immupiTr^ 
tie^, depends, what is called, tt)e/coniUtut|qf)! 7 
of that particular ftate. ro 

tJpop the ability of each p^ptkular ©wleffv. 
pr fociety to maintain its owif po^ers^ ppvlrd 
leges, and immunities, agamft tl^jetKroa^h-i'i 
mehts of every other, depends th^ ii^biUty. 
pf that particular conftitutior^. Th^l papliF 
cul;ir conftitution is uecefTarily. more ortlefel 



fea^n. of 'Virtue. 89 

dtei^ed;' Whfetievet' ariy of its fubordinate 
parts is eithef raifed above 6r depreflfed be-- 
low whatever had been its former rank and 

All thofe different orders and focieties are 
deipehdent upon the ftate to which they owe 
tfceir feeuritjr and protedion. That they are 
all fUbdrdinate to that ftate, and eftabliflied 
only in fubfervtency to its profperity and 
pifefferVaftion, is a truth acknowledged by the 
ni6ft' jiartial member of every one of them* 
I^triiy 6ft8n,' hov^ever, be hard to convince 
hfafe ^that the profperity and prefervation of 
the ftite require any diminution of tlie 
powers, privileges, and immunities of his 
own particular order or* fociety. This par- 
tijftity, fhotigh it may fometimes be unjuft, 
may not, upon tbiat account, be ufelefs. It 
checkis the fplfit '■ of inncJvation. It ^ends 
to j^referVe vvhatever is the eftabliflied balance 
jimoufg the different orders and focieties into 
whlcrK the ftatfe is divided; and while it 
fometimes appears to obftruft fome altera- 
tiot^^fgovfernment which may be fafliion- 
ftbl^ and popular at the time, it contributes in 
reality to the ftability and permanency of the 
Wh^fe iyfteih. 

Thfe'loVfe of our country feems, in ordinary 

eitffSi t0 involve in it two different prin- 

-" ' ciples; 

go OfiheQHKtikQTEVL |SpirfVI# 

eiplefi ; firft, a certain refpofk^iiiid ' r^veMoep 
for that conftitucson <m? ;fbrm^of goveniii»eq|t 
which is adoilly eftabU(he«lpindi iebondl^, 
ail earned dcfire to rendefr^the condiliotixtf 
dur fellow-citizens as fife^ refpediabje^ tod 
happy as we can* He is not a citizen who 
is tibt difpofed to refpeA the laws and Co 
obey the civil magiftrate; and he iS: certainly 
tiot a good cithdn who do^s not wiih (to 
promote, by every means in bis power,;. t^ 
welfare of the whole fociety of hia &lIo»- 
citizens. ^' k i'^-.-' ;> /oii^'^ 

In peaceable and quiet timea, thofeMro 
principles generally coincide and lead to die 
fame condufl:. The fupport oftbe :efbi» 
biiflied government feem^s evidently tberbcft 
expedient for maint^dniug (helfrfev reCpieCl-f 
able, and happy fitmtiofit of owr fellotv* 
citizens; when we fee that this^^ goveraob^t 
actually maintains them in that iit«ialw&* 
l^t in times of public dtfcontent^ £^&iQ9, 
and diforder, thofc two different principlfs 
may draw different; way s^ and even, a wife 
man may be difpofed to think fomeMaltera^* 
tiom neceffary in that confutation) or fqimv of 
J gov^nikient whiph, In ita aftual condition, 
<d^ppears plainly unabk to mainicain thei^pub- 
lie tranquillity^. Jnfuch' cafes, hQWewer^St 
often requiues^ perhaps^ the higheftj effort of 


pdstkal wifdciti to determine whi!n a^ real 
patriot ought to fupport and endeavour to 
,j»-eftahli{h the authority of the old fyfteni, 
and when he ought to gitre way to the more 
idaringv but often dangerous fpirit of inno- 

: Foreign war and civil fa<3;iDn arethe two 
iituariotis which afibrd the mod fplendid 
npportunities fof" the difplay of public fpirit. 
The hero who ferves his country fuccefsfully 
in >foreign War gratifies the wiflies of tl^ 
whole nation, and is, upon that account^ the 
nofcje^l of univerfal gratitude and admiration. 
In times of civil difcord, the leaders of the 
contending parties, though they may be lad^ 
mired by one half of their feUow-citiiCens, 
are commonly execrated by the other. Their 
characters and the merit of their refpedive 
fef vices appear commonly more doubtful. 
The glory which is acquired by foreign war 
is, upon this account, almoft always more 
pure and more fplendid than that which can 
be acquired in civil fadiom. 

The leader of the fuccefsful party, how- 
ever, if he has authority enough to prevail 
upon his oi^n friends to ail with proper 
temper and niwaderation (which he frequently/ 
has not), may fometimes render to hiaicoun- 
try a fervice much more eflential and im- 

9? (y /Atf Character PartV!'* 

jioftaiit than' th6 greateft ViAoi-ies and tile 
Hioft fixtenfite Cdnqiiefts, life nijiy re-efti- 
biiili ^tid improve the c()nttitutlofl, aiAcl fr^ 
the very ' doulAful and ambigdoij^ chaii^e^ 
of the leader of a pkrty^ he liiay iffliiiie *tit6 
greateft atid nobleft of all chiraderfe* tWdt bf 
the reformer and legiflator 6F a great ^iU\ 
and, by the wifdom of his inftitutions, fttfut6 
the internal tranquillity arid tiappirtefs of hi^ 
fellow-citizens for many fucceeding ' 'gbixei 
ratioris. ' ' '^^^' 

/^Amidft the turbulence and difordet of feet 
tiori, a certain Ipirit of fyfteiri is'apr to'tiiift 
itfelf with that public fpirit which iafbiindfra 
upon the love of humanity, upon a reaf ifeU 
iow-feeiing with the incorivenierices and (!fit 
trefles to which fome of our fellow-citiiens 
may be expoled. This fpirit of fyftem cooir 
iiionly takes the diredion of that more gentle 
public fpirit J always animates it, and ofteii 
inflames it elven to the madnefs of faiiati- 
crfm. The leaders of the dlfcontented pa^^ 
feldom fail to hold out fome plaufible plaa or 
reformation which: they pretend, will" not 
only. remove the inconveniences and relieve 
the diftreiles immediately complained ontnit 
wijl pr^ vent^ in all time coming, any return 
of the like inconveniences and difffeiiesi 
They often propofe, upon this account, to 


n^pjmodelv t^ <:oi:^itutiQn, ,^^^ tQ,4ter^ jfi 
foflae qf jts, mc^il eff^ptial parts^ that fy^eni 
of ||a;verhm^nt u^der w^hich the fubjed^ of 
a great empire hajve enjoyed, perhap^, peace; 
fecuri^y,; an^ ,^vcn glory, during thf CQjur^e 
^f ^feyer^ icenturies together. < The great 
bo^y pf the party, are cpmrnonly in|oxU 
cated with t^c imagifiary beauty of thi$ 
1^2^ Xy^cm^ of. which they hare no exp^^ 
n^ptqe, but which has been reprefented . rtcf 
thert^ itt ail the nicft dazzling colours itt 
^Wch'thf e^cxquence of their leadjers cQuld 
^^^1 It. ,^Thofe Jeaders themfelves, thbugt^ 
they xjFJgipaliyr may have meant nothing bfit 
thfiiT^PFn ^aggrandizement, become many of 
thena in tinie me dujges of their owa fopmff 
try. and ar£i as eagetc for this great reforma- 
tion as ^he .weakeft ana loohiheft of ^ their 
followers. 'IpJvj^n though the" Readers ft^oiild 
nay^e^prelerved tnd^^ own heads, as indeed 
they ^oipmpnly do, free from this fanaticifm^ 
yet they dare not; alway^ difappoipt, tlie ex-^ 
peotation pf their followers ; but, are often^ 
pblVge^^ though contrary to their principle 
and tneir confcience, to adl as if they were 
iin^er the cSpmmon deltifion. The v4.olencp 
of tBie party, refufing all paHiatives, all tem- 
peraments, all -Waifonable accofninodarions, 
by requiring too much trequently ODtaiAs, 
f . notbipg ; 

94 OftbeCnAVLAQTEK Partis 

BQthin^.; and thc^^ liOcooven^nGai and di/S^ 
tTi^g wbicH, With a little n>©deratioQ:^ raigkf 
in a great m^aluce have boeor^auovi^ ali(i 
Mieviedi ar« blt^ altogether .withottt the hj[^c 
of a Temedy^r i -: .: 

The man whofe public fpirk' is prompted 
altogether by humamty and benwoknott 
Will r^efpefik the eftabliflbed powefB and piiif 
yil€g4^s even of individuak, aad flill taw* 
thofe of the gr^at mdera and IbcLeti^ai Jnlq 
w^hicb the ftate k divided* TJiQ¥ighc4if 
Should confider fome of thefm a$ m Jmsit 
UiQafare abufive, he will content hlmfelfwkifc 
moderating^ what h^ ofteaca^niHiaimihik^ 
witjb<)i« great violieecev Wheo. ke-<:aDa€t 
conquer the rooted prejudice^, of th^ PCK^^ 
by r«afon land peifuafia% he wtU not atCem^ 
to fubdue them by force; but will religioiifljr 
oWeffVe what, by Cieeiro, is juffly calW ;thtt 
divinei ma:§:im of Plato, never :ti^ ufe irikilencd 
to bis^ieounUry no mior^ iban tohi$ pvenAsii 
He will accommodate, as weH as^he ean; iib 
public arrangement* 'to the con&mcd iisrtMti 
and pi^Judic^s of the people ; and mil ^3^ 
medy, as. well as he caor the inconvanieQcea 
which, may flowfirom the want of ith^crftfrc* 
gulatione which tluc pei^^ are av^rie^ti^ifiiki 
nut to^ Whea he j eanm)t eftabiU£h^be.fiigii% 
jbe will npt difdain dq ameliQi&a^ith«i:^wfo^^^ 

lijut^ liii^ Sblddv when ike danhot^ftablifli th6 
beil fyft^m of la^e, tie ^iUemleavoiiPta efta^ 
b)ilh4he4Mft^thfatiihep^i)pleean<bea^^ ' 

\11ie mifiiof fi^ a^ 

to be very ^ife in his own conceit; ^eiid is 
Men fo 6atiam(!n}«ed i?^lth the fupfpofed b^iity 
of his owtt idelil - plan of go^crnm«ent, that h« 
canTidt fiiOr<s^ the finall^ft deviation from any 
pim of iti He* goes ^n to eftablifti it com- 
pletely and ill all it^-]^6, without any tt^ 
ga^d ^dnrhcir to the great intefefts, dr to the 
ttittotig fittfii(^k» which imay oppofe it. He 
fteois ^ to imagine i that he can arrange the di& 
&mtiti membei^s of a grfeaC ft>cicty with as 
tQodi eafe aA tli^ hand arranges the diiferent 
pieces upon a chefs-board; He does not 
eqafsdartffaat the pieces upon the chefs^board 
haEveQO other princif^le of motion bi^fidc^ 
titeat ^'which the hand impre'fi^s Uf^n them'; 
imt tliat iti the grdEit &h<sft-board of homail 
ibsietyy tvkry (i«igle piece has a^principl^ of 
indtionof its own, altogether differeht from 
tksfciiirMch the legiflature might choofe to iM-r 
farefi! upoh k. If thofe tWo princtj^si (oitii 
cideandsaid in the lame dire£tlbn; the gamig 
cfihtmnan jbdety will go on eafily and hdi^^ 
uiohMiiSf^and is very Ukfely to be liappy 
^Boi^jfuoiefsfifli ^If they are^ oppafite or dlf- 
^cat^^thrf]gam«;jmM go on italfcmblyi and 
r^ua 9 the 

96 .6/ tUfe CUAiBLAcriiL RrfVI* 

the fociety mufl; be it ^1 ^m hk ^ h^bp 
eft degree of diforder. 

Some general^ acid ev^n iyftomi^ka}, id^ 
of the peifedion of policy aad l^w» mi^y Q9 
doiibt he aeceflBuy for dire4liog the views ^ 
the ftatefman^ But to infift u{>€)a eftabtiihii^ 
and upon eftabliiking alji att oq«jg| «9d ia fpji|$ 
of all oppofitioh^ every thmg lifhji$h that ^4^|i 
may feem to requiK^ m\i^ offAM be th^ H^^ 
eft degree of arrogance. It is to ered ht$ 
own judgment into the fupreipe ftididard of 
fight and wrong. It is to fmdy feii«Melf the 
only wife and worthy n\an id the comi^Gh 
wealthy and that his fellow-citizens (houl4 
accommodate them&ltes to him %nd oot hf 
to them. It is upon this accoui^, that of aU 
political fpeculators^ fover^eign pdii$e# i^e |>y 
far the moft dangerous* This i^rrQ^nce: is 
perfeftly familiar to theffi^ T^ey 4^<]^rt;aia 
no doubt of the immenfe fupcrio^^ty of their 
own judgment. When fuch imperial and 
royal reformers, therefore, cond^end to 
contempUte the conftitution of the country 
tvhich is committed to their ^oyer^i^nt^ 
they feldom fee alxy thing fo, wiropg in it as 
the obftrudions which it may fometime^ 
oppofe to the execution of their .own wijl. 
They hold in cqntempt the divine maxim 
€f Plato, and copfider the ftate as made for 


Sea. n. y'VtRruEi 97 

themfelvts, not themfelvcs for the ftate. The 
great obje^ of their rrformation, therefore, is 
lo remove thoft obftrudionsj to reduce the 
auSibrity of the nobility; to take away the 
"pri^iltge^' 6f cities and provinces, and to ren- 
• dei: both the 'greateft individuals and the 
greateft Otddiis of the ftate, as incapaiblfe of 
oppofing ' theit commands, as the weakeft 
and md&, ihflgnificant. 

; - ^ - 

* CHAP. ni. 

^ OfJJniverfal Benevolence. 

^T' HOUGH bur efFeftual good offices can 
^ very feldoni be extended to any wider 
fociety than that of our own country; our 
^odd-will is circumfcribed by no boundary, 
but niay enabrace the imitienfity of the uni- 
verfe. . We cannot form the idea of any in- 
nocent and fenfible being, whofe happinefs 
we flioulJ not defire, or to whofe mifery, 
when diftinfltly brought hbme to the ima- 
gination, we fhould not have fome degree of 
averfion. The idea of a mifchievous, though 
ifenfible being, indeed, naturally provokes our 
hatred: but the ill-will which," is this cafe,* 
VOL, II. fl we 

^$i8 <y/A^ Character PartVfi 

wie bear to it, is really the efFeft of our uni- 
Verfal benevolence. It is the tSe€t of the 
fympathy which we feel with the mifery and 
refentment of thofe other innocent and fen^ 
fible beings, whofe happlnefs is diftnrbed by 
its' malice* 

This univerfal benevolence, how noble and 
generous foever, can be the fource of no fo- 
lid happinefs to any man who is >n6t tho- 
roughly convinced that all the inhabitants of 
the univerfe, the meaneft as well as the great- 
eft, are under the immediate care and protec- 
tion of that great, benevolent, and all-wife 
Being, who directs all the movements of dn- 
ture, and who is determined, by his own 
unalterable perfedions to maintain in it, at 
all timeis, the greateft poffiblc quantity of 
happinefs. To this univerfal benevolence, 
on the contraiy, the very fufpicion of a fa- 
thcrlefa world, muft be the moft melancholy 
of all refledlions; from the thought that all 
the unknown regions of infinite and incom- 
prelierifible fpace may be filled with' libthiiig 
but endlefe ihifery and wretchednefe. All 
the fplendour of the higbeft profptrity can 
neter enlighten the gloom with which fo 
dreadful an idea muft jneceffarily overfhadpw 
the imagination; nor in a wife and virtuous 
man^ Can all the forrow of tkc/moft afBiiaing 

8 adver- 

' Sea. It '^ViRTtjE* 199 

advepfity ever 4ry up the joy which, necefla- 
riiy fprings from the habitual aad thorough 
.conviddoa of the truth of the contrarjr.fyt. 
-teoi.- ■ ■■' ■ - . ■ -• '• • 

The wife and virtuous man is at all times 
willing that his own private intereft fhould 
hc' facrificed to the public intereft of his own 
particular order or fociety. He is at all 
times wilKtig, too^ that the intereft of this 
order or fociety fliould be facrificed to the 
greater intereft of the ftate or foyereignty, of 
which it is only a fubordinate part. He 
(hould, therefore, be equally willing that all 
thofe inferior interefts ihould be facrificed to 
the greater intereft of the univerfe, to the in- 
tereft of that great fociety of all fenfible and 
intelligent beings, of which God himfelf is 
the immediate adminiftrator and direftor^ If 
he is deeply imprefled with the habitual and 
thorough convidion that this benevolent and 
all-wife Being can admit into the fyftem of 
his government, no partial evil which is not 
. tiebeflary for the univerfal good, he muft 
^nfider all the misfortunes which may befal 
iiittifdf, his friends, his fociety, or his coun- 
try, as neceffary for the profperity of the 
-^^Uhiverfe, and therefore as w^at he ought, Hot 
Oiity to fubmit towhh refignation, but as 
what he hinjfelf, if he had known all the 
^ h 2 con- 

loo Cy/i^^ Character Part VI. 

connexions and dependencies of things, 
ought fincerely and devoutly to have 
wiflied for. 

Nor does this magnanimous refignation 
to the will of the great Diredtor of the uni- 
verfe, feem in any refpe<3: beyond the reach 
of human nature. Good foldiers, who both 
love and truft their general, frequently march 
with more gaiety and alacrity to the forlorn 
ftation, from which' they never expefl: to re«r 
turn, than they would to one where there 
was neither difficulty nor danger. In march- 
ing to the latter, they coijld feel no other 
fentiment than that of the dujnefs of ordi- 
nary duty: in marching to the former, they 
feel that they are making the nobleft exertion 
which it is poffible for man to make. They 
know that their general would not have or- 
defed them upon this ftation, had it not been 
neceflary for the fafety of the army, for the 
fuccefs of the war. They cheerfully facri- 
fice their own little fyftems to the profperity 
of a greater fyftem. They take an affec- 
tionate leave of their comrades, to whom 
they wifti all happinefs and fuccefs; and 
march out, not only with fubmiffive obe- 
dience, but often with fhouts of the moft 
joyful exultation, to that fatal, but fplendid 
and honourable flation to which they are ap- 


Se£t. II# 5/* Virtue. tot 

pointed. No condudor of an army can de- 
ferve more unlimited truft, more ardent and 
-zealous affedion, than the gfeat Conductor 
of ,the univerfe. In the greareft public as 
well as private difafters, a wife man ought 
to confider that he himfelf, his friends and 
countrymen, have only been ordered upoa 
the forlorn ftation of the univerfe; that 
had it not been neceffary for the good of the 
whole, th^y would not have been fo order- 
ed ; and that it is their duty not only with 
humble refignation to fubmit to this allot- 
ment, but to endeavour to embrace it with 
alacrity and joy. A wife man fhould furely 
be capable of doing what a good foldier holds 
himfelf at all times in readinefs to do. 

The idea of that divine Being, whofe bene- 
volence and wifdom have, from all eternity, 
contrived and conducted the immenfe ma- 
chine of the univerfe, fo as at all times to 
produce the greateft poflible quantity of hap- 
pinefs, is certainly of all the objeds of 
human contemplation by far the mod fub- 
lime. Every other thought neceflarily ap^ 
pears mean in the comparifon. The man 
whom we believe fo be principally occupied 
in this fublime contemplation, feldom fails to 
Ije the objed of our higheft' veneration ; and 
Hj though 

102 0/*/^^ Character Part VI, 

though his life Should be altogether contem- 
plative, we often regard him with a fort of 
yeligious refpe<a much fuperior to that with 
y^hich we look upon the moft aftive and 
pfefui fcrv?int of the commonwealth. iThe 
.Meditations of Marcus Antoninus, whic'ft 
turn principally upon this fubje<3:, have con- 
tributed more, perhaps, to the general ad- 
miration of his character, than all the difFer-r 
ent tranfadions of his juft, merciful, and be- 
neficent reign. 

The adminiftration of the great fyftem of 
the univerfe, however, the care of the unj- 
yerfal happinefs of all rational and fenfible 
l)eings, is the bufinefs of God and not of 
man. To man is allotted a much humbler 
department, but one much more fuitable to 
the weaknefs of his powers, and to the nar- 
rownefs of his comprehenfion ; the care of 
his own happinefs, of that of his family, his 
friends, his country : that he is occupied in 
contemplating the more fublime, can never 
be an excufe for his negleding the mor^ 
humble department ; and he muft not expofq 
himfelf to the charge which Avidius Caffius 
is faid to have brought, perhaps unjuftly, 
againft Marcus Antoninus j that while he 
employed himfelf in philofophical fpecula- 

4 ^( 

Sea. II. qf ViRTUB. 103 

tipnS) and cpntemplated the profperity of the 
univerfe, lie negl^f^ed that of the Roman 
empire. The moft fublime fpeculation of 
the contemplative philbfopher can fcarce 
compenfate the negle£t of the fmallen: adliv$ 

4^^ ' ' J 

r H'- ;. 

' ' ' ' \ ■'■■■■ ' J . . • ' 


104 Of /^^ Character. PanVL' 


Of Self-command. 

THE man who ads according to the rules 
of perfea prudence, of ftria: juftice, 
and of proper benevolence, may be faid to 
be perfedlly virtuous. But the moft perfect 
knowledge of thofe rules will not alone ena-. 
ble him to adt in this manner: his own 
paffions are very apt to miflead him ; fome-- 
tirties to drive him and fometimes to feduce 
him to violate all the rules which he himfelf,. 
in all his fober and cool hours, approves of». 
The moft perfed knowledge, if it is not fup* 
ported by the moft perfefl: felf-command, will 
not always enable him to do his duty. 

Some of the beft of the ancient morallfts 
feem to have confidered thofe paffions as 
divided into two different clafFes : firft, into 
thof^ which it requires a conliderable exer-. 
tion of felf-command to reftrain even for 4 
fmgle moment; and fecondly, into thofe 
which it is eafy to reftrain for a fingle mo- 
ment, or even for a fliort period of time ; but 


SeS. HI- ^5/* Virtue. icj 

which, by their continual and almoft incef- 
fant folicitations, are, in the ccurfe of a life 
very apt to niiflead into great deviations. 

Fear atid anger, together with fome other 
paffions whith ^i*e mixed ot conneded 
with them, conftitute the firft clafs. The 
love of eafe, bf pleafurt, oF applaufe, and of 
many other felfifti gratifications, conftitute 
the fecond. Extravagant fear and furious^ 
anger, it is often difficult to reftrain even for 
a fingle moment. The love of eafe, of pifea- 
fure, of applaufe, and other felfifh gratifica- 
tiotis, it is always eafy to reftrain for a fingle 
motnenr, or even for a (hort period of time ; 
but, by their continual folicitations, they 
6ften miflead us into many weaknefTes which 
we have afterwards much reafon to bfe 
aftiaraed of. The former fet of paffions may 
often be faid to drive, the latter, to feduce us 
from our duty. The command of the former 
was, by the ancient moralifts above alludecf 
to, denominated fortitude, manhood, anrf 
(Irength of mind ; that of the latter, tem- 
perance, decency, modefty, and modera- 

The command of each of thefe tv^o fets of 
paffions, independent of the beauty which it 
derives from its utility ; from its enabling us 
Opon^ all occafione to aft according to the dic- 

lofi Of the QnAK ACT LK Part VI* 

tates of prudence, of juftice, and of proper, 
benevolence ; has z beauty of its own, and 
feems to deferve for its own fake a certain 
degree of efteem and ^miratipn. In the one 
cafe^ the ftrength and greitthefs of ; the exer« 
tion excites fome degree of that, efteem and 
admiratioit. In the other, the uniformity, 
the equality and unremitting fteadineis of 
that exertion. 

The man who, in danger, in torture, upon 
the approach of death, preferyes his trspa* 
quillity unaltered, and fuffers no word, np ges- 
ture to efcape him which does not perfeftly 
accord with the feelings of the mod indifFer* 
cnt fpe^ator, neceflarily commands a very 
high degree of admiration. If he fuffers in 
the caufe of liberty and juftice, for tb? fake 
of humanity and the love of his country, 
the moft tender compaifion for his fuiBTering?, 
the ftrongeft indignation againft the injuftice 
of his perfecutors, the warmeft fympathetic 
gratitude for his beneficent intentions, the 
higheft fenfe of his merit, aU join and mix 
themfelves with the admiration of his mag- 
nanimity, and oflen inflame that fentim^nt 
into the moft enthufiaftic and rapturpus 
veneration. The heroes of ancient and 
modern hiftory, who are remcmbiered with 
the moft peculiar favour and ftffe^ion^ are, 


S^fl:. in. ^Virtue. J07 

many of them, thofe who, in the caufe of 
truth, hberty, and juftice^ have perilhed 
tipon the fcafFold, and who appeared there 
with that eafe and dignity which became 
them. Had the enemies of Socrates fufFerecJ 
him to die quietly in his bed, the glory even 
of that great philofopher might poiKbly never 
have acquired that dazzling fplendour in 
which it has been beheld i^ all fucceeding 
ages. In the Englifti hiftory, when we Jook 
over the illuftrious heads which have beca 
engraven by Vertue and Howbraken, there 
is fcarce any body, I imagine, who does not 
feel that the axe, the emblem of having been 
beheaded, which is engraved under fome of 
the moft illuftrious of them ; under thofe of 
the Sir Thomas Mores, of the Rhaleighs^ 
the Riiflels, the Sydneys, &c. Iheds a real 
dignity and intereftingnefs over the charac- 
ters to which it is affixed, much fuperior to 
what they can derive from all the futile orna- 
ments of heraldry, with which they arc 
' fometimes accompanied. 

Nor does this magnanimity give luftrc 
only toi the charaders of innocent and virtu- 
ous men. It draws fome degree of favour- 
able regard even upon thofe of the greateft 
criminals J and when a robber or high way- 
mart is brought to the fcaflfold, and beha^s 


io$ (y/Zr^ Character Part VI. 

there with decency and firmnell^., though 
we perfeftly approve of his punifhment, 
we often cannot help regretting that a man 
who pofle.fled fuch great and noble pov^ers 
fliould have been capable of fuch mean enor- 

War is the great fchool both for acquiring 
apd exercifing this fpecies of magnanimity. 
Death, as we fa)^, is the king of terrors ; and 
the man who has conquered the fear of 
death, is not likely to lofe his prefcnce of 
mind at the approach of any other natural 
evil. In war, men become familiar with 
death, and are thereby neceflarily cured of 
that fuj^erftitious horror with which it is 
viewed by the weak and unexperienced. 
They confider it merely as the lofs of life^ 
and as no further the objed of averfion than . 
as life may happen to be that of defire. 
They learn from experience, too, that many 
feemingly great dangers are not fo great as 
they appear ; atjd that, with courage, adi- 
vity, and prefence of mind, there is often a 
good probability of extricating themfelves 
with honour from fituations where at firft 
they could fee no hope. The dread of 
death is thus greatly diminifhed; and the 
confidence or hope of cfcaping it, aug- 
men^ed. Th«y learn to expofe themfelves 


SeAIII. c/* Virtue. 109 

to danger with lefs reludance. They are 
lefs anxious to get out of it, and lefs apt to 
Jofe their prefence of mind while they are ia 
it. It is this habitual contempt of danger 
and death which ennobles the profeffion of a 
foldier, and bellows upon it, in the natural 
apprehenfions of mankind, a rank and dig- 
nity fuperior to that of any other profeffion. 
The fkilful and fuccefsful exercife of this 
profeffion, in the fervice of their country, 
feems to have conftituted the moft diftin- 
guifliing feati^re in the charaiSer of the 
favourite heroes of all ages. 

Great warlike exploit, th9Ugh undertaken 
contrary to every principle of juftice, and 
carried on without any regard to humanity, 
ibmetimes iiiterefts us, and commands even 
fome degree of a certain fort of efteem for 
the very worthlefs charaders which condud 
it. We are interefted even in the exploits 
of the Buccaneers ; and read with fome fort 
of efteem and admiration, the hiftory of the 
moft worthlefs men, who in purfuit of tlxe 
moft criminal purpofes, endured greater 
hardfliips, furmounted greater difficuUies, 
and encountered greater dangers, than, per- 
haps, any which the ordinary courfe of hif- 
tory gives an account of. 


tio ^ Of the CifARACTER tinVii 

f Thd oQmmaQd of anger appears uppn 
many occafions not lefs generous and noble 
than that of fear. The proper exprefEon of 
juft indignation compofes many of. the moft 
fplendid and admired paflages both of an- 
Client and modern eloquence. The Philip^ 
|)ic8 of Demofthenes, the Catalinarians of 
Cicero, derive their whole beauty from the 
poble propriety with which this paffion ia 
expreflcd. But this juft indignation is jxor 
thing but anger rcftrained and properly at- 
jtcmpered to what the impartial fpeflkator can 
enter into. The bluftering and noify paffioa 
which goes beyond this, is always odious 
and ofFenfive, and interefts us, not for the 
angry man, but for the man with whom he 
ia angry. The noblenefs of pardoning ap- 
pears, upon many occafions, fuperior even 
to the moft perfedt propriety of refenting. 
When either proper acknowledgments, have 
been made by the offending party ; or, eveA 
without any fuch acknowledgments, whea 
the public intereft requires that the moft 
mortal enemies fhould unite for the dif- 
charge of fome important duty, the mart 
who can caft away all animofity, and aft 
with confidence and cordiality towards the 
perfon who had moft grievoufly offended 


5ea.nL ^/'ViRTut. * 111 

firtttj feenis jiiftly to merit our highcft 

The comtoarid of anger, however, does 
not aJwkys appeiar in fuch fplendid coloiiisf* 
Fear is contrary to anger, and is often the 
motive which reftrains it ; and in fuch cafes 
the itteannefs of the motive takes away ajl 
the noblenefs of the reftraint. Anger 
prompts to attack, and the indulgence of 
k fe^ms fometlmes to fliew a fort of courage 
iitidf fuperlority to fear. The indulgence of 
dinger is fometimes an obje£k of vanity. That 
of 'faar never is. Vain and weak men, 
'atn<5tig their inferiors, or thofe who daire hot 
"rfefift them, often afFed to be oftcntatioufly 
^affionate, and fancy that they fhow, what h 
called, fpirit in being fo. A bully tells ittany 
ftdries of his own infolence, which are not 
true, and imagines that he thereby renders 
himfelf, if not more amiable and refpefttiible, 
at leaft more formidable to his audienc^. 
Modern manners, which, by favouring the 
pradice of duelling, may be faid, in feme 
cafes, lo encourage private revenge, contri- 
bute, perhaps, a good deal to render, in mo- 
derft times, the reftraint of anger by fear ftill 
more contemptible than it might otherwife 
appear to be. There is always fomethJtUg 
dignified in the command of fear, whatever 

^i(z Of tim JGiiAii Ai^TE R RirtW! 

may be the aiimive,upcdi which tici^^ 

Idp it i» . famided altagedbf^T'^in ' tht^: (t&bt 4^ 
4eceficy^. of dignity » and p^opviiety ) Id a«i^ 
is pQrfe<31y J^ireccjWe* .< / c jo^il^ ;l> «.. tg 
. Ta a(3: accoKiing iMk. xhi- ^fffesDSs i of f^1^ 

Teems to have nagr«at> merit iTCbsifethei^iia 
|[K) temptatiedn to do otherwifei, -Biit tat aft 
tvHh cpqI dQlibeiu^ioii ini^the mklft ^fiichif 
grf^ateil 4aQgars and dtfficultueB;: toibb&r'i^ 
Fi^|igi<^ily the facced rules ^ jiiflioeiia fptd 
hgtli pf the grcateft;intefeft8.;vfhfcb^i^ 
teo^pt^ and the grmteft iRJiiiim^tflikkc^W 
provok;^ u^jto. violate th^m} riisteer;^ fofibd 
^c bofipvple^^of our temper n^jbfe ciamptdJ 
or dlfcourfi^d .by .tl^ mal^ity land^ ipgiradS 
%dQ efe tl^ ii&^viduala to wankiwhom itiittiUp') 
batP^^en ejtercifedi. is the cJiaraiaorc'ofiliWi 
4loft:.^6l^^ wif40fla aod virtue. - 5SdB&Qa«4l 
HMMsdM noli Q»iy kfoif ^a gceat ¥ir;tKie^rbui 
frQii^,i|:jiiI „tjifi orfifr.yid;««» fcflaiiiAtOitJeyirtfe^ 
tj^f prlaoip^l Mlre^. ^ : ^ : .1^ t\ y c 

•The^SOm^^ i>C ^ar,^ the cQiiatdi^^ 
atiger^ ^j;4.wi^^ gji^at aad xidb}e {idwonq^t 
Wheii^ t^j? areJdir^s^ated by jiifticeaD^ bcfeesM^ 
vaIgpQ^4it|/§|^ ^ejn^ 9i|ly g^jeafe wtijB«^iirii^ 
iq^reafc tljg/p}ftf|de^i;':0^ ltthftr.i^ijrtii»WJ 
They^jt^^^J^otsreKs^ £Mif£ti»efci^e^dilEf£lfiir 

ata. ffl. (f Virtue 113 

by very difl^rent motives; and in this cafe^ 
though ftill great and refpedable^ they may 
be excefiively daogerous* The mod intrepid 
valour may be employed in the caufe of the 
greatefl; inj oftice. Amidft great pro vocationsf^ 
apparent tranquillity and good humour may 
fomecimes conceal the moil determined and 
crud refolution to revenge. The ftrength 
of mind requiftte for fuch diflimulation^ 
though always and neceflarily contaminated 
by the- bafenefs of falfehood, has, however^ 
been often much admired by many people 
s£ no contemptible judgment. The diflimu'* 
htion of Catharine of Medicis is often cele- 
hrated by the profound hiftorian Davila; 
that of ^ Lord Digby, afterwards Earl of 
BriftcJ, by the grave and confcientious Lord 
Clarendon ; that of the firft Aihiey Earl of 
Shafteibury^ by the judicious Mr. Locke. 
Even Cicero feems to confider this deceitful 
charader, not indeed as <^ the hjgheft dig« 
nityv but as not unfuitable to a certain flexi« 
bility x)f manners^ which, he thinks, may^ 
noitwitidlanding, be, upon the whole, both 
agreeabli^ afid refpedable. He exemplifies it 
by the cfewadlers of Homer's Ulyflfesi of the 
Atheman TfaemiAocles, of the Sparun Ly-> 
fandcr^ 4|tnd of the Roman Marcus CrafTus^ 
ThiA charafter of dark and deqp diifimulap« 
,,TOt^ii* I tion 

114 0/ th CtiAi.A CT E R Pitt ^ 

don occurs moft coitomonly iti' times of -^teat 
public diforderj amidft the violence of fic- 
tion and civil war. When laW has becbriit 
in a great meafure impotent, when the tA^ 
perfe6t innocence cannot Alonft itxftirie fafcty,^ 
regard to felf-defence obliges the greater p^rfe^ 
of men to have recourfe to diexterity, to ad^ 
drefs, and to apparent accommbdatlbri t6 
whatever happens to be, at the momerif,^ 
tlie prevailing pdrty. This falfc charaAe^f 
too, is frequently accompanied with' the 
cooleft and moft determined courage. nTiit 
proper exercife of it impbfes that cburagcf^,"^ as 
death is commonly the certain cbnffequenc^ 
pf detedion; It may be employed Ihdii^i 
ferently, either to exafperate ot to alltf^ 
thofe furious animofities of ad^erfe fidibris 
which impofe the neceffity oF alfuming it'^ 
and though it may fometiraes be ufefbl, ftf 
is at leaft equally Rable to be excefliveiy 
pernicious.^ " - ' ' ^^ 

The tommarid of the lefs vioIcM ahd tOir- 
bulent paffr6ns fefeins^ much lefs' liable io bfe . 
abufed to any petnicious ptirpofe:' Temper 
rahce, decency, modefty, and thod^eratioii; 
are always amiable, and can feldotn*be *di- 
reded' to any bad end. It is froni tfce utysk 
remitting fteadmefs of thofe gehtlfei- exertions 
of fd^^btiimand';' that the ^anfifeb^ 
' ' •- cliaftity) 

tj?y and fnjg^Ktf , derive all that fob?r luftre 
iKfeiofe Atteiid^ th?w^^ pf all 

tli^j^ ,whb >ar^ «:om«ati?d to valk in the 
b^i]pibie {>atb8 of priyatc and peaceable life,, 
4«n^eB from^ the fame principle the^ greater, 
pjBMrt: f€f the beauty and grace which belong tp 
]$ s f^rbeauty and grace which, though mwc|i 
^fifj^i^asling, 18 not always lefp pleating thi^jj^ 
^$)^ which accompany the more fplendidv 
%^fons of the hero, the flatefmani or th^ 

^^ A^^^r wjiat haa already been f^ in feve*^ 
9Ji4l^<^Pt parts of this difcourCe, concerQ« 
i£fg,.tfae, nature of felf-command,^ judge it 
<^necci&ry to ^nter into any further detail 
fi^l^er<ning ihc^c yirtue?.. I fliall only qbr 
ferve at prdent,, that the point of propriety^ 
the^ 'degree of any paifion which the impar? 
|^;ijpie^tor appipTea of, ie diSerently" 
£tttiated in difierent paffions. In foa^^e pa& 
fioRsifbeexcefa ia lefa difagreeable than the 
4efcH$l;9! and in fuch paffiona tihjr point of 
pci^pfieCy fe^ma to ftand high, or nearer tp 
jtheiie^cefs than to the de&d. I^n other pafif 
iii<y^h^tbe 4efed is lefs difs^ee^le than the 
^|geS(t^ and in fiich paffipus the point of 
ig0topm$j feeoia t<> ftaad low, or f nearer >tp 
lAkQ: defe^ .^n ta the exce6« Tiate^^ ^jsp^ 
-v,:^ /_ .12 are 

li^ Of /i&^ CftAftAC^ER fitrt^^ 

arc thte p^ffions iHrhich the fj^ is moA, 
the lalttcr, thofe Wliich lie Js leaft dlf|>6red to 
fympathize with. T^hefbrmier, tt)o, a^ 
paflions of whidi the iniincdittte fceHft^ dr 
fenfetioft is agt^eaiblfe tb the jterfoii prilfifci^ 
pally concerned ; the hittei^v tfebic df ivlii^ 
it is difagrceable. It niay be liid ddwn^sisii 
general rule, that the paffidns Which the: fj)<ee^ 
tator is moft difpbfed to^ ffmpathize %kli, 
and in which, upon that account, the j><)itit 
of pfoprifety m^y be faid to ftattd'*ighi'iafe 
thofe of which the immediate feeling bt^ ^ftSS- 
^ktiitto is more or lefs agreeaWt? tb ^th^pdrlbh 
principally concerned : arid thaty bni^he BcSi- 
trary, the 'paffions whieh the^ptaitt#4a i^ttft 
^ifptifed tb fynipathi^e With^-and irf'Wififcfe, 
upon that account, the pbitttj of pfoprfety 
liiay be fkid to ftarid low, ate thofe^ of w4^ 
the immediate feeling br fenfatiori iff inbrt^dfr 
lef$ difagreeable^ . or ct6^ painM; tb th^'pieiN 
ion principaUy concerned; Tt^fetteraiH^^ 
fo far as I hate been able to 0bi^r«i^, ItdMUs 
not of a Angle exciptioti; ^A f6iv«i«kiraB^k^s 
wiH at bnce bbth^lijffiGierttlT^^ekpkiii^^k i»(^ 
demonftrate the truth of it. ^ * - ^ ^ o mr> 

The difpb(ition ife ^e^ aflfe^ibns^^vftiicli 
tehd^ tb tinite^ mtti in^ fofciety; ' ^a ' Hflmd^Jf', 
kindnfefi, riattiriVdf&aibn, <Vi«idlhi^; eifeft^^ 
ihay fometiitie^ bti ^xdtlfivci ( ^Bira^ flW^^eiL 

■-."'.. eels 

0(^^ |Hl*T^di^ofition,;lM? renders a 

<raaip,ia^r(?ft| €iy:ery bqdy;; . Though we 

jjlaip^it, we i^jllfcgasTd-i w|t^i cpmpaflion, 

^d^ §vevf wi|J|okia4«€ftr ^^ J>e ver with dif- 

jjU|l5f^^, \^afc.ipope fp^yjFpr it thaaangiy 

iUcfCw T%thetperiqii,himf^lfi the indulgence 

#ye% of > facb eKcejSiye aSedipn^ is, upon 

jlptof^y^ipccafioQSv^not only agx;eeable but delV- 

q^u& ^^yBPl>r;i9roe qccafions, indeed, efpe«- 

i^f^\f ?^hen 4ire£|ed» as is too often th^s; cafe, 

^(ggi^ar^^ unw^thy c4>}e(f^^ it expofes him to 

^l|i))cHcreal;apd i;)(eartfelt difl;refs« Even upopi 

fyf^ ;<^^i\oti9f^ a > well-difpof^d 

^^^ ¥P&^^K hi?? with, thp inplt .^xcjuifitp 

ij^y^^i^^feelis the highpft in4igpatl0n againik 

^thiC^<^^'^yJiq^ja§eiJ: ttp defpife h^ra for his weal^- 

v^§ft-a^ ifjaprudencev T^e d^fcdt of thU 

i^ldP^Himi^,^^^^^ , contrary, ^h^ti§ called 

hay^i^aof h;eftrf^ vjhile ivxender? a nfi^ in- 

Ji^Gbh ^ tJiefe^Uags ^nd diftreflcs pf p^hpr 

^|»i3pli?f rt^ad^^^^^ pe<?ple equally ipfep- 

^flWfttlo H^i andj by excluding him ftom. the 

^St^tlldihip'^fial^the world, eiccludes him frpi;i 

f^ ^efl^i^dr^mpft comfortable of all fpcial 

eiyoyments. . ^ ^ v 

.bi^jfi^ii^fpf^on to the affe^pijs wjiich 

,4JWJ?rn mf He , ifrornfx, , pff ^^ a^^.t;her, and ^hkh 

;fii^ja^!rirb(W^?]e,.tq break the bfiftds pf 

13 hatred. 

lit 0/ the OtiAtiA&ruK fWtVf,> 

iiatf ed, envy, rftalite^ revenge i 1«V ^n 'tli« 

contrary, much mote ajpt td ofl6n4 by^« 

texccfe than By Its ddfeft. ''!ni6 i^xc^ft reti*- 

ders a xhdn wretched aiid ftiiferSfbJe in^iriii 

6wn mind, arid the obje^ tof hatred; attd 

f6tlietime« evien c( h^itdt, to' ofheif ' pe^(>Be. 

Tfie' defeft is veiy ^ftldoni cdmplaitte#'-«^^ 

It may, howevei^, be deftftive. 'The "^iiit 

of proper iridignition is a moft' cflstotfal'^^ 

fe£t in thb ftiahl^ chifader, ahd, updn tottiiy 

ticdafions, tenders a inan incapabk dfpifcH 

tedinjT either hithfelF Of hi^ fK^hdi^^ffem 

inVuIt and injuftice. EWn that pfitttlpttV^n 

the excefs and improper diredlriori'tif Wfflch 

tonfifts the odibus'and deteftable piJGf^ of 

^nvy, ttiay be defeiSive. fihvy W that f>af-f 

^ifion which views with mali^harit difftke the 

'ftiperiority of thore who are really entitlefl'fo 

*iil the fuperiofky they pofifcis. Thi^*flWti, 

hoWpver, who, in tnitters Of cdnffe<|ueAfee, 

.^ tamely fuffers cither people, '^ho ift en^^ttied 

" to no^fuch iup^riorityi to rile abdve Mte^or 

r get before him,' i^ jo^^y cohdfcmAitd as hWta^p 

" fj)iritecl; This Weaknefs is cottimOiilyfoiiiidfekJ 

in indolence, *fometimes in gbod i^attii^, i^ 

ah averfioh to dppofitibn,' tbhuftlte aftd'fe^^ 

citation, and fdmetiities, too, iA a iHrt ifcf ^lilU 

judged magnaniifiity, which" ^fahciesf -^tfiat il 

(:ai; ^ilvsrays cbnUiiue to deijpife tKe^^^ilfegQ 


^^^iqfcL it ^thje», 4^1)1^^ ^d, t)bcrrf:>re, fo 
.^aiilj givfsufi. Such w^akncfs, however^ 

M^.jCopai^only followed ^fg^ct and 

jTf pqj^Ltaucre ; apd what l^a^ fome appearance 
!^9f magnai^iq^^ty in the beginnings frequently 

^y<e$ pJ;j(^otQ p ipoft gaaUgnapt envy in the 
^en4t>,ftwi to . a JwtM pf that, fuperiority, 
t^3^/J(44v tjipfe wjbo have pnce attained it, miiy 

jlft^p bcppn^fi really entitled to, by the very 
y H}|i;9juipfl:ance of paving attained it. In order 
. ,^ l^v^e oonjfprtably ip the^ world, it is, upoo 
,-^fiOccaf^oi^8, as j^^ceffary to defend our dijg- 
,pity^?i^p4,;rank,, a^ it is to defend our life pT 

"I ^ ^0^5 ^eqfU>iU^y to perfonal danger and dii^ 

^i^fft, JiH? that, to perfonal provocation, u 

fj^iucbi more, apt to offend by its excefs ihan 

rbgT; its deffit No , ch^radier is more coo« 

it*fppl*¥e tha^ l;hat pjfv a ,qftw*rd ; no charao* 

^5ii? niRre |44«pired thap that of the man 

ij!>IS^J9/^9?s,4eath with iqti;<pidity, ^n^ main- 

. jtftift? hii5 . trajfiqaiilUty ^p4: prefence of mxnd 

-n»widft :t^v »^^ dfe^dfur di^ngersv^^^ W^ 

foBftf?^9^/!^T f^P whp fuppprts pain and 

rji€'^g^,tpr|t|^re, yrUth tr^nhood and fiirninefs| 

ilSTiiiWe/JfSJ^.My^ Htt^j? regard for him who 

.([^ri:8r updejc, tl^pn^j and, abandons iiimfelf to 

It ftCflefej pm<;ri^, aiiji yr^^iji^ifh lamentations* 

r^ A^S^lJ^^f?:!??^^ch;fp^Is, with tpo m^ch 

1 20 Of thi Ch ArR'A DT E* Rai* :V5t 

ieo!S^\%ji^T9W^}^^ accideait^ rrendtfisl 
a {r(«^ jBaifiardblist ill AhhnfelEiaiid dfTenfive^ iitdfi 
QtheF;|>ieop1ei :.:A calita^ )6nev f^bii^ di)>e8 iKibi 
allow *t;3; tmnquilKtjt io be i dtflkiibcd,^^ citfcibr ? 
hf t^^jftnsill ifiijuTiia, oi* by the iitdc diifttftewi 
in<;ideAt:to tbj& ufpal fcourfe ofilitiaGiiaii aiFairs^^i 
bt|t i^hlchv amidfti 4ih$ natiural Ui^-maioKal 4iriti^^ 
iQ^ing the ' i;itorld, lays* \%%\ a€k0Qitt;i < lakji >i^ 
c<H&)beiiced to f u^ a ^HtiAe JErom; bofiHi b W^ 
bldOGhg to the man himfelf^ and* gities^edM 
aod^ all^his cdtopantobs^ ^ r!H;nloi 
Our fenftbllity, 'hoiv^vw^ bdth .ttS* tmn dwn^ 
ing[Qrles and^to Cj^iM* cmiti ^bl^cdttumiy thdti]^^ 
generally too ftrong, may lifceWife feeUcsiW^ 
weakj^ The man ^b»o ftels Kttle^lbi^'hlsf^fewaq 

6«bw iptofylev and fee !i6fs dtf]^ferf>^^ ir^lfevti^^ 
ttom> i/Tfee>matt^^1S6 Itad^^H^ 
for v4!h« tejui*eS/^hi^ >^6^ ^ ^fld^i^^tQflilsrtfigW^^^ 
muft alwky« have^tefr fot tfei^fe ^htdr '^te^ 
done to lOlber^ "^"t^^i ' larid ^ b^ tefe^Jtiifpofei*^ 
eiihers tiaKpr«e A dr lo^^venge i&teiti^ ^ ^ Q!\i >ftoy4d 
inlmfibitity ito f^^ the^ >ive^^^ o^^hMPtoaft <1if&<i 
nef(^ffilra5^^^x^fi^^iilQta all tHat?^l:e^n^^^ e^> 

vyAei^-^ We can^ fceldlftk aMi€ty^'>a^rit3&iep 
pi^riety ^l)^-fi)te¥ 6^rt^adfck)HJj; t*ieni^ Aflp'i 

fni&lfmm fkaam^M "FhiBcmafn who^feeter the foil ^ 

htm, ^Ibg) fb^'JUiie^whcdid bafeneik of >t|ie iti-* 

fecWfflfill liDite'^fttongty what the dignity of 
h^riaiirAvicdiaraiSter r^ does not 

atenaddO! binl&lf to^ the guidance of the un«^ 
dsfdplin^]aaffioQ8 which. hia Situation mi^t 
wturajlyaiifpiret but.^ho:fO!veims hiawhde 
M£»v]^3!fbif at)d; candud aoemding to . tlu^ijb^^ 
reftrai ned a9idr> cmmciS^ einio^oils ^ whioh^ tlitt^ 
gmttifimatiQ, tfaie) great dettipgod within> tke 
b|fpft)(0r^icribeflVMKi approves of; isvalaoe 
tfe^ire^ n^ftftrpif^tirtue^ th^ttwly real arid pr^ 
P8i^/<9fej0ao0fi'l©j\re^ ix^fp^ aod adriiiraiiaflii^> 
iT&^^iWiiifeyiaftdi that »^ble fiirnwwefs, ;thi«t>eict^> 
alj^dilfislCiaonsrB^nd, wh'wrfl isafp^^^^cimiW^^ 
f<^fe>flf J 4ftgpij^7$in4pr0prietyf are/o, far froen v 
b|^j[|a^fiogctlier) *he iiafe^ , tW jjirpropoiritaoft] 
a^iherfortBier tatoos plic^^ iihemdrit dF/the lai^n 
t^:^(|ti^inainy arfe<>^r<mtimjy^fc«n}awaiy. 31 (»?> 

bB(»e rtbougfc tlie iQtalf iWaiHf of /©srfibiHtyi tic > 
p9^f0ml rinjilry^ toi ipierfoi^li dangejri ^d! idii^ l 
tre^ ^TOJuW^ in . fuch;. fit«a|tiG^,f /ta^^B i ^AJo 
tba/^^vh«lc, m€;rtt of felfrcomnvand^ ,that: &n§-f^ 
blHty^rfeOwev^r, may v^ryt^afily A>e tj?p «?£f^. 
qsjfitcferjatod/it (feequintly is) fo> )\S5hcn^itli0 .^ 
feirfe «>&pr«)^e^y^ ii^henitbe a^ii^hofitjFiQf ^ . 
judge^witliferJfee fefotfti c*> i»ijrfrol%thia^3tr 

Hh^ treme 

lAa Of /^ , Ch AR-VCTE R Pfrt Vt 

tnemci/iretxObilityy thttt authotil^ tmift vn^ 
dbubt appear very noble jrad, very .gred& 
Bui thetk^i^iosi at* ik may be/too fatiguiBigi; 
k may ba^a tou inuch t€>4ki;ji :1Jhc )iodi«^ 
dual^ by a' gteat ^ffoFt, itmyibH^i/rc p6£fe3:ly 
W€U> ^ But the coatafb bctweci* i;lmt»ro |)ifblr 
^!pie% th« warfare within the brealft, may bp 
too violent co%e at all ccnfift^nt.wilh iiHti^^ 
ml ' tt^anquilKty an4 happinefs^ Tb^ wifer 
sianwhom nature has endowed mv^ »tkfs 
io^ ekqmfite fenftbilityy and wiuxfeioorfriTel^ 
fb^Iingd have not bean fufficiently>lalimttx{ 
and Hardened by ^eariy education' amd^profiier 
esteftlfe^ will aroid, as m;ii|ch asi Guilty iiand 
propriety ^ will permit, the fitua^nar^r^r 
wMch he j6 not peffeaiy fitted, >Tlteinmm 
ti^hofti fed^ and deKcatid eonfticoitioii i&n^ 
ders him too fehfible to pain, to^haixld^i^ 
and to etfetyfbrt of bbdily idiftreffs, ihtould 
not ' **rarttonly embrace di** Tprofeflionj tirfjia 
%ldieh The man ^ too mnehr^enfitnlijtyrita 
i*ijtiry,'ihonld not taftily engage 4nith^coti-r 
tetts 'olffaaion; Though th^^enfc tof.|>n^i 
jptiiBty fijotild lie lftr<^ td^nkmbd 

alii thdfe fehftfetJittes, the ' do^pofuf eioF t^o 
- inlnd' rAnft al^s b6 diltoj^bed iiD tbetfti^-, 
^1^.^^ In tbis diibrder th^ jildgnientifaabneDt 
ilwa!y^;'miint^5n its ordiniry ateiktenefer j«nd 

^-AirA, ,' ^ ■ to 

^; JH, y VlRTUfi, 133 

1» a^* pfopeflyy he may * oftea idt rafiily and 
Mipfiidcntty, and in a maanw whi^h herhiow 
iyf /i^ll, in theifupceedirngpart <>f hi$ life, fep^ 
^ «V€r a(hamed 0f. A irertaiQ iiHr^i^idit^i 
^'^d^taiiQL firmndfar ^£ nerviea imd hardin^s of 
-Mitt^ittttiDi^, wfaethw natural or acquired^ ai:;e 
4lbd0iifat^f the beft prepaicativea for gl} (ha 
Iprfcat exeirtio08 oi felfrcommand. * 

ji I /Though war and fadlion are certainly the 
h^ fchools for £(»rmiilg every man to this 
>|brdtoe(s and' firmnefa ^f tomper, though 
i*il0f tate/the bfift iremedie^ for curing hipipf 
^l*^» i pppo£te« weakneflest y ^t^ if , th§ day of 
ilarialx4f6afai hlafipeA to^cjoq^e. before h/ah^s 
Tdbm^etely i ileasn^d . hl^ If flpRr before; th« 
rwmedyihaathad^tifne:,t^,.pr94uqe ijW .pfjc^er 
- fifit^ > r: iha: . i cQuftqMi^cef , . . fn^j^Lt . » npj; be 
,fg>JimblCf.) ...-?■, ^^ . ^ ,; >-^^ ,(:.,' 3V.1; 
bi I : dOur, ^ ferifibilit^ i . to the / ple^fuf^, to^ the 
aiiBu£bmtot» aind i9njpy(|2ieAts of h^f?H>^ }\f^ 
m^p xifftmA^ I ie rthe fam? ^fp^nneri ^^^h^F i ^^7 
^jt8oe«teiiiiOf Jiy its ^ef^j^.^tt^.two^ ^a^ 
^rpr^ithcoeicW^ f^^pt^teia dLi^gri^a^je.^han 

jpedfitf tOjjoy wcftjltainily mqrc^ pJeo^ 
iqiiddili infeiiifib^lity Tto tb* pbje^ilst of^ arn^fe- 
bnteot^aiidi jdiy^ftpcv W^ jaie charmed with 
^<^^i^tylitf 5^th|! afii ev^^^^ith^l^e^ p)^y- 

vt fulnefs 

1 2ij Of ty C H A R A OT E R Part' Vt, 

fuif^ef^ of ohdidhood:!* but we ^Dtm gro# 
weary of the flat arid tafteids gravity whidt 
loo ffequently accompaniea oML age^ . ^Wl|^n 
this propenftty, ind^di is noe^^refirainedtb^ 
the fenfe of propriety, whtn/it is uoAiitafate 
tx>tbe'time or tothe place, tto the .ageiOOrtd 
tijc fitiidtion of the peribn^ wheQ tQ ittflulg9 
it, he negleSs either his int^r^ft.or»his^)cHil|fjj 
it is juitiy blamed as exceiiive^ 4ndt$€rhiMt^ 
ful both to the individual aadriio thbr^ii^ 
In the greater part of ibth cafca^ how»eimi% 
what is chiefly to be found fpuli; wlthrM, fAX 
fo* miiclr the strength of the pr<?petofeBy K>^ jl^, 
as the weafcnefs of ihe fenfe of ptK>pf ifcty ^nd 
Aity. A young mad ^Ko kks .fto, treliAi. ifihr 
the diverfions land atnufeitients thac^arei n^tlii^ 
r&I ' dtid futtable to his :age, vviib i mlks. ^of 
nothing biit his book or his buiide&, hodtnl^ 
liked *as» formal and pedantic;^ andnwetgive 
him^o'credit for his abftineiMrereveiiifcofia 
Smpt&p^r indulgencds, to wbkblic fesema/tto 
liaVe^ fo 1iitl6 inclination. ; t - :. v. q^n 
^ if he prfncipfe of felf^eftknition : nlay ite 
<i>o high, artd it may likewife be tooJowi ;Mii 
Is fd very igi^eeablc to ^ think highJyj aandt^fo 
vety difagt^eabte to think meanly! of oim^ 
felves, thaty to the perfon ^limfelf^vitrjcaisTlGrt: 
Wdl^bef d4)ubtedi biit that fonro degiiee of tx>. 
cS^fs muft be much lefs difagrceable than any 


degn^ezof difed. Biit tOvthbMimpaitial fp6c« 
ta^GT^. it may p^&{]r3i)e ihought^ tkinga^ mnil 
appear qu^e diSeretittf , and that to hiol tbe 
i^ft&ii iinift 'alMrttys be lefs difagreea^ ikutk 
tlof^^nkodui .^And in t)ur (poi9pank)as; oo 
4bfibt,:iireliiueh triors frequently oomptaia 
tafitlWlaittertlUn of the former. When tliiely 
a^titJie tipbn us, or fee themfelves before ^S| 
th^i^' fedf^eftimsttion mortifies our own/ Our 
ojaai pride and vanity prompt us to abcuft 
llseta^of jprkk and vaiiity^ and me cefife to ht 
the itti{!iartial<i^dator8 df their conduit 
tVi^edi^ tt^'iaivie^companionsf hdwcirer^ fufibit 
hoy x:iiiisfrQtnjai^ id affiime over tUem. ajflip&* 
librify^hiah doies not belong i to biiA, w^^iuit 
e^ihiBfiJMitbetn^ but often d^piSt ihtim^u 
Ine^fpiritdkli ^When^ on iChencOftfrary* 
ehifeong <^hck people^ they I pijith tlieinffilffe^ 
av^tter^ntore forward, atid fcranbl^ .tpj^upi 
fAmkiam ndifpoportioned, a8 .iite> thu^k^ , t0 
thamimerit, though we .may i^ot perfip^y 
approve of their condufifc, iwe are oftfeni^^ lipott 
feUe \whoIei^ divcttcd with i£ \ : Apdi w^re 
there/i&ino eaty in the paife»ifVff?i are almp(| 
alvte^ffi mticjbi kid difple^fod ji^i$h th^f^ ^J^ai^ 
vrsdihisuld ihavetbcbn, hadttli^yrfHSe^fl^th^pgiT 
fehwsiaffinld fidow ithdr pcQ5^er]fl;aU0ii.^;> ,7 ! .i 
-X iii^:eftwij|itinf:ioitr ^onm inierlJti jiftj ritic^qg^of 

our 6wn chara(!fcer and conduA, there nr^ 
two different ftandards to iwrhich !w« natUTjaHf 
compare them. The one is thtMp^ oC q^^ 
propriety and perfe£tion^ fp Jar a^ . we care 
each of us capable of comprelii^dipg t^ 
idea* The other i8 that degree of appTQsdmff' 
tlon to this idea t^hich is commonly, aQ** 
tained in the world, and wbkh the grease 
part of our friends and cpmpanioos, ,of!pU)r 
rivah and competitors^ may i have ^ aifli^^lsr 
arrived at* We very feldom ^^1 am difpo^ 
to thinks we never) attempt to j^dge; i^j oi||^ 
ibives without giving more or l(^s ^^ntio^j^ 
bo|h thefe different flandards. But, tj^ ^tt^^ 
tion of different men, and even of th<; (ao^f^ 
iiM^n a!3 diffevent times^ is oftaa very ^nequi^y; 
divided between them ; and ia^ fpqi^^§| 
principally 4ire£ted towards the / ORe^ mA 
foftjeiirties towards the otherf i i 

So far as our[ attention is ^redlied towap;^! 
tJie ^irft ftandardf the wtfeft and heft of M 
^n, can, in his own chara&er^andcon^yi^i 
fee nothing biit weaknefs and imp^r^^ftiofn^i 
can difcoter no ground for arrogance imMl 
prefumption, but a great dial for ^utniUtf) 
regret, and ' repentarK:e. So far as ouri attend 
tion is direded towards the fecond^ fwe naajjft 
be affeiSlfid cither in the one way^or; in Jkha 

Se6t. tfi. «f Via ftrt* §^ 

other, and fed! ouffelv«, either really above^ 
tir really below, the ftandard tc^ which wc^ 
compare ourfelves. 

The wife in d virtuous man direds his 
pfriricipal attention to the firft ftandard; 
the idea. of exa^ propriety and perfefikioft. 
There exiftd in the mind of every man an 
idea 6f this kind gradually formed from his 
Gbfervations upoii the charader and conduct 
hoth of himfelf and of other people. It is 
thfe flow, gradual, and progreftive work of 
the great demi-god within the breaft, the 
great judge and arbiter of ccnduft. This 
idea is irt ever^ man more or lefs accurately 
drawn, its coloring is more or lefs juft, it* 
iiutlines are more or lefs exadlly defigned^ 
afec^l^ding to the delicacy and actitenefs of 
lh« fenfibility, with which thofe obferva^ 
tions were made, and according to the care 
ahd atteniion employed in making them. Ja 
drc wife and virtuous man they have been 
lAade with the moft atute and delicate fenfi*- 
bility, anid ihe utmbft care and attention have 
feeen employed in making them. Every day 
f^me fbature is improved/; every day ibme 
Wetnifh is correded. He has ftudied this 
fdea more than other people, he compre- 
hends it more diftindly, he has formed 'a 
tmch more corred image of it^ and is much 
13 more 

irf 0/ tie CnA^AcriR PkrtVt 

more deeply enamoured of its exquifite and 
divine beauty. He endeairours, a$ well as 
lie can» to afUmilate his own charadter to 
this archetype of perfedion. But he imi- 
tates the work of a divine artift, which can 
never be equalled. He feels the imperfed 
fuccefs of all his bed ehdeavours, and fees/ 
with grief and afflidion^ in how many dif- 
ferent features the mortal copy falls fliort of 
the immortal original. He remembers-, with 
concern and humiliation, how often, from 
want of attention, from want of judgment, 
from want of temper, he has, both in word^ 
and adions, both in condud and converfa*^ 
tion, violated the exad rules of perfed pro- 
priety; and has fo far departed from that 
model, according to which he wifhed to 
faihion his own charader and condud., 
When he direds his attention towards th^ . 
fecond ftandard, indeed, that degree of ex- 
cellence which his friends and acquaintances 
have commonly arrived at, he m*y be fen- 
fible of his own ruperiority. Butt a| his 
principal attention is always direded towards 
the firil ftandard, he is neceffarily much 
more humbled by the one comparifon than 
he ever can be elevated by the other. EEe is 
never fo elated as to look down with info- 
jfence even upon thofe who are really below 


him. He /(^els fo ^ell his own imperfbor 
lion, he knows fo well tht difficulty witU 
which he attainied his o^^yn diftant apprdxi^ 
matioti to ndlitude, that he cannot regard 
with cont,enipt the ftill greater imperfedtion 
pf other people. Far from infulting oveif 
th^ir inferiority, he views it with the moft 
indulgent comniiferationi and, by his advice 
^8 w^Uas ex^tnple, is at all times willing to 
prjomote their furthier advancement. If, in 
i|^y ^particular qualification, they happeil to 
^ft^perior tp him, (for who is fo perfJpdl as 
nc^t^^tp h^Ve n(iany luperiors in many difFer- 
cijj^ , qjnaJifications ?) far from envying theit 
iupf^ric^ity,. ^hp who knows how difficult |C 
If %^ ^?ff^li ^fteems and honours ti^eir excel- . 
lencc^ a^^d peyqr fails to beftow upori it the >, 
fu|l jneafure of applaufe whiph it d^ferve^* 
1^1^ whple njind, in (hprt, is deeply impreff- 
ed. hi^ whole behaviour and deportment are 
diftindlly damped with the ch^rai^er of real 
mod^ftyj ykli that of ^ very moderate efti- 
mation of 'his own merit, and, at the fame 
time, of /* full fenfe of the paerit of other 
people. .V 

*rn all the liberal and ingenious att^j ia 

painting, in poetry, in paufic, in eloquence, 

in philpfophy^ the great artift feels alwaya 

the real im^erfedion of his own beft wprks^ 

VOL. n, K and 

9nd is inore^fenfib^ tl^ ai^^ man J^ow^ 

pf wh^di he baS fo^mecl ^ome, conception 
wlhiidii ^5; imitates as W^ll aa lie caa^ %ii^ 
^Uch lie defpars of ever cguj^hg.,^ ' if; li 
^e infisjrip; a^ft qV^jt vrhoUj^yetip^ 
^dsfieil with hb own p^prmu^e%.,' ^£^ 
has little (^qaiQeptioa of dui id^ pci^^o^ 
about vrl^di' he has little e^plo^i^'d ; hlfi 
tjipyghtsj; and it is cl^cfly; to tl^ wibj^ljM 
^thfr artifts pf perhaps a ftiU %^<E^^g^^ 
i6»t V d^igV to ?05t»5art hfsjc^5j/|yM^ 
Bpil^W, tlifi grciat Frqadv J!9<iti iwj,ftgȤrf^ 
^ j^orjc^ perl^aps apV '"^9^'^% ^-^cflSPfe 
ejft jppetj pf the lipe ^in^* cit^pr a«i^ipii|o«f 
SliO^^), liM Wt %j, t^i i»p ^<:iti'^gVy 
jsyisi cp?pipl«^ely fa^sM ^i^^h^a pjan^ Vf^ 
jaiajWfJuaintance S^t^^^^^^ (» Vintgr ^c^^ 
jp^es^ and whOft qn accoynj^ of ,^aib&^ 
!j:^,"a^<:oipp|ii(hmeijt, h^d, ^ w^r^^^ 
fjinc^ jbi?Rjf?,lf a^ poet) ^ured hi^^vtha^^ 
hu»|^ vfjis ^yr»y» <5oippSlet(cl3r|Jl^'a^4,'i^ 
ibw PTO. , BpUef ii r^Ucda ^it!}», ©f?^^ 
an. arcK ?m^i;4t7, ti^ Hi^ll^M?^ 
the only gyeat pan that ever w^§ i^j^.,j|9^ 
lean, in jvidi^i^ c^ his. own Tsrarfo, i * 
par«d ^heot with t&f^.ftaada^d p| i.^;j^J>^ 
tion, wl^chi, in bis pwnpaiUci^^^^i^^ of 
the {)jQ^$ ai^ he! ip^ Ij p;]j^m^» 

A'r 1*65 

l^fgM^V^^tm p<jfctoi and t6c6lle$li 
fibtf ^F^l^ls'&iii/ experiertce; a 

im^'-'^t^tmm man iptitt^pport tSe f)Ja 
f&m a^Ur^ti coiOM in Keakh itd'Ytt 
fickiys; itiMckk and M difapiidtntmehtVU 
tli^4i^#iJ if2rtii&e"and 3rowfy'{ntlbferice, ^^ 
4;etf^aV^'fhaf bf^tSe inbtt^Waken 
iibn.' 'Tfee :k6ft Kuclden and^unexlie^c^ Ifli 
feiStr bif diflSculty arid' dlttrefs muft lieRrir 
iSI^ him:' the injuftice of other peo^fe 
''Wfer proVofee him to Irijiiftice. ' 1%^ 
•iftSene^- 6f 'fidiibn tniid ^^^er ^ cbrifoiirt^ 
tttf. « Am ilie' ' fiardfhipi^and 'Ira'zatds bf SllraSr 
ttl'oll^te'eWfci'^ahkartdi bf aii^ hk:^'^ 

xa tet 

I32 0/*/^^ Character. Part VL 

ter and condudt, dired by far the greater 
part of their attention to the fecond ftand-. 
ard, to that ordinary degree of excellence 
Ayhich is commonly attained by other people^ 
there are fome who really and juftly feel 
themfelves very much above it, and who, by 
every intelligent and impartial fpedatorj are; 
acknowledged to be fo. The attention of 
fuch perfons, however, being always prioci- 
pally direded, not to the ftandard of ideal,^ 
but to that of ordinary perfe<3:ion, they have^ 
little fenfe of their own weaknefles dncj im^ 
perfedionsj they have little modefty; ar6' 
often afluming, arrogant and prefumptuous > 
great admirers of themfelves, and great cdn-r 
temners of other people. Though thieir cha- 
rafters are in general much lefs cQrre<£l, md 
their merit much inferior to that of the man 
of real and modeft virtue j yet their excef-» 
five prefumption, founded upon their ovm 
excellive felf-admiration, dazzles the multi-' 
tude, and often impofes, even upon tbofc 
who are much fuperior to the multitude* 
The frequent, and often wonderful, fiiccefe 
of the moft ignorant quacks and impoftor^^ 
both civil and religious, fufficiently demon- 
ftrate how eafily the multitude are impofed 
upon by the moft extravagant and grou^il^- 
lefs preteafio^s. But whe& th(^e pret€iii»^ 


a. III. " g^VlRTt^K. ^ 133 

)ns are fupported by a very high degree of 
al and folid merit, when they are difplayed 
th all the fplendour which oftentation can 
ftow upon them, when they are fupported 
• high rank and great power, when they 
ve often been fuccefsfully exerted, and are, 
>on that account, attended by the loud ac^ 
imations of the multitude ; even the man 
fober judgment often abandons himfelf to 
e general admiration. The, very noife of 
ofe fooli(h acclamations often contributes 
confound his underftanding, and while he 
IS thofe great men only at a certain dif- 
fice, he is often difpofed to worfhip them 
Lth a fincere admiration, fuperior even to 
at with which they ajppear to worfhip 
emfelves. When there is no envy in the 
fe^ we all take pleafure in admiring, and 
e, upon that account naturally difpofed, ia 
ir own fancies, to render complete an^ per- 
il in every refpe£t the charaders, which, 
many refpeds, are fo very worthy of ad- 
iration. '^ The cxceffive felf-admiration of 
ofe great men is well underftood, perhaps, 
id even feen through, with fome degree of 
irifion, by thofe wife men who are much in 
eir familiarity, and who fecretly fmile at 
ofe lofiy pretenfions, which, by people at a 
fiance, arc often regarded with reverence, 
K 3 and 

-ff JVfifcUlJ f«9ftr4<?if)( fame, ^^4nipi&©««ftftye 
lp«p«tatie»} Afel9« w4riep«ta^!0fi, topi W^^S^j 
bsicvie oftflft! 4eic«n4Qd to t2»Aiir««>ii^ftvi>f3ft4' 
JfitJTiv J „:.:': .; c*::..-.;.'ii. ..t./ /ti'v ru -i -^ ^-.-iu 

^o4Jut%e.veE|cid[idQm.ibe9i\ «:qub)Mll#r|i^ 
iouilfpiot decree of thl$«au:(i31y«i^I&iidnp&h 

hth«!>jampesfgniii«*i:thfij(iaoft .iBjiMgu^jve- 


^ms^ Hays mway ,<sC thgnR h^m ^ Ja9y§:4if. 

i^fL degree. 9£p}KruiQptu>9^>i«nd3£s}fT»d^P[^ 
^ion »Uog^tht{ di%:op9rti!9»<d tfiy/^iiil(Pliihlifi 

ipWhap^, jRfceflk)!, not only tft profliplltbfiia 
iHn9»Wi:JlfVA?jtofi thpHght oft feWi^ <lftai- 

^ftftd:tfe«ii*»fett^fi5Qa , k»d .«l»dwGfi&x§f ji^i^ 

1h^l¥»^ this: 98ellittptio& has ofleA b^tnffed 

^em vm> k^toAtftlftx^^pidkched ahboft to 

i6fk%'^6<<Hbliy. Alexander th« Great aj^ 

jieic^S ift)V diily W liaV« Wtflied lh4t 6lher 

f^e'%45Utd tbiak faifia ia god, but to have 

been at leaf): very well dlfpofed to fancy h{tn» 

llitf' fttdl.^~ > Uf^a his death-bed, the moft 

tiftgb^^e^ ol lall fihiations, he reqtiefted df 

lli->li^«dsthat, to the refpeaable Mft of deil 

idWj^fmd v^Uch himielf had long befot« been 

'1li^it^,'his bid- tiiother Olympia might like. 

^ft^V^ tHe honour of being added. Amidft 

^hi^1^p«afut admiration of hi& follower^ and 

*dUbi^g«, ainidft the uiiiverial applaufi of the 

'|i«ibli^;^iifter thd oracle, which' probably had 

eflS^«)r^tlie voice of thkt applaufe, bad pro^ 

tan<*aJhim the wifeft of nien, the gfei* 

-f^tTdbfti of Socrates, thbdgh it did not fuffer 

Ul^td^Hdf himiblf a god, yet was not gredl 

^i^bugh~tOhlad(&ir him from fancying thiith^ 

*kl(d^retsuid^eciuent intimaidonsfrom fomb 

Hc(tifibl« aSAd divine Being. The found head 

^of'CWa;^ wa^ not fo perfeftly found as to 

Mtlfldfhtm: from being muth pleafad with 

^li!^^i«HJ^ genealo^ froni the goddefs Venus ; 

midl hkfbii the temple of this pt^e^ded 

^grkt^graadftibth'er,' tOj-«c^; without lifing 

^«l^« ieat; th^'UoiniQ S^nitdVwhen th(iit 

K4 illuf- 

13^ Of the Character Part VI. 

illuilrious body came to prefent him^^ith 
feme decrees conferring upon him the moft 
extravagant honours. This infolence, joined 
to fgrne other ads of an ^moft childifli va- 
nity, Uttle to be expeded from an under- 
ftanding at once fq very ?icute and compre- 
henfive, feems, by exafperatin^ the pyblic 
jealoufy, to have emboldened his afTaffins, 
and to have haftened the execution of their 
confpiracy. The religion and rnanners of 
Ttnodern times give our: great men Uttle en- 
couragement to fancy themfelves either gods 
or even prophets. Succefs, however, joined 
to great popular favour, has often fo far 
turned the lieads of the greateft of then^, as 
to make them afcribe to themfelves both an 
'importance and an ability much beyorid what 
they really poffefled ; and, by this prefump- 
tion, to precipitate themfelves into many rafh 
, and fometimes ruinous adventures. It is a- 
chara£tcriftic almoft peculiar to the great 
Duke of Marlborough, tha ten years of fuch 
uninterrupted and fuch fplendid fuccefe as 
fcarce any other general could boaft of^ riever 
betrayed him into a fingle rafh adion, Tcarce 
into a fmgle rafh word or expreffion. The 
fame temperate coolnefs and felf-command 
cannot, I think, be afcribed to any other 
' great warrior of later times j not to Prince 


Sea. III. -^Virtue. - 137 

Eugene, not to the late King of Pruffia, . not 
to the great Prince of Conde, not even to GuCr 
tavus Adolphus. Turrene feems to have ap^ 
proached the neareft to it ; but feveral differ-^ 
ent tranfadions of his life fuflSciently demon- 
ftrate that it was in him by no means fo per- 
fefl: as in the great Duke of Marlborough* 

In the humble projects of private life, aft 
well as in the ambitious and proud purfuits 
of high ftations, great abilities, and fuccefsfui 
enterprife, in the beginning, have frequently 
encouraged to undertakings which neceffarily 
led to bankruptcy and ruin in the end. 

The efteem and admiration which every 
impartial fpeflator conceives for the real 
merit of thofe fpirited, magnanimous, and 
high-minded perfons, as it is a juft and well- 
founded fentiment, fo it is a fteady and per- ' 
manent one, and altogether independent of 
their good or bad fortune. It is otherwife 
with that admiration which he is apt to con- 
ceive for their exceffive felf-eftimation and 
prefumption. While they are fuccefsfui, in- 
dee^, he is often pcrfeflly conquered and 
overborne by thorn. Succefs covers from his 
eyes, not only the great imprudence, but 
frequently the great injuftice of their enter- 
pfifes; and, far from blaming this defedive 
part of theif pharadter, he often views it 


^*^ O/t&g Cha%actik PkrtVt 

m46i thi inloft eirfhufiaftic adriil^atfen/ Wftfch 
1h^ Srt liiifottunaVe, hoxlreve^ iKlkg^ tA^H^e 
ihlBir ' colours ahd theif ^naitttS: ' WHart 
'#%s^t»efore heroic inagnanirifti'fy, reAiitxi^s its 
^tiDpefr appellation of extravagant raflyBcfj 
jB«d folly J and the blackncfs of th&t Jlvia% 
'and injuftlce, which wias before iiid und^r 
tfie fpkndour of profperity, comfes fall 'itito 
Viftw, and blots the whole luftre of their erii- 
tefprife. Had Caefar, inflead of gaining, kift 
|h« b&ttle ot Pharfalia» his character wotHa 
at^^thi^ hour, have ranked a little abbveth&t 
^ Catallnie, and the weakeft tnan would ha^ 
Viewed his entcrprife againft the lawi c*f h% 
<!6untry in blacker colours, than, petfi^fS^ 
"^n Catd, With all the aniihbfjtf ^^ p^rt;^ 
1fBat(,^Wr Viewed it s^ the fi&e. vHi^iredl 
dieKt, fh6 j^iftnds of his ta(le,^flieMfjmjilidiy 
%ti4 ^l^nce of his Writings, the propriety iJf 
Mis eloquence, his fkin in war, hl^ refoarci* 
^Iti'diftrefsi his ^ool and fedate jiii^ttienfe'th 
dinger; his 4itkful itt^chment 'tb hi^ fri^fail, 
^t^ ^taxmpkd generofitf to hiS -i^tetaiM, 
%c«il<i all hav<S! been acfcndwlidgiedi aft ^ 
*|^T riierit dJF Ca^fne^ Who ha'd^nlaify ^^?^ 
«^gjiliti4%,1s aefcnbwfedged 6t- this itfa'yl's Jfittt 
<^e ii^reiiite aAd4njfuftice'^ his^U^r^i^ 
^Sni^ifibh wo^rd Mfi^ idarkene^^ A%^^tih- 
^faiiiie<! the ^otyibp ^I^Aat riSal'ine^ft/ J *o». 
kUw . lune 

Jf fi«^8 alr,cf dy mentioned^; &m wflup^e 

accor/ding as ft^ h wb<er ^¥our»bliS ,01; ad^ 
•??fft», ?att JTfPder the (4ine,<hara4i<?r theotc 
j«^, .4ith.Qr 0f gioeral love and admirataoo, 
i%i9^ univerf^ hatred and icontenxp^ : This 
,£ii^t; diibid^r in Qur mora^ ientunenb i» bjr 
j^ tneans, however, without its utility ;«a4 
<w^ may on thi^, as well af on many o^hef 
^parionSk admire thewiCdom of Godevea 
jiA,thj6 weat^nef^ and foUy of man* Our a4- 
mlr&tJQjiofffuccef&M founded upon the to^ 
^jfiticiple /with- pur ^efped for . weeiUk' ««ul 
^gfe9itnf!fs,r,and jis : equally nepe0afy for i;^^ 
hUibmg rfie^dlftinaipaof ranlcs widths erd?r 
iel,foci«ty. By thU ftdminuion ©f feec^ we 
fi» jtf^wght ^ fubn>i6 mote ^my.iio, theft 
iuf^cio^, whpnif tb(fc^<Mnfe of human a$aii» 
^fty alJign to U8 ; to regard with reverence, 
j^jiqmetiinc* even with a (brt of x^fy^fk!^ 
(<^<S^io9i that fbrtunatf ;violeQce which mfe 
,*5fe,iiftlongpr capable pf refiftipgi, not only 
c^^ylole&ce of fuch.fplendid pbara^rs as 
j^^ ,Qf a Q«far or an A]e?cander, >u(i often 
ithit of the sftpft brutal and iayagebarban^^ns, 
^fj,^ V^*^* * Qengis, (ft A Tamcarlinfi. ^ Jo 

4111; Aich m^tjXiOv^w^ifm ?he:»Feat mpl^5^ 
4»jii]ikini iffe .9ftt«j3dJy difgof^ to lpo|c up 
« ., with 

140 O/'-Y^^ Character Part VI. 

with a wondering, though, no doubt, with 
a very weak and foolifh admiration. By this 
admiration, however, they are taught to ac- 
quiefcc with lefs reluftance under that go- 
vernment which an irrefiftible force impofes 
upon them, and from which no relu£tance 
could deliver them* 

Though in profperity, however, the man 
of exceflive felf-eftimation may fometimes 
appear to have fome advantage over the man 
of corre£t and modeft virtue ; though the ap- 
plaufe of the multitude, and of thofe who fee 
them both only at a diftance, is often much 
louder in favour of the one than it ever is in 
favour of the other ; yet, all things fairly 
computed, the real balance of advantage is, 
iperhaps in all cafes, greatly in favour of the 
latter and againft the former. The man who 
neither afcribes to himfelf, nor wiflies. that 
other people fhould afcribe to him, any other 
merit befides that which really belongs to 
him, fears no humiliation, dreads no detec- 
tion; but refts contented and fecure upon the 
genuine truth and folidity of his own cha- 
raaer. His admirers may neither be very 
numerous nor ^ery l6ud in their apj^uffes; 
but the wifeft man \*ho fees him the neareft 
and who knows him the beft, admires him 
the mofl. To a real wife man the judicious 


sea. IIL - of Virtuf; i4i 

and well-weighed approbation of arfingle wife 
man, gives more heartfelt fatisfaftion than all 
the noify applaufes of ten thoufand ignorant 
though enthiifiaftic admirers. He may fay 
with Parmenides, who upon reading a philo-^ 
fophical difcourfe before a public affembly at 
Athens, and . obferving, that, except Plato, 
the whole company had left him, continued, 
riotwithftdnding, to read on, and faid that 
Plato alone was audience fufficient for him. 

It is otherwife with the man of exceffive 
felf-eftimation. The wife men who fee hint 
the nfeareft, admire him the leaft. Amidft 
the intoxication of profperity, their fober and 
jnft efteem falls fo far fhort of the extra- 
vagance of his own felf-admiration, that he 
regards it as mere malignity and envy. He 
fufped:s his beft friends. Their company 
becomes ofTenfive to him. He' drives them 
from his prefence, and often rewards their 
ferviccs not only with ingratitude, but with 
cruelty and injuftice. ' He abandons his con- 
fidence to flatterers and traitors, who prfetend 
to idolize his vanity arid prefumption ; and 
that charader which iri-the beginning, though 
iti fome refpe£ls^ defedive, was, lipon thi 
whole both amiable and refpedlable,- becomes 
contemptible and odious in the end. Amidft 
the intoxication <of profperity, Alexander 


plt^ ^^ h\V faxUfitPhmp to Mi <tv9A i" '0 

tefufed to 4^re hiffi'iA ihii I^ifiia niaiidejr ^' 
^'ixiurdered the grbat £rien^' dflAi fkiHtrt 
(2ie ttefieTd>V Parinenk), aftev Kx^^; ^)^^ 
i3a» -noft groundlefs fufiHcicms,' (cbt- fitiS-ttf' 
thecditute, and iofterwards to thelcftfibliiiSiit 
odIj Kfluining fon of that old Mi^ tlii^r^ii^ 
having alt befote died ta hift owhi J^b^' 
Hm waa that Panneni6 of whom FhUip> «feif 
to iay» that the Athenian* vrttt r&:f f^ 
timate.^ho could find ten ^eoistih ieHStf 
year, iNdiile be himfelf, in the whole coutft 
of his life, could never find one but PAtU 
menio. . It was upon the ^^lance and att^n:^ 
.^<m of this Parmenio that he tepokA iiM 
tioiea with confidence and -fecuHt^^' knd, itt 
his'hours of mutb and jdlity, ufed to %j 
Let us drink, my friends, we may do it^w^' 
fitfety, for Pacmeuo never drinks.^ ' 1^ WMI 
this fame Parmenie«: wkh whdfe. ' i^ftii^ 
and counfiel, it had bQea &id;;d^l;!^tdii^ 
lud^ gained ^l his viaoriesf Mtd "ti^iit 
wht>{ft prefoiice and coiittfi^ HeHtialiEl' «^ 
gS)5ned a fingk via<Mry. - The"haihl^,'^&3i 
miringi and ^att^ng frlenBdi^VhdtiS^iAldei 
aader left in power and authority "^^lUfift 
Vek, divided his empire ftH^^Mig thistmfdves, 


kindred 9C their lnherUan(:e>,put one Ml^ 
axffOX^eiXi pinery fii^Je furviyiivg iodm4»l»l i^l 
l^^j?^;g^^^|ipi?.^ale or ffijwle,; to* ieath.y . 

rfi^i^\y.j^^(S i?|o and iytijijiailiiw v^itb- 1^ 
^(cej^tye (dif-eftitnatiph of thofe ^l«Qd.i4 
cjiarai^fi;^ which wfiobferyo a ^eat. as^d? 
4i^qgt}If})jed ; fiiperipfity a^ve; thj9 coiiinp^ 
If^l.qf iwidcin^.r W^ c«dl theirt fpjmtiBdst 
l^bjI^Qi^pi^ and hi^mlndsd ;r wocdf 
-Q^lv^^ iayofere jt^ th^ic ipWtting a CoixCtA 
^S?^erf|gg>^*<? P^PWi^and ]admimtoo< ftift 

th($9:?<<f^y#/pl£'«i(linia(ton; of thpfe ;chaJ:;a4# 
t^r45 W ,'v«,fei$l)t7we eaa dUcern nqv filch, diflinR 
gyifljed fcf>woritj^«. ;We aK^ difguildd «i)>dr 
|€fvplj(?d ^yiHii: JipdJr ift wj»i» fomft^dijEcwteyi 
^a;t w^ ,<ac^i, eUherpffd.o^lQr :i«fi»r, W W<< 
9ail, jt; prido^ pr v#»ity ; . two.wipijds^; rf wbi9.\i 
tdl|§. l^ter, id,way,3y, wd the; fiwtAer fqi^ ;thd 
woft -fMHtx4ny<^ve ia th«iR5j»fii«iing;4«tepaJ5l# 
d§^]i?;*djRgreQ0f W«Mi>ei: > :> . .\:. -- f -j^ 
j^^:Ji|^9j(e 5t«ip yica8,.hpiwevi^, jthpii^ghiflffearf 
bUng,.if>,ipo§f[ i56fp$^, &%-heisgilK»Ji p|«4W 
%^tip^ jfjf ' ;f :?c«$ve fMft$ft»Bft^fin,i; afc* /yw!^ 

144 (y//fe CHA?tAC!TElt tofCt'^ 

The proud man is (incere,ati4» i^ ^^^ Wl 
tpm; of his hearty is convinqed pf his own fu^ 
periority; though it may fpmctimcsv ibe ^tU 
ficult to guefs upon what that couv^dioa,i^ 
founded* He wiflies you to view him in np^^ 
other light than that in which, when, fed 
plapes himfelf in your fituation, he reaUj^ 
views himfelf. He demands no more^.jPf| 
you than what he thinks ju|lice. If ypjii 2qp-; 
pear not to refpeft him as he refp^a^ , l^f mr;^ 
felf, he is more offended than mprtifi^4|> jand^ 
feels the fame indignant refentment ac; if ,h€^t 
had fiiffered a real injury. He does,flu?l^^ 
even tlien, however, deign to e;ifplain t^hj^] 
pounds of his own pretenHons. He^dii^) 
dains to court your efteem. He affeds eye|3(?^ 
to defpife it, and endeavours to maintaia hin., 
affumed ftation, not fo much by making ypj^^ 
fenfible of his fuperiority, as of your owa:^ 
meannefs. He feems to wifli, not fo much i 
to excite your efteem for i&//^^ as to npor-i; 
tjfy that for yourfeif. ,^ 

The vain man is not fincere, and, ' In tht ^ 
bottom of his heart, is very leldotn cpn^ 
vinced of that fuperiority which he widie^ ^ 
you to afcribe to him. He wifhes you'tOt 
view him in much more fpleritfid cotojijps ^ 
than thofe in which, when he pl^es nimfeif ^ 

Sea.nt ^ViRT0i^ 145 

in your fituatioQ) and fuppofes you to know 
all that he knows, he can really view him- 
felf. When you appear to view him, there-* 
fore, in different colours, perhaps in his pro- 
per colours, he is much more mortified than 
ofieoded. The grounds of his claim to that 
charafter which he wiflies yoii to afcribe to 
him, he takes every opportunity of difplay- 
ing, both by the moft odentatious and unne-^ 
ceflkry exhibition of the . good qualities and 
aecamplifhments which he pofle0es in foitie 
tolerable degree, and fometimes even by falfe 
pretenfions to thofe which he eithet poffcfles 
in no degree, or in fo very (lender a degree 
that he may well enough be faid to poiSeffs 
them in no degree. Far from defpifing yout 
efteem, he courts it with the moft anxious 
afiiduity. Far from wifhing to mortify your 
ielf-eftimation, he is happy to cheriih it, in 
hopes that in return you will cherifli his own. 
He flatters in order to be flattered. He flu- 
dies to pleafe, and endeavours to bribe you 
info a good opinion of him by politeneis and 
eomplaifance, and fometimes even by real 
aad eflential good offices, though often dif- 
played, perhaps, with unnecefTary oftentation. 

The vain man fees the refpe^ which it 
j^d to rank and fortune, and wifhes tp 

VOL. XI. L ufurp 

U6 Of the Oh A bi a c t e r Mrtf^t 

itftttpuhw ^ rcfpf^d/ as welt ^g-that^ fer nialenta 
and virtues. ' His drefs,^ his • t^aipige, irfl 
way df Kvingi atcordinglyi all ann^^uinceibbth 
a higher rank and a griat^t fottiriafe^thati 
jieklly belongs to him; and^ iti crdcl: t6' fftft*- 
pbti thl^ foolifli impofitidn for a fcW' Ip4ar3 
hi the beginning of his life, he often reducel 
himfdf to poverty and diftreft 'lott^?%^<»e 
thi end bf it. As fong as he'cfan ^coiieinfl^ 
Ms cxpence, however^ his vanity is tifcli^SasJ 
with^ viewing himfelf, not in the ' lightn ik 
v^rhiteh you would view him if yoii lotew>ii4J 
that he knows; but in thatc ifk ) wtok^jnlife 
imagihes, he had, by his own^idddnrfsi siit 
tJacdd yt)U adually to^ vieW hlin. ^ ^ > ©f jail ;^hc 
illufions of vanity this is, perhaps, ih^cmck^ 
conimon. Obfcure ftrajagerai wih^^yifitTfo- 
S^g^ cou ntries, or who, . from: a, i rMrtcttb 
|irovince, came to viiit, for aifhoa* tilile,btte 
capital of thpr own country^ mbft,' fifeqaentiy 
attempt to praaife it. :ThejfoUyjQfi(ibe>afcr 
tempt^ though J always very/ greab ^ladqmofl: 
uiaworthy of a man of fenfe^m^qiototjate 
altogether £b great upon fiidv ffi.iip^aib n^ 
other bccafiona* If their i3;ay>i9^ ffaiftrt^jtHaiy 
4aiy ^dicape any difgracefuL » detec^iod ff ja6d» 
ifter^imlulging their vanity f€»r aiibrr ootdniis 
W a few y?ars| lUhey - mayorditiai Ito xhsk 

Ibe ^w^%i«]^-thewr paft , profuflon. , -t v b n t 
;{;oTbe)rpQcm4 tftaji caa wry feldomtbcr^c* 
jc»fed p^j.^te f4>Wyr HU fcnfe of his own 
4^glii5y r^gkjier* hiro careful to prefe^ve. his 
iftdqpe^^tiwryii and, vvhen his foiftune- hapr 
p5iMi)JW>t|^fee^) large, though he wishes, tp feie 
^^i3^0?^,,h^,iftadies to be frugal ^nd atajcin^yc 
lBnftUoM?i.«xpBnces. Th? pftentatious fj^r 
}^ffmj^[iA tfh^ivain man is, highly offenfiye ,M) 
Aamd-Jt lOutfliines, perhaps, hi/S own* It 
^ovi^s^his indignation as an infolent a£- 
fdn){kti0iti/ of a rank which is by no mea^s 
diie jaiand! henjever talks of it without lostd- 
ddgllk Mth 'the harfheft and fevereft -cir 
i^€aLc\ii&%. t ' ^ V . ■ •■ ^ . .- V , t,.ij :• 

-oiThtevpiQiid man doe? not always feeLbiob- 
^fxG^hk eaie in the company of . his equals^ 
5ttfid f Aill) Ifefefiin, that of his fupcriocsx v Hp 
^nnopskyt i down - his lofiy prctcofiods^ 1 48d 
•tjbe^/toiinteiiance and .coaverfiitfon ©fifiich 
i^Offlpi»vy overawe him ibviiauchiithflt hi^Tdare 
^ti^pla^i them. He ha& recdur^i tocbii3B&«- 
%l^ oomipcaay, &r whiph he has litde be^exll^ 
^Hlclxt^h^i wotdd not willingly; chufe, J and 
^VlAch tsjtfy^^ndmeiiisi.agiitea^^tod^at^^^ vthftl; 
^ihn infemors; hiahikt^eird:^(ia;^bdepiw1lT 
laails. J Hrifddoip yifuts/lhis fupcriw^i tr,i if 
?'he does, it is rather to ibow that he is en- 
L 2 titled 

• 148 (y/A^ GftARAiTER Art VI. 

thVdSid lite in fuch toxnpinf.'ihiii'fdT atiy 
f eal fatisfaaion tfeat he tnjoys th it^ It iS^a^ 
iLbtd Clafefidoii fays 6f the fei^ oF^Afiiniia, 

■"i?hit he fobieHmefe ^eAt ta courf,^l>ecaufe lie 
could there drily find a greater riiati 'than 
Mmfdf ; but that he wenf Vetjr fcld<rtfi, 
fcicaufe hd fouhd therd a! g^eatcf inan than 
inmm. -•■ -'^ ' ^^- -'^ ^-^ 

It is ^(litd otherwise v^ith thfrvatnriidL 
Me- cbiirti i%6 com|iariy of his fb'pe^idrS ^as 
fiibcSh as thci proud man fiiuns it. Their 
rplcndour, he fe^ms'to think, teHeds aTj^len- 
flbiit^'iipion thofe who are much about them. 

^He haunts the courts of kings arid tlie levies 
of liriitiifltrs, arid gires ' himfclf the air of 

'being ii eandtdate for fortune and prefcrili6rit, 

"fl^fk^n'lh teality he poffefles the iriuch riidre 
j^iftcidtiS happiheft, if he knew how to ^hJ6y 

^ft, of ^ot being bne. He is^fdnd of bddg 
id^itted to the tables of the great, arid ftiU 
:fti6te fond of iriagriifying to other p^oplfe the 

fittiiliairity *vith which he i4 hbnoured^Hett. 

^e aflbciates hirfifelf, as much as h^' bifi^, 

• ^ith rafWbriaWe pSoplfe, vrlih thdfe wittaPSfi 
iiipptifed to dire<a the public opiniori, Wffh 

*the Vitty, tHth the learned, ^frith the ^6(p4. 

^lar-^atta he ffiuris;the coinjiariy of-hi§''b^ 

^Fr^as^'WhenetM the raj uncertaift- cfliWftt 

€^^, jp. , - y ;Vi ?.T u 5i P j[49 

,^. p^Ucrfaypjfi: .h^p^p^ tarun iq. ai^y if- 

jfpj^a^, ag^inl^ lUexu. . W^ the 'tpeople to 

jT^pi, h^., TVJI^es tto rccopjipei^d Jb^mfelfi-, he 

',^ 4^9t ,^I^a,y{^ Yery ^elfcat? abpi^t;^ 

,>5it|iich,l^ employs for that purpofe ; unnecejP- 

jM;)5,^?ioi^,£r,oundle^ pres^oiioi^s, ,0^- 

^^^t^^^^tjqn, fequently fl^tery, tlipugji 

for the mod part a pleafaot and iprightly 

g^ehji, av4~ very feldom the groft andiful- 

•ifoBEi^tflauery of a paraiite. The proiud mv^t 

,g^ |the coQitrary, nevei: flatterSj a^d f^.ijK' 

,/j|^ei>Uy /farce civil to aaybo|dy. vt^:rr> 

r,, jlJ^of^ithftaQdifig.aU it$^tef^^ 

^(^i^, .y^pweyer, vaftity is aluaoft 4??aj5J|^:«^ 

^S^Ny awd^gay, and very oftc^^-.go94. 

ifiJ^tt^'f^^ffifln.,, Pride U al^^ay«Agr^»|^,ia 

,4«|}ei\{ jftftd t^^feywije .one^ ,H;yett ;^,^^^- 

y^P^»,pC*bj^ jKainrinaai arc all Xnp^qef^;Jf§14lp' 

.^^s^o^^^^t j;o r^ ife bioafelf, nolt po ,4o3«^ 

^fl^fpeqpfc. ^,Tp do tl^e prpud.^nafx^t^l^, 

^f .^eiipy.jCeWqipi ftpops to the .bafenieAof Jfelfe-' 

J^9^4 "^Vfeeo he 4oes, howewr, his f^fe- 

J^pd^ja^e hy ap weans fp inaocpjat. They 

^jiljre ,#l;»ni^chievpu3, andmea^t.l^ Ipwer Pther 

sfflRW.^o i 'He is fujl ,of iadjgaaiion At the uiv- 

jj^,]jiippriQri^y, ashp^infcs if, which is giKen 

j)^'|tljffi.v JJe^iftw<,tl\enx;with mAlig»ity ao^ 

>< L s vours. 

156 Of the Chara'cter py/t^: 

VQU^rs, as much aa he can. ib exteridate ariiP 
leflen whatever arc the' grounds 'lipo^ Wmcit" 
their fupcriorlty IS Tuppofed '^b^he^oilhd^ifv 
•\^hatever tales 'are circutktf^d^ t^^'^eir ^IfeJjii 
vantaee^^ though he feldoih fbfges thefm hihi-^' 
lel^'yet he often takes^ plea^t^'lt^ bellevJii^^ 
them, is by no means ilnwllllhg^ tfo repeif 
them^ and even fometimes with'ibme dfegtldi' 
of exaggeration. The worft falfehddds ' 6^ 
vanity are all what we call whiterli^s :' YhbfeiSB 
pridei whenever it condefcends to' fsdr^lioic^J,^ 
aire all of the oppofite complexiotil* ' ^^ ^^^^^^^ 
' Our diflike to pride and vanity g^tieriiir^ 
difpofes us to rank the perfons whom i^tf 
accufe of thofe vices rather beliw tlikri 
apove the common level. In this judgm^rit 
however, I think, we are moft frequently 
in the wrong, and that both the proud ahd 
the vain man are often (perhaps for the nioft 
part) a good deal above it ; though not near 
fo much as either the one really thinks him- 
felf, or as the other wiflies you to thitik him. 
If we. compare them with their own preten- 
fiohs,' they may appear the juft objeQs of 
contempt. But when we compare them witH 
wfiat tlie greater pairt of their rivals and cbm- 
peti tors really arc, they may appear quite 
Other wife, add very much above the com^ 


n^p^ leyciU.. Where there is this real fupe- 
rioriljy, ^^fiae is frequently attenided wit:n^ 
xi^ajr^irefp^ftab^e virtues^ with truth, wltbj' 
integirj^^tyf ;^itli>a high fenfe of honour, witlj' 
co^^al^^f^4 ilt^^dy irienclfhip, with the moft 
ii;iflf^|l^li^- ^^nipefs ^nd refplution. Vanity/ 
\yjt)bj3P^^9y.^rpi4ble ones j , with humanity, 
\^ijt^4^1jten[^fs,.,A^ith^ de^ to oblige in al| 
l^l€^K|a5^!|tc!Tgt at:fd . foniLetimes with a re^l 
agi^J(ity Ip^fgrpat ones; a generofity, How-' 
c]^, .i^^t^iplv jt ofpen wiChea, , to difpls^y in the 
moflt fplendj^ jCpJpurs th^t it can. By |their^ 
Xjy^^^^^n^mi^s, the Fr^ in the^^li: 

<^;jjtu^y^. !fi^ei;e jsfccufed of vanity ; tlie op^- 
i)^r/[^?,..Qf, pride;; and foreign nations were 
^jipofed to, cx^ the one as the more 

g^ji^i^ble ; thp other, as the more refpedable^ 

/| T^^he WQrdsjyj//? and vanity zxt never takea 
in 4 gpod, fenfe. Wje fpmetimes fay of a^ 
man,^ wnen >ye are talking of him in good--* 
humour^ that he is the better for, his vanity, 
or t|i%^ his vanity is more diverting than of^ 
^nfiye J ,but we ftill confider it as a foible 
and a ridicule in his charadter. 

The words proud and pride^ on the con- 

trary^ are lometimes taken in a good lenle. 

We^^^^fr^^ man, that hf is toQ| 

LA ' proiid. 

15a (y/^^ Character Part-?!/ 

]^rt>utf, or thkt he has tbb much" noble pride, 
ever to fuffeir himfelf to do a mean thing* 
Pride is, in this cafe, confounded with mag* 
nanimity. Ariftotle, a philofopher who cer- 
tainly knew the world, in drawing the cha- 
tafter df the magnanimous man, paiiits him 
with many features which, in the two laft 
centuries, were commonly afcribed to the 
Spanifti charadef : that he was deliberate in 
ail his refolutions ; flow, and even tardy, iti 
all his actions: that his voice was grave, his 
ipeech deliberate, his ftep and motion flow; 
that he appeated indolent and^ even flothfof, 
fiot at all difpbfed to buftle about little mat- 
ters; "but to a€t with the moft det^mined and 
vigorous refolutioh upon all great aiid iliiliC^ 
ttlbm otcafiohs ; that he was not a lt>ve?r of 
danger, or forward to exjiofe himfelf to littife 
danger^, but to great dangers ; and that, when 
^e expolfed himfelf to datiger, he, was altogc^ 
'ther regardlefs of his life. 
' The proud man is commonly too well co»* 
^tented with himfelf to think that his dia»ao- 
'fer requires any amendment. The man who 
ifeeli himfelf all-perfedl, naturally enough <!«•• 
1ff)ifes dl further iriiprovement. His fetf-fuf- 
'ficieiky and abfurd conteit of hife own fuperio^ 

IfVtf Icbttinronly a$tend him frottl hi* youth t0 

ob :-u . ■:. ■ u .^^ . . ' his 

^f^ ^Llfpt§,!^i^h^h ,^re the, natural ^ndprqpcii 

glfjci^f qf e^fteen* and admiration, is the rea( 

lpv^^<)jf .tr^e ^pry ; a paflion which, if not 

l^e yery beft paffion pf human pature^i is p^r- 

j?i^iilypae .pf the heft* Vanity is very fi;e- 

qjj^ly, ftp more than an attempt preip^n 

,!m?^y to^(^^^P "^^^ glory before it j,s dn^^ 

j|[Jl^pugh yowr fpn, under fiv^andrtweiibtjr 

gr^rs of ^ge, fhpuld be but a cpxcomb ; 4? 

npt^ upon that accoui^t^ de4>,air of his be- 

^^m^ing, bcfpre he is forty, a very wife SLn4 

.wprthy m^n^ and a real proficient in all thofe 

talents and virtues to which^ at prefenJt, he 

may only be an oftentatious sind empty prer 

tender. The great fccret of jpdupation is $o 

^ireft vjinity to proper xAje/fts. Never XufFer 

h^iplfo value himfelf iy)Oja trivial aecom^Iifl;\- 

.pj^t3. But do npt always difcourag^Q his 

piretenfion^ to thofe that are pf reial iqipprV? 

9krxc9p He would not pretend to thqq^i jf J^ 

did not ^arnpftly defire to poflefs . th^» 

tSdOOHi^gg this defire 5 afford ihm i^^f^vy, 

^i»eans to fadUt9Jte the acquifition; and do 


t^4 Of tie Chaiibl AonczK BittMi 

noritdoe poQmnok pff^fteei afUh^^ghb? fttpi^jlj 

7 Stii^b^ I fey^ rmQ the vdiftjii;»guiflu?ig ql^aj^afjfj 
ter^ftiod, of pride ; and vastly;, iwh^a, e^jcj^^f^ 
them a(5l$ aqcprding to its, proper, <:b^ra^i^^n 
Bjut the 1 proud * man is often vain ;f, ?md , .^Ij^^ 
nain man is often; proud. .Nothing can,%j 
ihiore patural than that the man, iwhpithiij^^f 
HjiUiih more, highly of himfelf^ thap he dj?f^ 
ferivtes, ihould wifh that other^ people ihq}44 
thihfcfliU more ,highly of him: or that th?. 
mzii^i^ iwrhp wilbes that other people fhoiiJld 
think more highly of him than he thinlcs ofr 
himfetf^ (hOuld, at the fame time, think much 
ibore highly of himfelf thaiji he deferyes*^ 
IJhofeitwa rices being frequently blended ia 
tile famecbaraiSker, the charaiaeriftics of botk 
areineteflariljr confounded; and wq fprncK 
times vfidd the fuperficial and imper|tiaen|^ 
oftentatipn of vanity joined to the moll naa- 
Bgnant and derifive infolence of pride. Wfi^ 
are ibmetimes^ tipon that account, at a lofs^ 
how to ramk a particular charader, or whe*^ 
tiicr tp-jplaceit oanioag the proud or among 
liiBlvainii'f^>h!r-^ b^, ,| 

'^ r^cnf of ' merit i cpnfiderably above th^ 
cofaimoft)level, ffotaetimes under-fate as w^U 
as! :>o^er^ftte , !tb,emfdiri§. > Such charaa?^^?^ 
.^lOi^b- 7 though 

ScS. Ill » ^ Vr R T U 1B« 1:55 

ihbUgh not veiy dignified, are crfiWf, iii^ pri^ 
Vate fotiety, ^ far from l?eing difiigfeeab}e.i 
His companions all feel th^mfelves muchciat 
their ea(e in the fociety of a man fo perfe<Sl7 
modeft and unafluming. If thofe cottipai^ 
niohs, however, have not both more difcem^ 
ment and more generofity than ordinary^ 
though they niay have fome kindnefs for 
him, they have feldom much refpefi: ; and 
the warmth of their kindnefs is very feldom 
ftifEcient to compenfate the coldnefs of their 
refpe<9:. Men of no more than ordinary diC^ 
cernment never rate any perfon higher than 
Ke appears to rate himfelf. He feems doUbtii 
ful himfelf, they fay, whether he is peffedlf 
fit for fuch a fituation or fuch an office j and 
immediately give the preference to fome im* 
piident blockhead who entertains no doubt 
about his own qualifications. Though they 
fhobld have difcernment, yet, if they want 
generofity, they never fail to take advantage 
of his fimplicity, and to affume over him aa 
impertinent fuperiority v^hich they are by no 
ftieahs entitled to. His good-nature mayf 
enable him to bearthis for fome time; but 
he grows weary at laft, and frequently wheti 
it is too late, and when that rank, which he 
buglit to hiave aflumed, is loft irrecoverably, 
and ufurped, in confeqUence of his own back* 


JS^ 0/tbe Pfj^AVLACTEK ^Fpy£^" 

though much^ ^fs* .ni)erit9ripi:|S fcqpip^^ 

very fortunate. i|x the earjiy, qj^o^ge pC ^ 
CQiiiJ)ani<)ns, if, in goin^ thro\^gl)f|hf;,^^ 
he rHJeets, always with fair ji|fticie^ j?v^n ^4f{fp 
thofe whom, from his own. pattiklnd^e^^^^^ 
might haye fpme reafop to eQq{ide^^^|ip.,^ff 
bef|: friends; and .a youth^ tpp .un2^(^^f^|^ 
aipd top unambitious, is fre(juen|}y^ ^^jn^^ 
by an infignificant, compjaiuing, ||i^4i]^gf^ 
i^f ttd old ^s^.\ \U .bMy. omi 

Thdfe unfortunate p^rfop?* jj^hpfp^ ^ffip 
has forrped a good deal .belo^^J^ Gp^rq^j^gn 
lev^I^jfeeih fometimes tp .r^|;c^.J;hifnp^I|5^ 

This liumility appears fometimes^ tp^ fiak 
tfeeia ijiito idiotifm. Wljipev^^^ l^fiL$ ^^t^T^^ 
Ittie ^rouble to exan[iine idioj^ witjf}., ^;^^^^^^ 
• wilj find th^ pf thfiiij^^il^f^^fg 

brthe ifnderftandin^ are by ijonjiea,!^ ^^^^fif 
kl^an in leyeral oth^r jpeoyle, ^hp; ^9i^fgfe 
acknowledged tp be duU.aqd ftupf^f .^mta^^ 
by any^bo^^^ ^ccpuntipd iclipts. ,|i^ny;jLfyp^ 
yith no njpre tha^ prd^Qa^^^ 

ldiot§, Aptwithftaodip^ ;^^ 


" ; " ^ Vanced 

V^hce'tf ' age, ' ttiey' hav^ had fpirit enbitgli' ta 

attempt to kaftt what their early ecf udatlbii 

Kad ndt^taught them; haVe hever been able 

i}a acquire in any tolerable degree, anyone 

df thbfd three acdompliftiments. By ab tn- 

ttihifl of pride, however, they fet themlelves 

upon a letei ^ith their equals in age and 

fituation; and, with courage and firmneft, 

miihtaih thdr proper ftation among their 

iibiiifia[tiiohs. By an oppofite inftind:, ttie 

Wte^ 'i&eli hiiiiiTelf below every company 

into which you can introduce him. .111^ 

life^; to' Which he IS extremely liabte, '^s caj- 

jiatflfe^ 8f t*(fowirig him into the mofli viofen^ 

filife tif ra^^ ih'd fury. But no good ufag^ 

i|6^ kiiidriefs^ of indulgence, can ever raife 

h%x tb^ cohverfe with you as your equal. 

Sf you can bring him to converfe with you at 

^11,^'libwevier, you wull frequently find hia 

4%ifwers fuflicieritly pertinent, And even fen- 

fMh^ " But they are always ftamped with a 

fltttlAa: cbnfcibufneft of his own great infe- 

rlbtity. *H6 feems to fhtinlfc and, as it were^ 

to teriit from your look knd tbnverlatioh j 

iM^tttfeiel, when he jilace^ himfelf in ypiir 

^fitudtfort, that, faotwithftandiri^ your appa- 

rcftt corilleiceiifion, you canpot heFp' cbnfi-- 

i^ilig hi\has immenfely bfelow'you.' Slome 

«iS>tS5;^][Jfeiam)pS ih^^ jpartj^feemio be to^ 

\ "' chiefly 

^58 Of the GHar AOTE r Pktt:W; 

ehiefiy iM altogether i from a certalnr uiqln^ 
nefe orii tarpidity in the feduMes- afi tHe 
lunderftanding. Bw* thpre 'arc^ QtiDccB^ium 
whom thofe faculties do no t^i appear cmoa^ 
torpid or benumbed than in^ maity^^cDC^ 
ptople who are not accouftte^ idiotfe*^^ ^Bfirt 
that infttn<a of pride, neceffaiT?^ to^iflipjicwrt 
ihbm upon an equality with their >• bretbrwi; 
fbehiB totally wanting in thie former aad oot 
Jtl tShe latter. • - ^ i*-. ,;./!iirioD 

That degree of felf-eftimatipiii {therirfbr4 
tvhich contributes moft tQ the ha5pf)Siid6 
and coti t entment of the perfoiy u hiitafei^, 
feems likewife moft agteeablci JM/ tfe^snimi. 
partial fpedatcr. The mati'^whb^i^fljefems 
hiirifelf as he ought, aIld-n€|^^ore thafliift 
cfught, feldom fails to obtain frb^m^^lbeFpfetJi 
pie all the efteem that he himfetf thitifes^Iae; 
He defires no more than is due^td liilrj^ kild 
he r^lte upon it with compkte IkfisfiaiiMi* • 
^ The proud and the vain itoa»>^0ii4he^coit- 
trary, are cotiftantly diflkisfied^ ^ Tipi^^otipofe 
tormented with indigriktioti a« thCMunjtiAqto. 
iperiority, as he thinks it,^ Of 'Ot4ieripre0ple. 
The other is in o^iitinual dread^^teftthttrfl^^ 
which,' he fortfees, w^uld 4t©gr^i^d]|^i^ilHfc 
dete£Won bf his groundlris.pretehri^.ifrifi3\tek 
the tfkttavagant preteiifibii^ ^^kl»&i mfewlicf 
ifeil magnaiiimityi thci^^h, ^hefa -^lia^pllHlsJ 
v^ by 

b^nfplrmikliabiUtieB J and ^itl^es^h and, yoflbfovfo 
aH; hy^ gea)di£x^umii they ^^nlpqfe))upoa ^q 
mul(ki»de^ Whofe^apjplanfe^ he^.j^htbiirflgatda^^ 
Ai3iK)tjiiiaqpofey.upoii> thofe wifeimfen mh^fk 
af^atob^tioni htf can. ioalyjiraJue^ laud tel^ofe 
dfteieiixicifii tooft ano^iqu^. tp acquirei) jJi^ 
Jtc^jthatDtrh^ife^ thrQugh, afed fuip^iStiS tbAJ 
|lwyiddj[)ifi3jbiSijexx)effiv.^ prefumpti^ lamA 
teiofiea Xuffeiri the cryd misfortuix^Qfife^ 
coming, firft the jealous and fecrqt, aqdr flf 
Jaibltherfappi^ r furious, and; vindidive ert^toy 
Mrtliqfei vfiry perfons^ whofe ikieodfliil^ it 
^^fQirfdihave^givfn him the greateft happi%?6i 
tcrien^^ wrth )Unfufpiciou^ fecurity, .. . • r . t 
8fnTJiQugb[Qur diflike to the prpud^ ^aqd i^he 
SAin^jtifte* difpofe^ us ^to rank th^pi ^ r^t^i.^ 
te^qw.tb^i. above their prpper R^^^klJ^h 
jtjokfei.wii tare provoked by foia^ pfifrii?uJ[?^| 
JbHid ,p€fcfoaiil impertinence^ we : v^ry f^dgfi 
ve»to«»iIQ ufe them ill. . In cQrnmpft,c*f§a 
JWOD^tteavqurfor owr ownieaf^r^tlij^c to 
acqiiie&e^ and^ as well as w^qan, tOiac(^g^T 
4iik><fttfpiOur£blvi^s to their folly4 .Butj^tp^jtil^^^ 
jriip:i!:)Tf hi:»i4jjidcr^rates.bimfelft, unlefs yfis^i];^^q 
te)difto(*eidifcernment and more g^n^gfity 
4hat^^lpi%;tpib6iigr^atpr|)^rt of ,pe^ 

terb«fci Imldo^ ts). Mwfetf^ ai;^4 i^^^equ^ijtly^i 
7d . bappy 

l6o Of the Chahacter ftirtVl^ . . 

\i2^j in his own feelings tlum either the 
proud or the vain, but he is much more liable 
to every fort of ill-ufage from other people. 
In almofi: all cafes, it is better to be a little 
too proud, than in any refped, too humble; 
and, in the fentiment of felf-eftimation, fome 
dcgre6 of excefs feems, both to the perfon him- 
felf and to the impartial fpe£tator, to be left 
difagreeablc than any degree of defeft. 

In this, therefore, as well as in every other 
emotion, pafiion, and habit, the degree that 
is mod agreeable to the impartial fpe^ator is 
fikewife moft agreeable to the perfon himfelf ; 
and according as either the ejccefs ot the de« 
fefl: is leaft ofFenfive to the former, fo, either 
&e one or the other is in proportion leaft £^ 
njpreeable to the latter. 

'^eft?lli yWiR^u«v ' ' Ifi 


t.-L 1 --.^^vu ^. 

-. ;■. '^v..- ■ . . r . ^^ ,,>; -^ 

.M ii .-M*) /^ >,ri'^ •■,: 

y ^ ;:... -..■ '..; 'fw. ■: -;■ S.-;-- ' 

'ki- r 

-- ;'| r;:? -Vl ^. - ^ ■ 

/■ :^ ■ . ... ::-.;.? .v- /, 


^/i&f Sixth Part. ^ 

^^bKCE««N icHT^ our own happincfs tecpGii^ 
t.^V^ttietids to u$ the virtue df pmdedci^r: 
concern for tibat of. other peopki the^iituM 
^tif "jtaiiice and btnbficetice j of whicfav the ou% 
^Vikrdki^m from hnrtitigf the other, promfrts 
liid to piooiotti that bappinefs. Indep^ndedit 
iH^^msf- regard either to what affe, or to what 
^ght tO'bi, or to what upon a oeMMHn caoj»^ 
^ftidniWonld be^ the fehtiments of other peo- 
ple/ 1^ firftiofthofe three virtues as orS^ 
nally recommended toua by our felfi(hy ^ 
other two by our benevolent afFedions. Re- 
gard to the femiments of other people^ how- 
" ever, comes afterwatdd both to enforce and to 
dire£t the pradice of all thofe virtues ; and 
no man, during either the whole courfe of 
his life, or that of any confiderable part of it, 
ever trod fteadily and uniformly in the paths 
of prudence, of juftice, or of proper bene- 
ficence, whofe conduiQ: was not principally 
direded by a regard to the fentiments of the 
fuppofed impartial fpeds^or^ of the great in- 
itaate of the fareaft^ the great judge and arbiter 
tot. II* M of 

iCi Of the Character Part VI. 

of dondudt. If in the courfe of the day we 
have fwerved in any refpe£t from the rules 
which he prefcribes to us ; if we have either 
exceeded or relaxed in our frugality ; if we 
have either exceeded or relaxed in our induf^ 
try ; if, through paflion or inadvertency, we 
have hurt in any refped the intereft or 
happinefs of our neighbour; if we have 
neglected a plain and proper opportunity of 
promoting that intereft and happinefs ; it is 
this inmate who, in the evening, calls us to 
an account for all thofe omifiions and viola* 
tions, and his reproaches often make us 
bluih inwardly both for pur folly and inat- 
tention to our ovtn happinefs, and for our 
dill greater indifference and inattention, per- 
haps, to that of other people. 

But though the virtues of prudence, juf-^ 
tice, and beneficence, may, upon different oc- 
cafions, be recommended to us almofl equally 
by two different principles} thofe of felf- 
command are, upon mofl occafions, princi- 
pally and almofl entirely recommended lo us 
by one ; by the fenfe of propriety, by regard 
to the fentiments of the fuppofed impartial 
fpedlator. Without the reftraint which this 
principle impofes, every paflion would, upon 
moft occafions, riifh headlong, if I may fay 
fo, to its own gratification. Anger would 


Sea. IIL cfViRTXjE. 163 

follow the fuggeflions of its own fury j fear 
thofe of its own violent agitations. Regard 
to no time or place wouM induce vanity to 
refrain from the loudeft and mod impertinent 
oftentation ; or voluptuoufnefs from the mod 
open, indecent, an4 fcandalous indulgence* 
Refpedk for what are, or for what ought to 
be, or for what upon a certain condition 
would be, the fentiments of other people, is 
the fole principle which, upon mod occa- 
fions, overawes all thofe mutinous and tur« 
bulent paffions into that tone and temper 
which the impartial fpe<3ator can enter into 
and fympathize with. 

Ujpon fome occafioiis,- indeed, thofe pat* 
fions are reftrained, not fo much by a fenfe 
of their impropriety, as by prudential con- 
iiderations of the bad confequences which 
might follow from their indulgence. In 
fuch cafes, the paffions, though reftrained, 
are not always fubdued, but often remain 
lurking in the bread with all their original 
fury. The man whofe anger is reftrained 
by fear, does not always lay afide his anger, 
but only referves its gratification for a more 
fafe opportunity. But the man who, in 
relating to foaie other perfon the injury 
which has been done to him, feels at once 
the fury of his paflion cooled and becalmed 
^- M 2 by 

1^4 Of thi CtiAtLAOri,Vi PartVfr 

by fyfflpatby ^ith the more moderate 
fentiments^ of his companion, who at once 
adopts thofe more moderate ftritimetiti, and 
domes to view that injury, not in the black 
^nd sltrodidUd colour^ in which be had otw 
ginally beheld it, but m the much milder 
And fairei^ ligl^t, iti which his companioil 
fiaturally view^ it j not only reftfains, but 
In fome meafure fubdue«, his aftger. The 
pafiion becon^s really lefs than it was before^ 
aiid lefs capable of exciting bira to the vio*^ 
ierit and bloody revenge which at firft^ 
perhaps, be niight have thought of m* 

Thofe paffion^ which arc refttamed by 
the fenfe of propriety, are all in fome dc-^ 
gree moderated and fubdued by it* But 
thofe which are reftrained only by pruden^ 
tial confiderations of any kind^ are, ao^ the 
contrary, frequently inflamed by the re-^ 
ftraint, and fometimes (lorig after the pro- 
vocation given, and when nobody is thiiik<« 
ing about it) burft out abfurdly and uttex-^ 
pededly, and with tenfold fury and vio* 

Anger, however, as well as every other 
paffion, may, upon marty occaJiom^ be 
very properly reftrained by prudential con- 
ftderatkms. Some exertion of maiihood 


9^d ielf-dommand is even i^ecefl^iry for thU 
ibrt of r^raint^ .^d th€ joipartial fp^fta^j 
tpr may fomftimes vj^w it with th^t ibrtpf 
cold efteem dw to M^h^t fpeci^ pf , ^p^duct 
whicjh lie confid^rs ?is a inejfe rpatt^r of 
vulgar prudence; bjut pever wjth ^hat aff^iff 
donate adipir^ioniyith whicb l^c fv^rveys tti^ 
f^ine paflions, wh^n,. by thp Jfcpf/? pf /pxp^ 
priety, they are r^Qd^rat^d ^d i\ibdueM,^9 
wbat h^ bimfalf c^ readily ^pter ii>tp. Ip 
the fprBQier fpeci^ pf reftraint, he may fre- 
c^^Vk^j difcern Ipwe degree of propriety, 
i^c^, if you yrill, ;^vea of virtue ; bi^t i? 19 |i 
propriety and yirti^.pf a much inferior orde^r 
to ibofc which he always f^pls wi,th {ranfport 
aii4 ^ffiir^on in th^ latten 

The virtue? of p|:iHJf Qc^^ jy3tv?i?, apfj befM|- 
ficence, h^v? np t^p4e{>x;y ^p proflv^e ^^r^y l:>wt 
the miift Jigre^ablf ^flfe<i»f: Regard tptho(e 
-e&^St as it prigiftally recomoiends them tp 
the ador, fp does it afterwards to the impar-^ 
tkd fpe(Stai:or. In our approb^ipn of the 
cbarajSter pf the prudent man, wp feel, witji 
peculiar cpmpl^?enipy, the fpcuriiy which he 
muft enjoy while he walks ^xjder the fafc- 
guard of th»t fedate and delilperat? virtup. 
la our approbation of the chari^der of the 
juft man, we feel, with eqiwl ccmplaceijcy, 
the ^\»rity which ^U thof<$ connected with 
M 3 him 

i66 Of the Ch AH ACTEK Part VL 

him, whether in neighbourhood, fociety, or 
bufinefs, muft derive from hi? fcrupulous 
anxiety never either to hurt or offend. In 
our approbation of the charadter of the bene- 
ficent man, we enter into the gratitude of al! 
thofe who are within the fphere of his good 
offices, and conceive with them the higheft 
fenfe of his rtierit. In oUr approbation of all 
thofe virtues, our fenfe of their agreeable ef- 
fects, of their utility, either to the perfdn who 
exercifes them, or to fome other perfons, joins 
with our fenfe of their pi'opriety, and corifti- 
tiites always a confiderable, frequently the 
greater, part of that approbation. 

But in our approbation of the virtues of 
felf-command^ complacency with their effeds 
Sometimes conftitutes no part, and frequently 
but a fmall part of that approbation; Thofe 
cffefl:s may fometimes be agreeable, and 
fonietimes difagreeable ; and though our ap^ 
probation is no doubt ftronger in the former 
cafe, it is by no means altogether deftroyed 
in the latter. The moft heroic valour may 
be employed indifferently in the caufe either 
of juftice or of injuftice; and though it is i>o 
doubt much more loved and admired in the 
former cafe, it ftill appears a great and re- 
fpedable quality even in the latter. In that, 
and in all the other virtues of felf^command, 


Sea. IIL of Virtue. 167 

the fplendid and dazzling quality feeSns al- 
ways to be the greatnefs and fteadinefs of the 
exertion, and the ftrong feafe of propriety 
which is neceflfary in order to make and to 
maintain that exertion. The effe^ axe too 
often but too little regarded. 

M 4 


T H E O R Y 



Of Syftems of Moral Philosophy. 

Coi^fting of fbur SeSionsk 


'Of the ^uejlions which otight to be exanAned 
in a Theory of Moral Sentiments. 


w we examine tHe tnoft cakbratfd and 
remarkable of the dif^reiit theories which 
have been given coqcerrving th« nature andod* 
gin of our moral featiments, we ihall find that 
almoft all of th^mi^oinctde with £bme part or 


170 (y Systems Part VII. 

other of that which I have been endeavour- 
ing to give an account of; and that if every 
thing which has already been faid be fully 
confidered, we fcan be at no lofs to explsun 
what was the view or afpeO: of nature, which 
led each particular author to form his pani- 
cular fyftem. From fome one or other of 
thofe principles which I have been endeavour- 
ing to unfold, every fyftem of morality that 
ever had any reputation in the world has, 
perhaps, ultimately been derived. As they 
are all of them, in this refpedl, founded 
upon natural principles, they are all of them 
in fome meafure in the right. But as many 
of them are deriv^ from a partial and imper- 
fect view of nature, there are many of them 
too in foipe refpeds in the wrong; 

In treating of the principles of morals 
there are two queftions to be confidered 
Firft, wherein does virtue confift? Or what 
is the tone of temper, and tenour of 
condud, which conftitutes the excellent 
and pr^fe-wortby charader, the charader 
which is the natural obje& of efteem, honour, 
and approbation ? And, fecondly, by vfhzt 
power or faculty in the mind is it, that this 
charader, whatever it be, is recommended to 
us ? Or in other words, how and by what 
means does it come to pais, th^t the mind 


Seft. L ^ Moral Philosc^phy. iji 

prefers one tenour of cbnduft to another, 
denominates the one fight and the othet* 
wrong; confiders the one as the objedr of 
approbation, honour, khd reward ^ and the 
other of blame, cenfure, and punifliment? 

We examine the firft queftion when we 
confidcr whether virtue confifts in bene- 
*volence, as Dr. Hutchefon imagines ; or ia 
ading fuitably to the different relations we 
ftand in, as Dr. Clarke fuppofes ; or in the 
wife and prudent purfuit of our own real 
and folid happinefs, as has been the opinion 
of others. 

We examine the fecond queftion, "when 
we confuler, whether the virtuous charac- 
ter, whatever it confifts in, be recommend- 
ed to us by felf-love, which makes us per- 
ceive that this charader, both in ourfelves and 
others, tends moft to promote our own 
private intereft ; or by reafon, which points 
out to us the difference between one charac- 
ter and another, in the fame manner as it 
does that between truth and falfehood ; or 
by a peculiar power of perception, called a 
moral fenfe, which this virtuous charadei; 
gratifies and pleafes, as the contrary difgufts 
and difpleafes it ; or laft of all, by fome 
other principle in human nature, fuch as a 
modification of fympathy, or the like. 

I (hall 

I7» (y$y8T?M§ Partvn 

I ihall begin with coufideiiag the fyilems 
which ^^ave been formed concerning th< 
firft of thefe quellipns, and Ihall proceec 
nfterward^ to es^amiUQ thofe cpngeraing the 




• ' : • t 

Seft. 11.^ of MoXAL Philosophy. 


Of the different Accounts which have been 
given of the Nature of Virtue. 


^npHE different accounts which have been 
•* given of the nature of virtue, or of 
the tempei' Of mind which conftitutes the 
excellent" and praife-worthy charadier, may 
be reduced to three different claffes. Ac^ 
cording to fome, the virtuous temper of 
mind does not confifl in any onq fpecies of 
affe^ons, but in the proper government 
and diredion of all our affedions, w^ich 
may be either virtuous or vicious according 
to the objeds which they purfue, and the 
degree of vehemence with which they pur^ 
fiie them. According to thefe authors, diere^ 
fore, virtue confifts in propriety. 

According to others, virtue confifts in 
the judicious purfuit of our own private 
intereft and happinefs, or in the proper 
governtnent and diredion of. thofe felfifh 


174 (^Systems Part VIL 

afFedions which aim folely at this end. In 
the opinion of thefe authors, therefore, 
virtue confifts in prudence. 

Another fet of authors make virtue con- 
fift in thofe afFedions only which aim at 
the happinefs of others, not in thofe which 
aim at our own. According to them, 
therefore, difinterefted benevolence is the 
only motive which can ftamp upoa anjr 
adion the character of virtue* 

The char after of virtue, it is evident, 
muft either be afcribed indifferently to all 
our affeftions, when under proper govern- 
ment smd diredlion ; or it muft be confined 
to* fonje one clafs of divifion of . them* The 
great divifion of our affedions is into the 
felfifti and the benevolent. If the charader 
of virtue, therefore, cannot be afcribed in- 
differently to all our affedions, when under 
proper government and diredion, it muft 
be confined either to thofe which aim 
direAly at our own private happinefs, or to 
thofe which aim diredly at that of others. 
If virtue, therefore, does not confift in 
propriety, it miift confift either in prudence 
or in benevolence. Befides thefe three, it- 
i« fcarce poffible to im%itie' that any other 
account can be given of the nature. of virtue. 
I fhall endeaVDut t6^ {hcw'bereafter how all 
7 the 

Seft* II. of MoRtAL Philosophy. 175 

the other accounts, which are feemingly 
difTerent from any of thcfe, coincide at 
bottom with fome one or other of them. 


Of tbofe Sji/lems which make Virtue conjijl in 

CCQRDING to Plato, to Ariftotle, and to 
Zeno, virtue confifts in the propriety 
of conduct, or in the fuitablenefs of the 
affection from which we a£t to the object 
which excites it. 

I. In the fyftem of Plato* the foul' is ^ 
confidercd as fomething like a little ftate or 
republic, compofed of three different facul- 
ties or orders. ^ 

The firft is the jtidging faculty, the facul- 
ty which determines not only what are th^ 
proper means for attaining any end, but 
alfo what ends are fit to be purfued, and 
what degree of relative value we ought to 
put upon each. This faculty Plato called, 
as it is very properly called, reafon, aijid, 

. _ ■ , , •^ S?€ ?iatp dCi^Rep* lib. iv. * U 


i7<5 0/" Systems Pan VH* 

eonfidered k as tvhat had a right to fefe the 
governing prin<:iple of th* whole. Under 
this appellation it is . evident, he cbrnpre-i- 
hended not only that faculty by which we 
judge of truth and falfehood, but that by 
which we judge of the propriety or impro- 
priety of defires and affedidns. 

The different paflions and appetites, the 
natural fubjeds of this ruHng principle, but 
which are fo apt to rebel againft their niaf- 
ter, he reduced to two different claffes or 
orders. The fir ft confifted of thofe paffiotis, 
which are founded in pride and refentment, 
or in what the fchoolmen call the irafcifafe 
part of the foul; ambition, animofity, the 
love of honour and the dread of fhame, the . 
defire of vidtory, fuperiority, and revenge j 
all thofe paflions, in ftiort which are fip- 
pofed either to rife from, or to denote WhsA, 
b)r a metaphor in our language, we ^ova^ 
monly call fpirit or natural fire. The 
fecond cdndfted of thofe paflions which are 
founded in the love of pleafure, or in what 
the fchoolmen call the concupifciblc part 
of the foul. It comprehended all the Upper- 
,tite8 of the body, the love of eafe and fecu- 
rity, and of all fenfual gratifications. • 
" It rarely happens that we break in upon 
^that plan df * conduCt, which the governing 


Sc£k. IL of MoKAii pHiLogopHir. 177 

principle ptefcribes^ WEui which 10 all oat 
cool hours we had laid down to ourfelves as 
what was moft proper for us to purfue, but 
when prompted by one or other of thofe 
two different fets of pafEons ; either by un- 
governable ambition and refentroent, or by 
the importunate folicitations of prefent cafe 
and pleafure. But though thefe two orders 
of pafiions are fo apt to miflead us, they are 
ftill confidered as neceffary parts of human 
nature : the firft having been given to de- 
fend us againft injuries, to affert our rank 
and dignity in the world, to mak^ us aim 
at what is noble and honourable, and to make 
lis diflinguiih thofe who a£t: in the fame man- 
ner; the fecond, to provide for the. fupport 
and lieceffities of the body. 

In the ftrength, acutdnefs, and perfeftion 
of the governing principle was placed the 
eflfentiat virtue of prudence, which, accord- 
ing to Plato, confifted in a juft and clear dif- 
cernment, founded upon general and fcien- 
ttfie Ideas, of the endfe which were proper 
tQ be puifued^ and of the means whkh were 
proper for attaining them. 

When the firft fet of paffions, thoft of thd 
ifafeible part oif the foul, had that degree 
of ftt^gth and firlmnefs .which enabled 
tbet&y under^ the liiredion of reafon, todtf* 

TOt. II. N iplfe 

17* Of Systems Pa^YH. 

^ife all dangers in the purfuit of what. was 
honourable and noble; it conftituted the 
virtue of fortitude and magnanimity. This 
order of paffions, according to this fyftem, 
, was of a more generous and noble nature 
than the other. They were confidered 
upon many occafions as the au>filiariejs of 
reafon, to check and rtftrain the inferior 
and brutal appetites* We are often angry 
9t ourfelves, it was obferved, we often be- 
come the objedls of our own. refentment 
and indignation, when the love of pleafure 
prompts to do what we difapprove of, and 
the irafcible part of our nature is in t^i$, 
manner called in to affift the rational agaitjjt 
the concupifcible. , 

When all thofe three different pa.rts of 
our nature were in perfed concord witl^ 
one another, when neither the irafcible j?or 
concupifcihle paffions ever aimied git any; 
gratification which reafon did not; approye 
of, and when reafon never coipi^a^tii^tfijt 
any thing, but v/hat thefe of their pwrv a?-; 
cord were williiig to perform : thi? t^PPXl 
compofure, this perfeft and coinpl)e^e.|^^j 
rtibny of foulj conftituted that vir|up^^wl^ic1i 
in their Jarigdage is expreffed by a.; v^prji^ 
which we commonly tranflate tgaijpejp|p9e^ 
bi*t which might m0r^ propof ly >? Jtr^^|[^ 

Sc£k. tl. of Moral Philosophy. 179 

good temper, or fobriety and moderation 6f 

Juftice, the laft and greateft of the four 
cardinal virtues, took place according to 
this fyftem, when each of thofe three facul- 
ties of the mind confined itfelf to its proper 
office, without attempting to encroach upon 
that of any other; when rcafon direded 
and paflion obeyed, and when each paflion 
performed its proper duty, and exerted 
itfelf towards its proper objeft eafily and 
without reluctance, and with that degree 
of force and energy, which was fui table to 
the value of what it purfued. In this con- 
fiftedthat complete virtue, that perfe£l pro- 
priety of condudi, which Plato, after fome 
of the ancient Pythagoreans, denominated 

The word, it is to be obferved, which 
ekpreflfes juftice in the Greek language, has 
feverai different meanings ; and as the cor- 
r<if]()Ondent word in all other languages, fo 
fat as I know, has the fame, there muft be 
fdihe natural affinity among thofe various 
(i^lfications. In one fenfe we are faid to^ 
do juftice to our neighbour when we abftaia 
froth doing him any politive harm, and do* 
not direftly hurt him, either in his perfon, 
orln hiB eftate^ or ib his reputation. This' 
> >c N a is 

j8o (ySYSTRMS p^rtvn. 

is th£^t juftice whkk I have treat/sd of above, 
the obfervance of which may be extorted by 
fbrce^ and; the yioktion of which expofes to 
pvinKhmeDt. la another fenfe we are faid 
not to do juftice to our neighbour unlefs 
we conceive for him all that love, refpe^, 
and efteem, which his charsL&eTy his fitu-» 
ation, and his connexion with ourfelves, 
render fititablq and proper for us to feel^ 
^and unlefs we a£t accordingly. It b in 
this fenfe that we are fciid to do injuftice to 
a man of merit who is coane<3:ed with us, 
though we abftain from hurtidg hitn io^ 
every refped, if we do not exeit eurfelves 
to ferve him, and to place him in that fi>ta« 
ation in which the impartial fpeigbtor would 
l^e pleafed to fee him. The &t£b feckfe of 
the word coincides with what Ariftotkiaoid 
^e Schoolmen call coEtimaitativc jiftice, 
and ^ith what Grodi^ calls t}» jufiilm ex'^ 
pletrixy which copfiftft ia al]rf^ing ^rom 
yrhat is another's, and in d^iiig- vql^yitaisly 
\|rhatever we can with propriety be £[Kce4 
to do* The feepnd feofe c^ the mmA 
coinq^es with wl^foo^ halve cuB^d^ilbi** 
lwit|ve juftice % a?^ witb^ thfi.yV^^ *f^^ 

* The diftributivejufticc of Ariftqtle is (bmewhat different. 
It confifts iii the pfoper iiiftribution of revpards^rom; l^epiahfib 
' ftock of a co^)pj[ntt^. Soe 4M4f(tk£th|ar Ift^. U ▼• Cf a» 


Seft. n. g/* Moral Philosophy. i8i 

tutrix of Grotius, which confifts in proper 
beneficence, in the becoming ufe of what 
is our own, and in the applying it to thofe* 
purpofes either of charity or generofity, to 
which it is moft fuitable, in our fituation, 
that it fliould be applied. In this fenfe 
juftice comprehends all the focial virtues. 
There is yet another fenfe in which the- 
word juftice is fometimes taken, ftill more 
cxtenfive than either <Jf the former, though 
very much a-kin to the laft; and which 
runs too, fo far as I know, through all 
languages. It is in this laft fenfe that we 
Vre faid to be unjuft, when we do not feem 
to value any particular objefl: with that de- 
gree of efteem, or to purfue it with that de- 
gree of ardour whkh to the impartial fpec- 
tator it may appear to deferve or to be 
naturally fitted for exciting. Thus we are 
faid to do injuftice to a poem or a picture, 
when we do not admire them enough, and 
we are faid to do them more than juftice 
when we admire them too much. In the 
fame manner we are faid to do injuftice to 
ourfelves when we appear not to give fufc 
ficiefit attention to any particular objed of 
felf-intereft. In this laft fenfe, what is called 
juftice means the fame thing with exadt 
and perfeS; propriety of conduit and be* 
N 3 haviour, 

iSa Cy Systems Pan VII. 

haviour, and comprehends in k, not only^ 
the offices of both commutative and diftri- 
butive juftice, but of every other virtue, of 
prudence, of fortitude, of temperance* It 
is in this laft fenfe that Plato evidently un- 
derftands what he calls juftice, and vsrhich, 
therefore, according to him, comprehends 
in it the perfeftion of every fort of vir- 

Such is the account given by Plato of the, 
nature of virtue, or of that temper of. 
mind which is the proper objed of pra^fig;. 
and approbation. It confifls, accordipg to. 
him, in that (late of mind in v^hich eyerjf 
faculty confines itfelf within its proper, 
fphere without Mcroaching upon tliat of 
any other, and performs its proper/offiqe 
^ith that precife degree of ftrength and 
vigour which belongs to it^ His ac(;ount, it 
is evident, coincide? in every rpfpeQ; with 
what we have faid above concerning the pror 
priety of conduft. 

11^ Virtue, according to Ariftotle*, cput 
fifts in the h^bit of mediocrity according ;to 
right reafon. Every particular tirtue, af:^ 
cording .to him^i lies in a kind of mid^l^ 
|)etween twc^ oppofi(;e vices, of which t^g 

• See Ariftotle, Ethic Nic. 1. ii. c.,s* ct ha. et 1. Hi. c Sj 

Se6i. II. of MoKAL Philosophy. 183 

one offends froin being too much, the other 
from being too little affe£ted by a particular 
ipecies of objefts. Thus the virtue of forti- 
tude or courage lies in the middle between 
the oppofite vices of cowardice and of pre- 
fumptuous raflinefs, of which the one offends 
from being too much, and the other from 
being too little affeded by the objeds of 
fean Thus too the virtue of frugality lies 
in a middle between avarice and profufion, 
of which the one confifts in an excefs, the 
other in a defed of the proper attention to 
the objeds of felf-intereft. Magnanimity, 
ih the fame manner, lies in a middle between 
the excefs of arrogance and the defed of 
pufilFanimity, of which the one confifts in 
too extravagaint, the other in too weak a 
fentiment of our own worth and dignity. 
It is unneceflary to obferve that this ac- 
count of virtue correfponds too pretty ex- 
adiy with what has been faid above con- 
cerning the propriety and impropriety of 

According to Ariftotle *, indeed, virtue 
did nor fo much confift in thofe moderate 
and right affedions, as iii the habit of this 
moderation* In order to underftaind this, 

^ See Ariftotlcy Ethic. Nic. lib. iU ch. I, 2> $, and 4. ; 

N4 it 

1 84 Of ^Tsmus Part Vll; 

k b to be obferved, that virtue may be con- 
fldered either as the quality of an a^^icn^ or 
aB the quality of a perfon. Confidered as 
the quality of an action, it confifts, even 
according to Ariftotle, in the reafonable 
moderation of the affbdtion from which the 
adion proceeds, whether this difpofition be 
habitual to the perfon or not. Coafidered 
as the quality of a perfon, it confifts, in the 
habit of this reaic>nable modetation, in its 
having become the cuftomary ai^ nfual 
difpofition of the mind. Thus the adion . 
which proceeds from an occafional fit of 
generofity is undoubtedly a generous adicn, 
but the man who performs it, is not necef^ 
farily a generous perfon, becaufe it may b^ 
the fingle adion of the kind which h^ ever 
performed. The motive and diip^fition of 
heart, from which this adion was per^ 
formed, may have been quite juft and pro^ 
per : but as this happy mood feems to hav^ 
been the efFed radier of accidental humour 
than of any thing fteady or permanent iJOi 
the charader, it can refled no great honour 
on the performer. When we denominate 
$L charader generous or charitable, or viVf- 
tuous in any refped, we mean to fignify 
that the difpofition expreffed by each of 
thofe appellationsf is t^ ^fu^ ai^ cuftom-^ 
.:^' ary 

ScdM}« 5/* Moral Philosophy. 185 

ary di(jpofition of th^ perfoQ, But finglc 
anions of any kind, how proper and fuU- 
abJe foever^ are 'of Uttle confequence to 
fhow that this is the cafe^ If a fingle adion 
wi^ fuflSicient to ftamp the charader of any 
vii:tue upon the perfon who performed it, 
the moft worthlefs of mankind might lay 
claim to all the virtues; fince there is np 
man who has not, upon fome occafioAS, 
aded with prudence, juftice, temperance, 
apd fortitude. But though fmgle adions, 
hfiyr laudable foever, refledJ: very little 
praife upon the perfon who performs them^ 
a^ fingle vicious adion performed by one 
vrbofe conduct is ufually very regular, 
greatly dimiainics and fometimes deftroys 
altogether our opinion of his virtue. A. 
fingle adipn of thi^ kind fufficiently {how$ 
tha^ his habits are not perfect, ^ikI that hq 
is lefs to be depended upon, than, from the 
i^ual train of his behaviour, we might hav« 
h^cxk apt to imagine. 

Ariftotle too *, when he made virtue to 
confift in praid:icd habits, had it probably 
in h\^ vjLew to oppofe the dodrine of Plato, 
who feems to have been of opitxion that 
juft fentiments and reafonable judgments 

* See Aiijftotle, Mag. Mor. lib. i. cb. i. 


i86 (y Systems. Part 1^.' 

concerning what was fit to be done or ^to be 
avdided, were alone fuflSdent to conftitute 
ibe mod perfeft virtue. Virtue, accbrding^ 
to Plato, might be confidered as a fpecies 
of fcience, and no man, he thought, could 
fee clearly and demonftratively what was 
Tight and what was wrong, and not aft ac- 
cordingly. Paffion might make us* a£fc con- 
trary to doubtful and uncertain bpinions, 
not to plain and evident judgments. Ari- 
ftotle, on the contrary, was of opinion, that 
no convidlion of the underftandrng was ca^ 
pable of getting the better of inveteratd habits, 
a^nd that good morals arofe not from know- 
ledge but from adlion. 

IIL According to Zeno *, the founder of 
the Stoical dodrine, every animal was by na- 
ture recommended to its own care, and was 
endowed with the principle of felf-love, that 
it might endeavour to preferve, not only its 
eiciftence, but all the different parts of its 
nature, in the beft and moft perfeft ftate of 
wTiich they were capable. 

The felf-love of man embraced, if I may 
fay fo, his body and all its different mem- 
bersj his mind and all its different fkcultiei 

• S^eCipercrde finibus, lib. iii. ; alfo Piogencs Laertius m 
Zcno;i^, lib* vii. fegmcnt ^4» 


Sed.n. £/* Moral Philosophy. 1^7 

and powers, and dedred the prefervatipn 
and maintenance of them all in their belt 
and mod perfect condition. Whatever 
tended to fupport this (late of exiftence was» 
therefore, by nature pointed out to him as. 
fit to be chofen; and whatever tended to 
deftroy it, as fit to be rejeded. Thus 
health, (Irength, agility and eafe of body 
as well as the external conveniences which 
cou)d promote thefe; wealth, power, ho- 
nours, the refpedt and efteem of thofe we 
live with ; were naturally pointed out ta 
us as things eligible, and of which the pof. 
fefiiion was preferable to the want. On tho 
other hand, ficknefs, infirmity, unwieldinefs, 
pain of body as well as all the external in- 
conveniences which tend to occafion or 
bring on any of them; poverty, the want of, 
authority, the contempt or hatred of thofe 
we live with ; were in the fame manner, 
pointed out to us as things to be (hunned 
and avoided. In each of thofe two oppofite 
clafles of objeds, there were fome which 
appeared to be more the objeds either of 
choice or rejedion, than others in the fame 
clafs. Thus, in the firft clafs, health ap- 
peared evidently preferable to (Irength, and 
ilrength to agility; reputation to power, 


iW Of Srsrnus ^ Pirt"\^l. 

and power to riches. And dim too, in tht 
feeond clafs, iicknefs was more to be avoided 
than unwieldine& of body, ignominy than 
poverty, and poverty than the lofs of power. 
Virtue and the propriety of conduct con- 
lifted in choofing and rejeiflitig ail different 
obje£ts and cir<:umftance$ according as^ they 
were by nature (rendered more or Ids the 
oly'eds of choice or rejedioo ; in {dc6Ang 
always fxxnn among the feveral obje&s of 
choice pre&nted lo us, that which was moft 
to be chofen, when we could not obtain 
,tbem all ; and in feieding too, out of the 
ieveral objeds of rejection o&red to us, 
.that which was leaft to be avoided, when 
k was not in our power to avoid them zXL 
By choofing amd rejeding with this juft 
and accurate difcernment, by thus beftow-* 
iing upon ^every objeift the precife d^reeof 
attention it deferv^, according to the place 
which it held in this natural fcale of thin^ 
we maintained, according to the Stoics, diat 
perfed reditudc^ of conduct which con^^ 
tuced the dTence of virtue. This was what 
they called to Jive confiftently, to live au- 
fUDiHding to nature, and to obey thofe laws and 
diricfiions which nature, or the Antbor oCj^a^ 
t^i^i hiad prefcribcd for oiir coftdud):. 

'• . So 

Sie£V. 11. of Mqrai[. Philosophy. $89 

So far the Slokal idea of propriety andnir** 
tue \a not very difiereat from that of Arirftotter 
afiui the atncient Peripatetics. 

Afnong thofe primary objeds which Xk»^ 
ture had recomizEeaded to us as eligible^ 
was the profperity of our family, of our 
relations, of our friends, of our country, of 
mankind,, and of the univerfe in generaL: 
Nature, too, had taught us^ that as the pro^- 
fperity of two waa preferable to that of one^ 
that of many, or of all, niiril be infinitely 
more fa That we ourfelves were but ooe, 
and that confequeintly wherever our profpe^ 
rity wasr incoufiftent with that, either of tbe 
wholef or of any confiderable part of the' 
whole, it ought, even in our own choice, to> 
yield to what was io^ valtiy preferable^ As^ 
atLthecMots in tfata world: were condu€l:ed 
by die providence of a wife, powerful, and 
good GpocE, we might be aflured that what- 
errcr happened tended to the profperity add: 
perfedioa of the whole; If we ourfelvts, 
ifaerefore, were in^ poverty, in ficknefe, op 
in any other eaUmity, we d«ight, firft of till, 
t0i ufe our utmoft endeavours^ fo far as 
JH^Uce and oar diMly to others would al- 
lowv Co refcne onrfdvee from this dlfa* 
greeable diroamftance. But if aft^ alF we 
CQuld do, we found tM» impoffible, we ought 


190 Of Systems Part VII. 

to reft, fatisfied that the order and perfeSion 
bf the univerfe required that we (hould in the 
mean time continue in this (ituation. And 
a8 the profperity of the whole fhould, even 
to us, appear preferable to fo infignificant 
a part as ourfclves, our fituation, whatever 
it was, ought from that moment to become 
the obje£t of our liking, if we would main* 
tain that complete propriety and redlitude 
of fentiment and conduA in which confifted 
the perfedtion of our pature. If, indeed, 
any opportunity of extricating ourfelves 
ihould offer, it became our duty to embrace 
it. The order of the univerfe, it was evi- 
dent, no longer required our continuance 
in this fuuation, and the great Direftor of 
the world plainly called upon us to leave it, 
by fo clearly pointing out the road which 
we were to follow. It was the fame cafe 
with the adverfity of our relations, our 
friends, our country. If, without violating 
any more facred obligation, it was in our 
power to prevent ^r put an end to their ca«» 
laraity, it undoubtedly was our duty to do 
fo. The propriety of adion, the rule 
w'hich Jupiter had given us for the direc- 
tion of our condudl, evidently required 
this of us. But if it was altogether out 6f 
.pinf power to do either, we ought then to 


Scft. II. , i>f MpjiAL Philosophy. xgi 

confider this event as the moft fortutpia^c 
which could poffibly have happened ; be^ 
caufe we might be aflured that it tended 
moft to the profperity and order of the 
whole, which was what we ourfelves, if we 
were wife and equitable, ought moft of all 
to defire. It W4S our own final intereft 
confidered as a part of that whole, of which 
the profperity ought to be^ not only the 
principal, but the fole objed of our de- 

" In what fenfe'' fays Epidetus, " are 
" fome things faid to be according to our 
** nature, and others contrary to it? It is 
*' in that fenfe in which we confider our- 
" felves as feparated and detached from all 
" other things. For thus it nxay be iai4 
" to be according to the nature of the foot 
" to be always clean. But if you confider 
" it as a foot, and not as fomething de- 
" tached from the reft of the body, it muft 
" behove it fometimes to trample in the 
*' .dirt, and fometimes to tread upon thorns^ 
** and fometimes, too, to be cut off for 
"the fiike of the whole body; and if it re- 
"fufes thi^, it is no longer a foot. Thus 
^S top, ought we tp conceive with regard 
". to ourfelves. What are you? A man*, 
"If you confider yourfelf as fomething; 

" fepa- 

192 Of Systems Pan VIL 

•* feparated and detached, it is agreeable to, 
" your nature to live to old age, to be rich, 
•^ to he in heahh. But if you cOnfider your- 
*' felf as a man, and as a part of a whole, 
•' upon account of that whole, it will behove 
" you foretimes to be in ficknefs, fometimes 
** to be expoled to the inconveniency of a. 
" fea-voyage, fometimes to be in want ; and 
*' at laft, perhaps, to die before your time. 
" Why then do you complain ? Do not 
" you know that by doing fo, as the foot 
^' ceafes to be a foot, fo you ceafe to be a 
^ man?'* 

A wife man never complains of the def- 
tiny of Providence, nor thinks the univerfe 
in confufion when he is out of order. He 
does not look upon himfelf as a whole, 
feparated and detached from every other 
part of nature, to be taken care of by itfelf 
and for itfelf. He regards himfelf in the 
light in which he imagines the great genius 
of human nature, and of the world, regards 
him. He enters, if I may fay fo, into the 
fentimcnts of that divine Being, and confix 
ders himfelf as, an atom, a particle, of an 
immenfe and infinite fyftem, which mufi 
and ought to be difpofed of, according to thp 
conveni^ncy of the whole. Affured of the 
wifdcm which directs' all the events of hu^ 


Scft. 11. of Moral Philosophy. 19;^ 

man life, whatever lot befats him, he ac- 
cepts it with joy^ fatisBed that, if he had 
known 2^1 the eonnedions and dependen-- 
cies of the different parts of the univerfe^ 
it is the very lot which he himfelf would , 
have wifhed for. If it is life, he is con- 
tented to live; and if it is death, as hature 
muft have no further occafion for his pre- 
fence here, he willingly goes where he is 
appointed. I accept, faid a cynical philo-^ 
fopher, whofe dodrines were in this refped: 
the fame as thofe of the Stoics, I accept 
with equal joy and fatisfadtion, whatever 
fortune can befal me. Riches or poverty^ 
pleafure or pain, health or ^icknefs, all is 
alike : nor would I defire that the Gods 
fhould in any. rcfpe£t change my deftination* 
If I was to afk of them any thing beyond 
what their bounty has already beftowed^ 
it (hould be that they would inform me 
before-hand what it was their pleafure 
ihould be done with me, that I might of my 
own accord place myfelf in this fituation, 
and demonilrate the cheerfulnefs with which 
I embraced their allotment. If I am going 
to fail, fays Epidetus, I choofe the beft (hip 
and the beft pilot, and I wait for the fair- 
eft weather that my circumftances and duty 
will allows Prudence and propriety, the^ 
VOLt H. O princi^ 

i^ (y Systems Part VIl. 

principles which the Gods have given tne 
for the diredion of my conduct;, require this 
of me; but they require no more: and if, 
notwithftanding, a ftorm arifes, which nei- 
ther the ftrength of the veflel nor the fkill 
of the pilot are likely to withftand, I give 
myfelf no trouble about the confequence. 
All that I had to do is done already. The 
diredors of my condud never command me 
to be miferable, to be anxious, defponding, 
or afraid. Whether we are to be drowned 
or to come to a harbour, is the bufinefs of 
Jupiter, not mine. I leave it entirely to 
his determination, nor ever break my reft 
with confidering which way he is likely to 
decide it, but receive whatever comes with 
equ^l indifference and fecurity. 

From this perfeft confidence in that be- 
nevolent wifdom which governs the uni- 
verfe, and from this entire refignation to 
whatever order that wifdom might think 
proper to eftablifli, it neceflarily followed, 
thit to the Stoical wife man, all the events 
of human life muft be in a great meafure 
indifferent. His ha'ppinefs confifted altoge- 
ther, firft, in the contemplation of the hap- 
pinefs and perfedtion of the great fyflem of 
the univerfe, of the good government of the 
great republic of Gods and men, of all ra- 

Sc^. II. of Moral PHiLejsoPHY. 195 

tional and fenfible beings^; and fecondly, 
in difcharging his duty, in ading properly 
in the affairs of this great republic whatever 
little part that wifdom had affigaed to him. 
The propriety or impropriety of his endea- 
vours might be of great confequence to hinji.. 
The^r fuccefs^ or diiappointn^ent could be of 
none at all J co^ild, excite no paffionate joy 
or forrow, no paffionate defire or averfion. 
If he preferred fome events to others, if forae , 
fituations were the objeds of his choice an^l 
others of his rejedion, it was not becaufp hp 
regarded the one as iri themselves in any 
refped better than the otherj, or thought 
that his own happinefs wovil^ be morje 
complete in what i$ caile4 the fortunate 
than in what is regarded as ^le diftrel^ful 
fitqaiion ; but becaufe the propriety of 
^adiop, the rule which the Gpd? bad given 
:him for thie diredion, of his . condud, 
jequjred him to chppfe jin4 reje<S^ in this 
manner.: AH his affcdipns were abforbed 
t^ind fwaUowed up in two great afiedions ; 
in t^at for- the difcharg^ of hi^ own duty, 
and in tjiat for the greateft poflShle hap- 
pinefs of all rational and fenfible beings. 
For the gratification of th^is latter affedion, 
jhe :;refted with the moft perfed fecurity 
tifiOU (he wifc}om and power of the great 

02 Super- 

196 0/* Systems FarttTf. 

Superintcndant of the univerfe. His fole 
anxiety was about the gratification of the 
former; not about the event, but about the 
ptopTXttj of his own endeavours. What- 
ever the event might be, he trufted to 
A fuperror power and wifdoni for turn- 
ing it to promote that great end which 
he himfelf was moft defirous of promot- 

This propriety of choofing and rejcdling, 
though originally pointed out to us, and as 
it were recommended and introduced to 
onr acquaintance by the things, and for 
the fake of the things chofen and rqeGed ; 
yet when we had once become thoroughly 
acquainted with it, the order, the grace, 
the beauty which we difcerned in this con- 
du£l:, the happinefs which we felt refulted 
from it, necefTarily appeared to us of much 
greater value than the a£tual obtaining of 
all the different objedts of choice, df the 
a£tual avoiding of all thofe of rejeiftionf. 
From the obfervation! of this propriety arofe 
the happinefs and the glory; from the 
negle<3: of rt; the mifery and the difgrace of 
human nature. 

But to a wife man, to one whofe paffioris 
were brought under perfedl fubjedion to 
the ruling principles of his nature^ the efr 

Se6V. H. g^ Moral Philosophy. p$y 

nft obfervation of this propriety was equally 
eaiy upon all occafions. Was he in pro- 
fperity, he returned thanks to Jupiter 
for having joined him with circumttances 
which wer^ eafily maftered, and in which 
there was little temptation to do wrong. 
Was he in adverfity, he equally returned 
thanks to the diredor of this fpeSacle of 
human life, for having oppofed to him a 
vigorous athlete, over whom, though the 
eonteft was likely to be more viojent, the 
victory was more glorious, and equally cer^ 
tain. Can there be any fhame in that dif^ 
trefs which is brought upon us without any 
fault of our own, and in which we behave 
with perfefl: propriety ? There can, thjsre- 
fore, be no evil, but, on the contrary, thie 
greateft good and advantage^ A brave man 
exults in thofe dangers in which, from 
no raflinefs of his own^ his fortune has 
involved him^ They afford an opportunity 
ofexercifing that heroic intrepidity, whofc 
exertion gives the exalted delight which 
flows from the confcioufnefs of fuperior 
propriety and defefved admiration. One 
who is mafter of all his exercifes has no 
averfion to meafure his ftrength and adivity 
with the ftrongeft. And, irii the f^me mai^- 
Uer, one who is matter of all his paflionS| 

3 does 

1^ (y Systems Part VII • 

does not dread ally circumftance in whichf 
the Superihtendant of the univerfe may 
think proper to plac^ him. The bounty 
of that divine Being has provided him with 
virtues which render him fuperior to every 
fituation. If it is pleafure, he has tenaper- 
ance to refrain from it ; if it is pain he has 
conftancy to bear it ; if it is danger or 
deatli, he has magnanimity and fortitude to 
defpife it. The events of human life can 
never find him unprepared, or at a lofs how 
to maintain that propriety of fentiment and 
condufl: which, in his own apprehenfion, 
conflitutes at once his glory and his hap- 

Human life the Stoics appear to have 
confidered as a game of great fkill; in 
which, however, there was a mixture of 
chance, or of what is vulgarly underftood 
to be chance. In fuch games the ftake is 
commonly a trifle, and the whole pleafure 
of the game ariffes from playing well, from 
playing fairly, and playing fkilfully. If 
notwithftanding iall his fkill, however, the 
good player fhould, by the influence of 
chance, happen to lofe, the lofs ought ta 
be a matter, rather of merriment, than of 
ferious forrow. He has made no falfe 
ftroke; he has done nothing which he 


eQ. IL of Moral PHitosopHY. 19^ 

ught to be alhamed of j he has enjoyed 
ompletely the whole pleafure of the game, 
f, on the contrary, the bad player, not- 
athftanding all his blunders, ihbuld, in 
le fame manner, happen; to win, his fuc- 
;fs can give him but little fatisfadion. He 
1 mortified by the remembrance of all the 
lults which he committed. Even, during 
le play he can enjoy no part of the pleafure 
rhich it is capable of affording. From 
jnorance of the rules of the game, fear 
[id dqubt and hefitation are the difagree- 
)le fentiments that precede almoft every 
rpke which he plays; and when he, has 
[ayed it, the mortification of finding it a 
rofs blunder, commonly completes the 
npleafing circle of his fenfations. Human 
Fe^ with all the advantages which can 
;>ifibly attend it, ought, according to the 
toics, to be regarded but as a mere two- 
jnny (lake ; a matter by far too infigni- 
:ant to merit any anxious concern. Our 
ily anxious concefn ought to be, not about 
le Hake, but about the proper, method of 
laying. If we placed our happinefs in 
inning the ftake, we placed it in what 
jpend^ upon caufes beyond our power, 
id out of our diredion. We ncceffarily 
cpofed ourfelves to perpetual fear and 
04 uneafi- 

to€| (^Systems. Part VII. 

uneafineft, and frequently to grievous and 
mortifying difappointments. If we placed 
it in playing well, in playing fairly, in play- 
ing wifiely and IkilfuUy : in the propriety 
of our own condufl in fhort; we placed it 
in what, by proper difcipline, education, 
and attention, might be altogether in our 
pwn power, and under our own dire^ion* 
Out happinefs was perfe£Hy fecure, and 
beyond the reach of fortune. The event bf 
our adions, if it was out oiF our power, 
was equally out of our concern, and we 
could never feel either fear or anxiety about 
it ; nor ever fufFer any grievous, or even 
any ferious difappointment. 

Human life itfelf, as well as every dif- 
ferent advantage or difadvantage which can 
attend it, might, they faid, according to 
different circumftances, be the proper ob- 
jed either of our choice or of our rejeftion. 
If in our adual fituation, there were mor^ 
circumftances agreeable to nature than con- 
trary to it j more circumftances which 
were the objeds of choice than of rejeiSion j 
life, in this cafe, was, upon the whole^ thp 
proper objed of choice, and the propriety 
of condud required that w? fhould remain 
in it. If, on the other hand, there were, in 
pur adual fituation, without any probable 


iSeft.II. ^ Moral Philosophy. eoi 

hope of amendment, more circumftances 
contrary to nature than agreeable to it; 
more circumftances which were the objects 
pf rejeflion than of choice ; life itfelf, in this 
cafe, became, to a wife man, the obje£t of 
rejeSion, and he was not only at liberty 
to remove ont of it, but the propriety of 
conduS, the rule which the Gods had given 
Jiim for the diredipn of his conduft, re- 
quired him to dp fo. I am ordered, fays 
Epi£tetus, not to dwell at Nicopolis. I do 
pot dwell there. I am ordered not to dwell 
at Athen3. I do not dwell at Athens. I 
am ordered not to dwell in Rome. I do 
,not dweH in Rome. I am ordered to 
dwell in the little and rocky ifland of 
Gyara*. I go and dwell there. But the 
houfe fmokes in Gyarae. If the fmoke is 
pioderate I will bear it, and ftay there. If 
it is exceffive, 1 will go to a houfe from 
whence no tyrant can remove me. I keep 
in min4 always that the door is open, that 
I can walk out when I pleafe, and retire to 
that hofpijtable houfe which is at all times 
ppen to ^1 the world; for beyond my 
vndermofl garment, beyond my body no 
m^n living has any power over me. If 
your (ituation is uppn the whole difagree- 
;^ble| if your houfe fmojces too much for 


^o2 ^ 0/" Systems Part VII. 

you, faid the Stoics, walk forth by all 
means. But walk forth without repining ; 
without murmuring or complaining. Walk 
forth calm, contented, rejoicing, returning 
thanks to the Gods, who from their in* 
finite bounty, have opened the fafe and 
quiet harbour of death, at all times ready 
to receive us from the ftormy ocean of hu- 
man life; who have prepared this facred, 
this inviolable, this great ,afylum, always 
open, always acceflible ; altogether beyond 
the reach of human rag^ and injuftice ; and 
large enough to contain both all thofe who 
wifh, and all thofe who do not wifti to 
retire to it: an afylum which takes away 
from every man every pretence of com- 
plaining, or even of fancying that there can 
be any evil in human life, except fuch as 
he may fuffer from his own folly and 

The Stoics, in the few fragments of 
their philofophy which have come down to 
us, fometimes talk of leaving life with a 
gaiety, and even with a levity, which, 
were we to conftder thofe paflages by 
themfelves, might induce us to believe that 
they imagined we could with propriety leave 
it whenever we had a mind, wantonly and 
capricioufly, upon the flighteft difguft or ; 


Seft. II. of MonAii Philosophy. S03 

uneafinefs, " When you fup with fiich a 
** perfon,^' fays Epidetus, "you complain 
•* of the long ftories which he tells you 
** about his Myfian wars. * Now, my 
^* friend/ fays he, * having told you how I 
** took pofleffion of an eminence at fuch a 
^* place, I will tell you how I was befiegcd 
•' in fuch another place.' But if you have 
•* a mind not to be troubled with his long 
" ftories, do not accept of his fupper. If 
^* you accept of his fupper, you have not 
" the lead pretence to complain of his long 
** ftories. It is the fame cafe with what 
** you call the evils of human life. Never 
" complain of that of which it is at all 
*' times in your power to rid yourfelf.'* 
Notwithftanding this gaiety and even levity 
of expreflion, however, the alternative of 
leaving life, or of remaining in it, was, ac- 
cording to the Stoics, a matter of the moft 
fcrious and important deliberation, We 
ought never to leave it till we were diftindily 
•called upon to do fo by that fuperintend- 
ing Power which ha.d originally placed us 
in it. But we were to confider ourfelves 
as called upon to do fo, not merely at the 
appointed and unavoidable term of human 
life. Whenever the providence of that 
fuperintending Power had rendered our 


#04 (y. Systems. Part VH* 

condition in life upon the whole the proper 
objea rather of rejeil ion than of choice; 
the great rule which he had given us for 
the diredtion of our conduct:, then required 
t]s to le?ive it. We might; then be faid to 
hear the awful and benevolent voice of that 
divine Being diftindly calling upon us to do ' 

It was upon this account that, according 
to the Stoics, it might be the duty of a wife 
man to remove out of life though he was 
perfe(3tly happy j while, on the contrary, it 
might be the duty of a* weak man to remain 
in it ; thoqgh he was neceflarily miferable. 
If, in the fitciation of the wife man, there 
were more circiimftances which were the na- 
tural objeds of rejeftion than of choice, the 
whole fituation became the objedl of rejec- 
tion, and the rule which the Gods had given 
him for the diredtion of his conduft, re- 
quired that he ftiould remove out of it as 
fpeedily as particular circumftances might 
Tender convenient. He was, however, p^r^ 
fedly happy even during the time that he 
might think proper to remain in it. He had 
placed his happinefs, not in obtaining the 
objedls of his choice, or in avoiding thofe 
of his reje<Sion: but in always choofing and 
rejeding with exad propriety j not in the 
^ fuccefs, 

^ed. II. . 2f Moral Phtlosophy, ioj 

fuccefs, but in "the fitnefs of his endeavours 

and exertions. If in the fituatimi of the 

weak ifian, dn the contrary, there were 

Inore circumftances which were the natural 

objedls of choice than of rejedion - his whole 

fituatioh becatne the proper cbjedl of choice^ 

and it viras his duty to remain in it. He was 

tinhappy, however, from not knowing how 

Xo ufe thofe citcumftances- Let his cards be 

*vet fo good, he? did not know how to play 

them, and could enjoy no fort of real fatisfac- 

tion, either in the progrefs, or in the event 

of the game in whatever manner it might 

happen to turn out*. 

The propriety, upon fome occafions, of 
voluntary death, though it was, perhaps, 
more infifted upon by the Stoics, than by . 
any other {e£t 6f ancient philofophers, was*, 
however, a dodlrine common to them alP, 
even to the peaceable and indolent Epicu- 
reans. During the age in which flou:i(hed 
the founders of all the principal feds of an- 
cient philofophy; during the Peloponnefian 
tvar, aiKi for marxy years after its conclufion, 
all the different republics of Greece were, at 
home, almolt always diftraded by the moft 
furious fadions ; and abroad^ involved in the 

♦ See Cicero de Finibus, lib. 3. c. 13. Olivet's edition. 


2o6 O/^Ststpeiis PgrtVII.i^^, 

moft fanguinary wars in which each fought^^ 
not merely fuperiority pr dominion, butr 
either completely to ejctirpate all its epemie^, 
or, what was not lefs cruel, to reduce them 
to the vileft of all ftates, that of domeftic 
flavery, and to fell them, man, woman, 
and child, like fo many herds of cattle, to 
the higheft bidder in the market. The 
fmallnefs of the greater part of thofe ftates, 
too, rendered it, to each of them, no very 
improbable event, that it might itfelf fall 
into that very calamity which it had fo fre- 
quently, either, perhaps, adually inflided, or 
at leaft attempted to inflidl upon fome of its 
neighbours. In this diforderly ftate of 
things, the mpft perfect innocence, joined to 
both th^ higheft rank and the greateft public 
fcrvices, could give no fecurity to any man 
that, even at home and among his own rela- 
tions and fellow-citizens, he was not, at fome 
time or another, from the prevalence of fome 
ioftile and furious faftion, to be condemned 
to the moft cruel and ignominious punifh- 
ment« If he was taken prifoner in war, or 
if the city of which he was a member was 
conquered, he was expofed, if paffible, to 
ftill greater injuries and infults. But every 
man naturally, or rather neceflarily, famili- / 
arizes his imagination with the diftreffes to 

5 which 

Sc€t. Ur of Moral Philosophy. 207 

which he forefecs that his fituation may fre- 
quently expofe him. It is impojHible that a 
lailor fliould not frequently think of ftorms 
and fhipwrecks, and foundering at fea, and 
of how he himfelf is likely both to feel and to 
a€t upon fuch oeca|ions. It was impoffible, 
in the fame manner, that a Grecian patriot or 
hero fliould not familiarize his imagination 
with all the different calamities to which he 
was fenfible his fituation muft frequently, or 
rather conftantly expofe him. As an Ame- 
rican favage prepares his death-fong, and 
confiders how he fhould aft when he has 
fallen into the hands of his enemies, and is 
by them put to death in the moft lingering 
tortures, and amidfl the infults and derifion 
of all the fpedators ; fo a Grecian patriot or 
hero could not avoid frequently employing 
his thoughts in confidering^ what he ought 
both to fuffer apd to do in banifhment, in 
captivity, when reduced to flavcry, when 
put to the torture, when brought to the fcaf- 
fold. But the philofophers of all the different 
fedts very juflly reprefented virtue ; that is, 
wife, jufl, firm, and temperate condudl ; not 
only as the moft probable, but as the certain 
and infallible road to happinefs even in this 
life. This cotidud, however, could not al- 
ways exempt, and might even fometimes ex- 



tied ftt^'^''^ L;e to ft^°^ A vn a Steal 

out, av^ ^i tCiX^^J- that he P" * 

f* ' la '»^''" to coMi »o' *"' oif. 

Sc& n. of MoitAL Philosophy. iogf 

point out xkit domforts which a man mrght 
ftill enjoy when reduced to poverty, when 
driven into banifliment, when expofed ta 
the injuftiQC of popular clamour, when la* 
bouring under blindncfs, under deafnefs, in 
the extremity of old age, upon the approach 
of death. They pointed out, too, the con- 
iiderations which might contribute to fup- 
port his conftancy under the agonies of pain 
and even of torture, in flcknefs, in forroW; 
for the lofs of children, for the death of 
friends and relations, &c. The few frag-* 
ments wb^h have come down to us of what 
the ancient philofophers had written upon; 
t^efe. fubjeds, form, perhaps, one of the 
moft inftrudive, as well as one of the moft 
interefting remain^ of antiquity. The fpirit 
sind manhood of their dodlrines make a 
wonderful cOQtriift Ivith the defponding^ 
plaintive, and wfaining tone of fome modern 

But while thafe ancient philofophers en-^ 
deavoured in this manner to fugged every^ 
coniideratipn which could, as Milton fays, 

arm ^hc obdurate bread with ftubborn pa- 

J.- i. • 

tiencc^a»;with;t6ple ftqel % they, at the fame 
time, laboiired above all to convince their 
followers that there neither was nor could be 
any evil in death; and that^ if their fituation 
^ VOi.Il* » became 

b^^aiErj,^ at fwiy tiipc loo bard fpt jj^dt ^j^ 
flapGy to Aippori, the reipqdy ;V^fa8 at. li^^^ 
t^jj door was ppcn^aird they inight,!wjithq^Jj 
fea)( , walk p,ifit wl^en ; they pleaf(wi^ If tli^ 
w^a no world beyond the ppefer\t, Ldj^^j;^^ 
ih^y faid, icould be no evil ; and if tbey^^^^j^ 
another world, the Gods miift like wife |jf^^ 
tbat other, and a juft man could fear no ,^y;JL 
while under their protedion, Thofe phi|c^ 
ft>pKers in Qiort, prepared a death-ioBg^^^j 
may fay fo, which the Grecian patriots ^q^{ 
heroes might make ufe of upon the prpp^ 
0(?qafions ; and, of. all the diifereot fefts, j^ 
Stoics, I think it muft be acknowledged, h^ 
firepared by far the moft animated an|dtjp,^, 
ritirf fong. # : V ^,;rf 

Suicide, however, never feem^, lo, ^^i^^ 
been very common anpiong t^ G^^ 
Excepting Cieomenes, I c^ntiot at,pi>efen|^^^, 
opile<a any every illuf^iQus,, ^ithef , pi^pf^t^^ 
hero of Greece, who died by b^9 own j^^^t^d^: 
The death of Aridomenes i^af much jbeyp^j^ 
tlbe period of true hiffcory as tl^^t of i^i*^:^ 
The common ftory of the deatli of ,l^h^B^ 
f^ocles, though withm thai; periodv hf^^ 
upon Us facje all ^ha marks of am^ft <i^<>9f|ia,'^ 
tic Ja^ble. Of alb ehe\ Greek heroesr vpi^ofp^ 
Kyes have >^^ writtea by Piitt^rc^b^ Cleip^^ | 
m^nearappearsjtf h*w >bei?» J^ oi^ 

^<if ^eillKerd in this' inanne^/ ^ '^T^^^ 
SroMte's^ ari(l Pfiofclon^ who cdftaihly^^uf 
riBt^i^aiit cotlrage, fu^Ted thewrefves to btf.; 
fliif 'to'i^rifotf, aha fabrtiifte^ pattehfly to thit-' 
d^M'te :w:fiich thi ihjiiftiiie 'of tli^r rello^f 
iSfcJ'J^ehV'Wa^ (idhdemrie<r th'eiri: ' The bravi' 
fiiiaieii^s kltiiWiltf himftl?td Be dfelivferea up,' 
b^M b^/^h'tiiutS^DuS Mdiers, td hts eherti)!' 
•^te^bniilsV atid tfris^ ftatVed to death, without' 
s^titep^n^ ahf vJolerice. iTHe gallant PhW 
ife^feiHcii^ Yuffered himfelf tb be tSkeh prifo6<*^ 
ej^^lft^! MeffetiJjins,' wias tMown" into a^cTfin-^ 
^fe;'iiixi'was fuppbfed ttt havfe been pri-^ 
^^iVpSfohed; 'Sevet-al of the i^ilofopli'6^8/ 
irfSlJi'JirtJ fiJd to have died iff Mi irianHerl'^ 
but their lives haVe been fo vtry fooirffily* 
■Mfilcii^ tM'ver^'Rttle credit isr due t6 thtf 
gB^^^^paW of the tales which are 'fold of- 
ttSni?^'Tfir^^dIBfeferil! atcoulnt^ KaV6 Bc^h^ 
^^'«PttiH^(iea^h bf Zenb the Stoic. 0tt<f 
i^^fi^t Sft^ ^O^ing; for httiefy'-erght yelits, 
tfe«9Sit>fei)effif<*^ftiirejdf health, he happertedy 
ii?^^n|^ 6tff (^ rw/fthotol, to' fall; aBd' 
ttW^t^h^HTu^c*^ ho otiief dattiage than thai 
<SF^akfe^^di« dii(!6catm^ 6«e '6f'his fidgers'/ 
MWeil^'im 'grtihM'^th' hif8%«rtd/ aqM^. 
tftV^rda'^ «he^ KhSbe -of Etfripides,- iM^ '/ 

aaftlj^^^^^^^ofiSfahd 4iAag<K» hmmfi ■ -^ 
Pilw 2 2 c that 

?teTfi?^ »»t» one %ould,,tI)jjjJc,[>,c «9*^t 
.:ac?pwu ,i5,,jtha$, at , tljc.ij^fp? ,ag«;v f^i,-^}^ 

accxmm 06 tbe :tbre?r and, r«BJW^4i4*¥^J?5^ 

•tbe aptb<OTty loCa cptfmppf^ry;,, w^c^.,j]j^ 

-ba¥^ had every ■oppprt^^^ijy of l^ng^^l 

infprp^ed 5 : of Perfteus, or^p^jy t^e flj^y|, 

and afterwards r ^he. friepd .and dift^pj^^j^f 

Zeno. The firft account is giv^pi, iby.i^pol|p- 

n»i« jpf Tyre, ^o ^purifbedabipwt ^J^ fi^^e 

^f^. A*ig»fttt8 G^efar, lietyyeeR two ar^i^^ ^^bgqe 

-iwindrcd ye%r», after t^e de^K -ipf ?f!^°'ji{j^ 

jkcQw not wbo is th& auth^QfjOf jiif .,|e<md 

';afccottnt> AppHpnius, , wbp^ jsraa hj^i^f%a 

;3tpici bad probably ,tb§ugjfcrt^^^-.;p9^4j}^o 

bonoar to »b#i/ fpwsd^jif' -pf ija,r, fe^,,y||^ 

talkedtfo rottcb:0bpvt ro^^^tp;lfft df^V. *ft^® 

ikthia maaner -by bl^ pwP:vJl^i?4'r[tA?Pftf9^ 

detlfers,: though j:>*fern:tl*pi?7^l?ajli,,t^fy,j(5J-e 

. :fi3?que«aly imorti . taJJMd f .0^ Shm i ?J»!5 olS^fftft 

s l^tices.' or iflaJ;^Cn^' ^i ^l}^iriitji#e8i,,f^ 8S^?-' 

tally^ during. 18bi^rr?Uf/K^ feipblgfti^^att^rjftgg.' 

^tj^oaotthatjtlrtir adVitntMi^ fmbM^tm^Tf^- 

icorded^l^y cqfiwnppj&fijr ^hlftftri«?S,cr3?3M^^<pf 

>dft«i age»9iTtef«rfdictOi lb^}tb<^jfMt>l^u<Wll^ 

'^Mf, l^d^aVfn^^ no autfien«i <!t«:^6«ft 

'i^te^o ft^pdit'or to^ntradldt tfieif rftaira- 

lilviV^feem- rr«iufehtiy' to 'Save' faflilbned fSein 

teyrtiing td''that^o'<*irn fSne;^; "afi?dia^^ 

4iwk^s''tvhh^^a great raixtuire^# tfie ittatVet-. 

%ife'''' tti tB«*partlcli!ar^lSfe the mafvelfeds, 

^6tighlfiipp6rt^d by iio auihorityv feetnsi b 

m^^^rSj^aiTed'Ovei* the |>fbbablei thooghfup-, 

%iiHcd %' thC' befti Diogenes Laertius plainly 

^gi^ei^^hfe pViftfence to the-ftofy of Apollo- 

,*3ii6s. ''Eu6{ati'afld Ladantiiis appestr bdtll to 

*fia^fe giVen Credit to that of the great ^e'~alttd 

'8f*;^life Vidleht death. - * '. . .;.X 

^"'^t'his iaftiibn of vbluritary de^tH 'appeks 

"'ta ha'^'e' been mii^h niore prevalent -atnolig 

fthd'^ptbWllotTiai'Js, tllian ft ever ivisanfiong 

*^tiicP^iivi(iy, * {ngetiious, knd aceonartiddatirig 

■^(ji^eK^: ■ "'E^ctt ' a:mong the RomartJj ' the 

°feali(itf feefes tiW to have been eftablifhed^in 

^^liarlyi^aiidj'what are tailed, the v'muous 

^^^ of 'thi^ rtbiibHc. The cdfflmon i ftory qf 

^'^Hi^Ath'irf^RfegUltas, though probably a fable, 

^ifeu!d'(iev#'hkve bieen' itivented, hadit beein 

%|>^ea4hiit 'ihf'dirhbnour could hi\ upon 

^^^iM h^^o,^ frtkA ' pfetifenriy fubttiitting ■ to : tl?e 

iMi^^Wttl^h^the' GarthagirfiOTtrarB fAid/;to 

;1?aVejkilKa?da ti)f)Ori him. ki thei latter igc» 

'^■^fth^^repufetk^fbtiife dlftiOflbW,! afipttrebettd, 

''#t3^)*l*kte'iift^cted' this: fubmiCipn; , . In Ibe 

Y"i< ' ? J. different 

^i%r^ cjyii)iw;^rf: which prei;«de4 tlje faH qf 
the commonwealth^ niapy pf the emi9f:Qt 
j^^^n, pf rail tb,? jqaoteojding pgLTt^ies chofq ra- 
ttier tpj pfrith by their own ha»d8< lb«a fip 
f^ll into thofe pf theif enenjies. Th« 4^fllb 
pf Cato, cel.ebr^?ecl> by Cicero, and p^niuristf 
by Cpefar, apd b?c.ornp the fubje^rigf jft y^tf 
ferious controverfy between, perb^pf>, ^^1^ 
two moft illuflrious advocates th?it the yfgjj^ 
had ever beheld, ftamped a ch^^fit^i: flf 
fplendour upon this methpd of dyi^ whif^ 
it feems to hav? retained for fev(^i;^I agfs 
after. The eloquence of Cicero w^s fupcr^gF 
tp that of Caefar. The admirii^g pre^iil^ 
greatly over the cenfuring p^rty, ?pd tbfi 
lovers of liberty, for many ages ^tfrjJSjMHfef 
ioqU^^d up to Cato as to the ?[ipft veiwtraW^ 
iJM^^rpf the repubJjican p^ty. TM hl«4 
pjf^aparty, the Cardinal . d^ ]§L)^t? pbijei^rp?, 
,^^y dp vyh^t he pljp^fe* ; <k8 loi?^, ^^ hi ^rgt^fts 
th^ cpnfidence of his QWQ £ri§n4*, i^phft^t 
never do wrong ; a maxim pf wbAchihi^^l^igMi- 
nence had himfelf, upor^ fev^r?ilp<;(^arip|if,, ^ 
opportunity of experiencing the t^tb. - dC*l«5 
\t feems,^ joined tP his pther virtrHf^ .ih^t^fif 
^,ex;cell?nt bottle coi^panlon. .j^i&ieq^^mfs 
8^(;9u^d him of .driipjce^w?fs» jb4iW,fa5^f^.l§i 
.|i^?^,,.wJjo^ver c^jea^d this. vlfip^o^.^m^ 
.^^ilii^d it g^)^fi^^^afip5 ^PrpW>X^rtl»^,d^^i?^ 
<-l,:sra y I ennef^ 

1^^ ^ of MdltAt l^iidsoPHY. H is 

^€til^i?va Vlfhie, than th« Gatd^ cfdlild tte 
^^aaafeii^d to any viee. 

-SI U'mler iltfe Em|3terdr& this mtithcJd of d^!^ 
Qfeem^tohav^ been, for a lorig yX\^ti pdrftdlly 
^teftnoMble. itf the epiftles bf Pliny we fih^ 
^ account of feve^'al jperfonS who chofe t6 
^te m till* ijiaiiii^r, T^di^r fi^om vanity and 
>dfteRtatibW,^iit i?^6tild {tth\\ than from What 
,^iaiM(^aj)pfeai-, eteri td a faber ind judidous 
^8tdife,an^y primer or il^celTarV reafb Eveh 
^M^'fedie^, wKb are feldom behind in follow- 
^J8^ fTie falhion, Teem ffequefitly to have 
^ehdrfen, trioft unrieceffarity, to dife in tMs 
%iiAitter ; and Hke the ladies in Bengal, to ie- 
3^n^ihyj iipdii fome occafions, their htHf- 
f#»«a*'fdthci totab. The pretalence of tMs 
^fflSfti^^ fceVtairtly occafiorted many deaths 
Nii^ch^ Would hot otherwife have happened. 
tAtt^-ihel havibckv however, which this, per- 
^^Bajli'thi^ higheft exertion of human vAnJty 
'lelfld ittipt^rthence, could occafion, v<rould pi^o- 
'bgfeJy,^4f !^ time^ be very great. 
n£ <TK^'^ii:pj^^>i^i^^e of fuicide, the prindple 
^^Iwfch^WdiHd' tei^h tiS, upon foriife occafiona, 
ifo^*^iM^f tKatf Violent aaioh as an bbjeft ^^f 
^ftjff^^ifig^^d ^rdbitiori; feems to b^ alt0^ 
'j^tKar^a* relin^nic^rft bf philbfophy. Natute 
1« lier foSM atid healtlhfurftiee, Teems ne^^^^ 
-#^ri^l'ii§'tti ftilcider is fildfecd^ a 

^^^ -^^ p 4 ijpecics 

ipecibd) of Ti^efahclioly (^ ^diS^k^ 16 o^6l^ 
faumasiindture; aoiong 1^8 other cilaia^itli^B;^^ 
pfibttppityrilibje^t) whtdi feetot to bi^w^tAlttP 
patiled ^h; whar one miiy dalt^ aa^iurf fi^ 
itisr^^etite ^for fitlMeftrudlion;^ Ift t^i)lfip 
ftaboefl^ l^ten. p^ ^ i^he hrghcft i^ extetnu^ psofpib 
yity anteb foroctime^ toe, in ipite^ieTfen^Jofvtte 

^ teUgibny this^ difeafe >ha6i fi^q\ibnd<f ^bd^ 
Irodwn to drive it$ wi:etcb6d^^k[lims tcA thfe 
fetsi exti'einity. The unforturt at[e^ per^f 
tirfip ^erifli ih this^iferable matirtfer ''ar^lflS^ 
^q)er bbjeiSSy tiot 4>{ ^erxfwe, tfut df ^«5ttfiJ 

V&enlth€y afe beyond the readb of aB>h[i|^aai 
pooUblnkiti is not more • abfi^d ' tWap^ ^^khftp 
unjuft. That punilhment G^n^fidl'©lil^«»^ 
tjieir> fOTviy ing friiands arid relfi?tioniiv ^tviicllire 
aWffty.^ perfeiSiily innocent}, anditb ^vlhdm iHifi 
Iflfs^oftlueir friend, in this diigracdruk>ftiifafft^p 
itouft alwaysr be alone 2t vj^rynh^a*^ calahtityi^ 
I6lt?iire, in^ her fourid ^and- ^h^aitbfiil ftttf^^ 
prximpts ' qs ;to> avoid' diftccfs.rppoikaillvic^'Baiq 
ilnris } iupon jmapy a occafioti^i ;.to jde&td! bov^^ 
ielves ag^ioiftoitij though lat :^thfejhi2izaid; wf^ 
erfbi f kt lib el oceitain ty> of ? periflring lin^ l^bat? ^flJ 
festog oBut^i^iwIrei^lwe^haveiieiitliGr (ffiimidl^^ 

^n that defence, no natural principle, no re-- 


Sift* il^ ^J MoEsftcZsr FtBL^PHr. ib\f 

^d «o Abe 4p]^6battooiof othi )£tp|>ofedf ia^ 
plirj^tJ i|)!9AatoF5 to the;>jiidgm^nt ofrtbebuifini 
Wtil^f tb((S ctw-eaftyj^^ ^call UpcJh?fpsf.Ka 

^ftiftrfrpBi itby^deflroyingrioiirfeivcs. 1 >Iud^ 
onljr?^ ^biifcroufQe^ o^<bbr lOWa itvealmtleV 
oj^qtmr^ tmr^ incajfxsMcit^ s to > &ipppfr£ the^akti 
Bd?yi<iw»^ ?proptr * iDanhoodr ^wd . firnin^^ 
^bififaroaiS 4jri%r ^^ to thas^ rdblution^ -i II doi 
9!^iifem^iTd}qr to have eklieir reatd or heard df 
tifiy Amertcaa fatcagey who^ upon being taken 
pri^nef by fome hoftile tribe, put himfelf td 
49Pth» yxi order to avoid being afterwande put 
tChdeath ia torture, and amidft theinfuks an4 
n^oekery of his enemies. He places his^loiy. 
is fupponing thofe torments vv^ilh mahhood^ 
i^d^n rf torting thbfe infults with tenfold^on^ 
t^pt wd do-ifipn. T: 

) rThi$ coptempt of life and death, toweveftf 
aitd, attbe ianoc time, the moft entire /fitb^ 
nji^onr lo the order of Providence ; the metfti 
cGnnpl^te^ cofijdnuncnt with every events 
wj^if^h the ncwrifentt of human affairs couldt 
pofitJbly caft up,r'may be confidered as tbev 
two -fUndimeDCal'dodlrines upon which refted 
t|M^ whole fabric ;of Stotcal morality,. The; 
indtependent ^andr^iriiedii hut loften harfl*: 
£^)diifi:c(bi£B^ as-the greafl 
a|)oflie cf the^firfbof thcRfe :dt)arinesji> the mM^: 

tJ9ftbirmdhk» tlie faeneivdient Am)Diil<»is,^f i^ 

9?[hQ/ in im f dutby ;had been:iiubjd<£Wti i» 
ih^ io/bleuceioC a J>^iilrat maftexi wbd^^inphil 
lliperyears, waa, by tbcijektoury Jmd ctt^itti 
of Domttian^ b4m&ed frpm R4)me>atldqA& 
thefia, and obliged t^dwdl aoNccopblii, udud 
Vrhp, by the iame tyrant, might 63fif«ft<^^ 
mqmem to be fecit to C yara^ off >p^^hii|»9^ 4* 
be^ put to death; cculd prefervchU^tfl^ 
l]^Ulity only by folkring in hid aund^oiii 
IBoil fov^reiga contempt of hcrauin Kfe^ ^iMwi 
iiever qkuUs fo much, accordingly ihiiiMoi 
^uence is never fo animated, las when ke^sti^ 
p^ff^nitsithe futility^ and nothingnefs of < al^dil 
pl^afureB and all its pains, , i i i^d 

^ , Tihe gqod-natijred Emperor, ithfir abfoidtg 
^^Sr^gn of the whole civilized pact^ofi.tlitt 
]Ypdd,^ who certainly had no peculi^ m$&m 
to x;omplain of his own a)lotmeaty< ddigti^iii 
^^i^ci^ng , his content nsi^iit with i the orcfidav; 
(our^ of things, md/m pmniir^fOuT luia^miis 
feyen in Ihofe parts lofi w wfajere^lvuigar ^ 
fer vers are i not ^ alpi -to v foei lAj^ i '} Thtw^ Isa* 
pjrqpl^iety mi^ ^eAo mi > an^af^p ^tice^^lit 
Q^;>^y,eci, M pld a^iaa^ve^kb fasi^iich f iflfff^ , 

Mfs iM ;imtftbieT ito nature ai t^/blotmi ' an^ 
vigour pf the other. Deatb^ too, is juft s^ 
jpropOTi a (teqiAinatiott df old age, ot y oukk is 
©f <Mitt]ickod, ior maahopd of yoiith. ^ As wi 
frrfqt^mii^ fay, he Temarkdnpon another oti 
«^(tQl^ flnKt the ip^yficiaa haa ordered to fuqh 
j^;[nStB to ofbfe on horfcback, or to ufe th^ 
JSCkld >ath^ dr:to TT^alk barefooted ^ fo ouglit 
f« vtP Ciiyy that Nattnre, the great conductor 
«ix^|>byfic^4a of rtbc univerfe, his ordered tB 
iWh aman a difeafe, or theaimputation of k 
Miteih, oc the lofs of a child. By the pre^ 
ibi^ptio^^ of ordinary phyficians the patient 
iivalle»rs many a bitter potion; undergoei^ 
XQtaii>y! a painful operation. From the very 
lliictetwaihope, however, that health may 
be the confequence, he gladly fubrhrts to ilfi 
DFhJbtoxfhidft prefirriptions of the great l4iy- 
fidiaiDoCjofttiufiy the patient may, in thefahie 

(winaeiV ' l^P^ i^^lt contribute to his own 
liealtAiV '^bi* tyt^ii final profperity arid hap-^ 
jffnefi r andthiS may be perfeflly affiirbd thaf 
tibififyEiic^tfiiiHfiJyi toistyibata, but are indifperi- 
iiWyjP*lceffaf3^^ti>thB hsealeh^ to the profperitjp 
APd bapi^eik trf /the umvetrfe, to the f urther<^' 
•rict^ >aod^ ildiva^^meiit of the gt*at plafi dC 
j^it^ifai Had ib<y not bi^«i fo, the liniveWib^ 
iR0^daQf524r \hvi^^ pipchided >lh6h^v^ ^\W S^ 
«nfe Areliite^ aod Condu^or would never 


:p^yp^ fuftqred them to happen. As all, jev?n 
1^^ ^frnalleit/bf the co-ekiftent parts pit the 
'iiniyerre^ arc ?xadly fitted to one' anotlier, 
and all contribute to compoie one immenfe 
>rid connected fyftem j fo all, even applr'^tly 
the moft infigniiicarit of the fucceffive events 
which follow one another, 'make parts'^* and 
ijc^eflary parts, bf that great chain of Viiif^s 
;and effefts which Had no beginning, and 
which will have no end : and whTch,;^ as ui^j 
;^Il neceflarily ^ refult from tlhe qrlgtnal ^'tix- 
rangcment and contrivance of the whole 'rlo 
"they are all eflentially neceiOary not 6nl'y'to 
its . profperity, but to Its contihuahcfe'^ and 
prefervation. Whoever does not tofaialiy 
:*^m^r^ce whatever befals hini, ' whoe^^r^s 
fpr^y that it has befallen him, Vhdevtt wiui^ 
:jthat it had not Befallen him, wiflies/ lo\'far'as 

i^ Ivi m lies, to flop the naotlon^ oT tKe"^ .imii. 

y&:jky [ to break that great chain' of lucceltio^, 
ty tji^, prp^refs of which that; fyi[te^n?^c^^ 
silorxQ he continued and preferverf, 'ana.^^r 

4ome Jjlttle convemency ot his own, to 

~oi(5*^y or too, Ute to me whicTi, is leafonaTOC 
^'f,.|r thee. Alf iV fruit '^ ihe^^^^{^H^% 

- ** feafoni 

j^^^^Ilj-- 5^ Moral Ph^;.o9GPhy. mi 

^*V icaljpns bring fort^ Frqia thc^ff , are all 
^^ things^l ^n thee are all tfiings^ Icir'theicfaife 
^^ all things, bpe man lays, O i)el6yed city 
'^^ bifCiecrops. . Wilt thou hot faV, O beloved 
'.^ cltyofGodr 

Froih';thefe very, fublimc dofltrines tile 

.Stoics* or at leaft: fome of the Stoics, at- 

tem|)ted to deduce all their paradoxes.'^ 

I ^ ^t'he Stoical, wife man: endeavoured tp ehi'dr 

"into' the views pi the ^reat Superintendaiit 6£ 

the univerfe, and to fee things, in the fame 

Ughtia which that divine Being beheld thehi.. 

JBiit to the gre^t Superintendant of the utii* 

verfe, all the different events wliiph the courle 

^^f ,^is providence may bring forth, what to 

vs appear the fmalleft and the greateft, tWe 

^^rftin^ of ^bubble, as Mr. Pope fays, jatiH 

that. of a world, for example, were perfei^ly 

CQUaL Wjsre eq[ually parts or that great cnaija 

which he had predeftined from all eterhit]^,. 

7f f re^^^HH^1^3[, th^ effe^cls of the fame unerrmg, 

wifdpm, of the lame univerfal and boundlefs 

benevolence. To->the Stoical wile man, m the 

hin^e manne^^^ thofq difFei:ent events were 

^erfc^ly e^^ In the* cbtirfe of thofe 

^?vems^: inde^d^ a little depar^ment^. in wliiciK 

ja^ \^a^ him^^ managktie?tit^^U^ 

dkj^aipn^^^ h^ been affigned to him.' ' ^'^I^^ 

dmartmenl he endeavourea td 'ait^^ y,^5ro-^ 

peWy^asiw? eobldj and to ccnd'aa? httxrfdif -ait* 
oofrfirfg to thofe ordew wWch, ht tiridttrfttfCf^,^ 
had been prefcribed to hihi. But he tdok' hd 
inxious or paffionate contern etther th the 
fuccefs or in the difappointmcnt of^his own 
moft faithful endeavours. The highdft prbi* 
fperity and the total deftrndion of that fittltf 
department, df that little fyftcrti which Iracf 
been in fome meafure cortimitttd to htii* 
charge, were peffedly indifEtretit to Wftr.^ 
If thofc events had depended upon hitt// Tie 
would have chofen the one and he wbtit$ 
have rejefted the other. But as they did Itdt 
depend upon him, he tnifted to a ftiperioiP 
wifdom, and Was perfectly fatisfied that" th«^ 
event which happened, whatever it itif^hf 
be, was the very event which he hiroftlf.^ 
had he known all the connexions and defjetid-^ 
encies of things, would moft earnefEljr attd^ 
devoutly have wiflied for. Whatever Ke ^xS' 
under the influence and diredion of thoft^ 
principles was equaHy perfed; and %lien^' 
fie ftretched out his finger, to give the icfii-^V 
ample which they commonly made ufe^ d^; 
fie performed an adJiott in evi^ry refpe^^ai? 
rteritorious, as worthy of praife and iatdi 
ration, as when he laid down his Hft'ibif' tl 
fer^ieeof his cdantry# As", ta th^ great ^ 
petiatniidfltst <^ c&e imiaft^ m^^g^ 

, i 

11^^. ^^ cf MoR^LrFp-ftjOJ^PHy. $13 

apd^^fefe^ OflaH^ft exeitiona of his pc^vwr^, Itibcj 
i[Ofnf^atioiv aad diflblutioa of- a worW^; tfee 
foipmation and; diffolution of a Whbliev ivferd 
^ually eafy, were equally admirablie^' and 
^yally the cffefts of the fame divine wifdoc^ft 
aj>d -benevolenee ; fo, : to the StoicM wiffi mai>|: 
^^{^1 we would pall the great a<3iioa, reaqkedl 
qq^ ;inoi:e exertion ^haij tl^^ little oii^^ ^aa^ 
apaUy ciafy, proceeded ;%onie*^adjtl(y rthi? 
f^e* principles, wa^ in, po refped^i wore raerii- 
l^^oi^, nor woftby of stpy higher 'degype c^| 
gl^jfeanc^ admiration. ^ y ^ nf*; >;v 

.^^ all thofe who had arrived ^at ^th^i^t fli^to; 
c^ piprfc^aiQn, were equally Jbappyj fo (»Jtt 
t|fi^fe.who f(?ll in the fmalleft degree fhorl'dl 
i^^J^^yr nearly foever they might approaq?*. 
tc|(i^,. were ^ equally miferable. As the^an^ 
4*i^y.-^laidr who was but an inch below thes; 
f^ac^ '^f. the. water, could no more breathe- 
t^^att he who wa&an hundred yards below>itjL^ 
f<g>jtjhije riwifivwho had not completely fubdued,^ 
al|..,h^ griyate, partial, and fel&ih paffionsi,;: 
vC^Q( ^ad.any qther earneft defire but that fori 
th|(f, upivei^l hi^ppinefs, who had not com^^ 
j^ft^^g er?ie;'g^4 from th^t abyfs of miferya 
aijj^ybjdfr iqtp. w^ich; his, anxiety fo»-:t^iih 
gSifiifil^'W! pi *bpfc, priyatey. partial, r«fl*i 
l^S#i7fy45opi» |ia4>nvol^^d:liiiihi^^^i«»ft 
«9l«ftJ?^4fetth^%fft^l^ fi^it^jPjirM^llttljSq 

hti% ^ pendancy. 












{o '^»» 


,i\v ^^"^ 

ft im^ 












jSea. & ' of MorAl pHILOsop^v. gtaj 

- iSuA: have been in fome meafure ttiifundei:-: ' 
ftoo3 or mifreprefented. At any fate, .J . 
f^hnot allow myfelf to believe that fugh oiea , 
as Zeno or CleantheS| men,, it is faid, of tlje 
dloft fimple as well as of, the moft fublime 
eloquence, could be thq authors, either of,, 
tHefe, or of the greater part pf the other 
Stoical paradoxes, which arc in general mere 
impertinent quibbles, i^nd do fo Ji^ttle honour 
to their fyftem that I (hall give no further 
jaccbunt of them. 'lam difpofed to impute 
theiii rather to Ghryfippus, the difciple and 
follower, indeed, of IZetio and Cleanthes, 
tilt who, from all that has been defiveredi 
down to us concerning him, feems to have 
beeh a mere dialedical ped^t, without tafie 
or elegance of any kind. He may have/ 
bft^n the firft who reduced their doftrines 
iribb a fcholaftic or technical fyftem of artir 
ficikl definitions, divifions, and fubdivifions| 
ottfe of the iiioft efFedual expedients, perhaps, 
for extinguifliing whatever degree of goo4 
fenfe there may be in any moral or meta^f . 
phyficaj dodrine. Such a man may very 
eafil^ be fuppofed to have underftopd too 
UtyralTy fome anitaated expreffions of Hi,? ^ 
mtrftiVs in defcribidg the happiiiefs of the 
m^li^Drpferfed: virtue, and the unhappinef^ij'' 
pi?jUrl{b^d6 fell ih^ bf tkat ctiaka^er. '^''' '"'' 

m.ii, flu Th? 

2a< OfSr^tlun Part VII. 

The Stoics in general feem to have ad- 
mitted that there might be a degree of profi- 
ciency in thofe who had not advanced to 
perfect virtue and happinefs. They diftri- 
buted thofe proficients into different claffes, 
according to the degree of their advance- 
ment; and they called the imperfefl: vir- 
tues which they fuppofed them capable of 
cxercifing, not reditudes, but proprieties, 
fitneffes, decent and becoming a£tions, for 
which a plaufible or probable reafon could be 
afligned, what Cicero expreflTes by the Latia 
word o/^ddy and Seneca, I think more exadly 
by that of convenientia. The do£trine of 
thofe imperfed^ but attainable virtues, fcems 
to have conftituted what we may call the 
pradical morality of the Stoics. It is the 
fubje£l of Cicero's Offices ; and is faid to 
have been th^t of another book written by 
Marcus Brutus, but which is now loft. 

The plan and fyftem which Nature has 
fketched out for our condud, feems to be 
altogether different' from that of the Stoical 

By Nature the events which immediately 
affeft that little department in which we our- 
felves have fome little management and direc- 
tion, which immediately afFe£l ourfelves, our 
friends^ our country, are the events which 


Sea. IL of Moral Philosophy. 427 

intereft us the moft, and which chiefly ex-* 
cite our defires and averfions, Our hopes and 
fears, our joys and forrows. Should thofe 
paflSons be, what they arc very apt to be, 
too vehement, Nature has provided a proper 
remedy and corredion. The real or even 
the imaginary prefence of the impartial fpec- 
tator, the authority of the man within the 
bread, is always at hand to overawe them 
into the proper tone and temper of modera^ 

If notwithftanding our moft fiithful exer- 
tions, all the events which can affeft this little 
department, fhould turn out the moft un- 
fbrtunate and difaftrous, Nature has by no 
means left u» without confolation. That 
confolation may be drawn, not only from 
the complete approbation of the man within 
the breaft, but, if poffible, from a ftill nobler 
and more generous principle, from a firm re* 
liance upon, and a reverential fubmiflion ta, 
that benevolent wifdom which direds all the 
events of human life, and which, wd may be 
afTured, would never have fufFered thofe miC- 
fortunes to happen, had they not been indiC- 
penfably neceflary for the good of the whole* 

Nature has not prefcribed td us this fublimc 
contemplation as the great bufinefs and occu^ 
pation of our lives. She only points it out 

<^2 . to 

aa8 O/Srgrtut Part VIL 

to ud as the confolation of our misfortunes. 
The Stoical philofophy prefcribes it as the 
great bufinefs and occupation of our lives. 
That philofophy teaches us to intereft our- 
felves eameftly and anxioufly in no events, 
external to the good order of our own 
minds, to the propriety of our own choofmg 
and rejecting, except in thofe which concern 
a department where we neither have nor ought 
to have any fort of management or direaionj 
the department of the great Superintendaut 
of the univerfe. By the perfed apathy 
which it prefcribes to u^ by endeavouring, 
not merely to moderate, but to eradicate all 
our private, partial, and felfifli affections, by 
fuffering Us to feel for whatever can befd 
ourfelves, our friends, our country, not even 
the fympathetic and reduced paffions of the 
impartial fpedJiator, it endeavours to render 
us altogether indifferent and unconcerned in 
the fuccefs or mifcarriage of every thing 
which Nature has prefcribed to us as the 
proper bufinefs and occupation of our lives. 
The reafonings of philofophy, it may be 
faid, though they may confound and perplex 
the underftanding, can never break down the 
neceffary conhedion which Nature has efta^- 
blifhed between caufes and their efFcds. 
The caufes which naturally excite our defires 


Sisft. tt. o/MoB^Ai Philosophy. ^ 229 

and averfions^ our hopes and fears, our joys 
and forrows, would no doubt notwithihind- 
ing all the reafonings of Stoicifm, produce 
upon each individual, according to the de- 
gree of his adlual fenfibility, their proper and 
neceflary effeds. The judgments of the 
man within the breaft, however, might be a 
good deal afFe£ted by thofe reafonings, and 
that great inmate might be taught by them 
to attempt to overawe all our private, partial, 
and felfifli affedions into a more or lefs perfe<3: 
tranquillity. To dired the judgments of thi» 
inmate is the great purpofe of all fyftems of 
morality. That the Stoical philofophy had 
very great influence upon the character and 
condu<a of its followers, cannot be doubted ; 
and that though it might fometimes incite 
them to unneceiTary violence, its general ten- 
dency was to animate them to aftions of the 
moft heroic magnanimity and moft extenfive 

IV. Befides thefe ancient, there are fome 
modern fyftems, according to which virtue 
confifts in propriety ; or in the fuitablenefs of 
the afFedtion from which we a(3:, to the caufe 
or objedl which excites it. The fyftem 
of Dr. Clark, which places virtue in adiing 
according to the relations of things, in regu- 
lating our conduit according to the fitnefs or 

0^3 incon- 

53© 0/ Systems Paf t VII. 

incongruity which there may be in the appli- 
cation of certain aftions to certain things, or 
to certain relations: that of Mr. Woollafton, 
which places it in ading according to the 
truth of things, according to their proper na- 
ture and effence, or in treating them as what 
they really are, and not as what they are not 5 
that of my Lord Shaftelbury, which places it 
in maintaining a proper balance of the affec- 
tions, and in allowing no paflion to go be-^ 
yond its proper fphere ; are all of them more 
or lefs inaccurate defcriptions of the fame 
fundamental idea. 

None of thofe fyftems either give, or even 
pretend to give, any precife or diftindt niea- 
' fure by which this fitnefs or propriety of 
affedion can be afcertained or judged of. 
That precife and diftind meafure can be found 
nowhere but in the fympathetic feelings of 
the impartial and well informed fpedator. 

The defcription of virtue, befides, whic^ 
is either given, or at leaft meant and intended 
to be given, in each of thofe fyftems, for 
fome of the modern authors are not very for* 
tunate in their manner of expreffing themr 
felves, is no doubt quite juft, fo far as it goes. 
There is no virtue without propriety, and 
wherever there is propriety fome degree of 
approbation is di^e. But ftill this defcription 

Scft. n. 9f Moral PHiLosoPHYt 23 1 

is imperfeft. For though propriety is an 
cflential ingredient in every virtuous adtion, 
it is not always the fole ingredient. Benefi- 
cent anions have in them another quality by 
which they appear not only to deferve appro- 
bation but recompenfe. None of thofe fyf- 
tems acpount either eafily or fufficiently for 
that fuperior degree of efteem which feems 
due to fuch adions, or for that diverfity of 
fentiment which they naturally excite. Nei- 
ther is the defcription of vice more complete. 
For, in the fame manner, though impro- 
priety is a neceflary ingredient in every vicious 
aftion, it is not always the fole ingredient ; 
and there is often the higheft degree of abfur- 
dity and impropriety in very harmlefs and 
infignificant adtions. Deliberate anions, of 
a pernicious tendency to thofe we live with, 
have, befides their impropriety, a peculiar 
quality of their own,, by which they appear 
to deferve, not only difapprobation, but 
punifhraent ; and to be the objeds, not of 
diflike merely, but of refentment and re- 
venge: and none of thofe fyftems eafily 
and fufficiently account for that fuperior de- 
gree of deteftation which we feci for fuch 


ft3* ty Systems PaftVlt 

fcHAP. 11; 

bf thofc Sjifiems avbi^b m^hc Virtue con^ k 

^h6 moii ancient of thofe fyftfems which 
make virtue confift in prudence, and 
bf which any confiderable remains hstve come 
dpwn to us, is that of Epicurus, who is faid, 
however, to have borrowed all the leading 
principles of his philofophy from fome of 
thofe who had gone before him, particularly 
from Ariftippus ; though it is very probable, 
Hotwithftanding this allegation of his enemies, 
t^at at lead his manner of applying thofe 
.principles was altogether his own. 

According to Epicurus *, bodily pjeafure 
and pain were the fole ultimate objedis of 
natural defire and averfion. That they were 
always the natural objefts of thofe paflions^ 
he thought Required no proof. Pleafurd 
might, indeed, appear fometimes to be 
avoided j not, however, becaufe it was plea- 
sure, but becaufcj by the enjoyment ojf it, 
we fhould either forfeit fome greater pleafure^^ 
br expofe ourfelves to fome pain that was 

* 'See Cicero de Finibus, lib* i* Diogenes Laert. I. x. 


S/eft. il. ^f MaRAL PhilosophV. i jj 

inore to be avoided than this pleafu^e was to 
be defired. Pain, in the fame manner, might 
appear fometimes to be eligible ; not, how- 
ever, becaufe it was pain, but becaufe by en- 
during it we might either avoid a ftill greater 
pain, or acquire fome pleafure of much morci 
importance* That bodily pain and pleafure^ 
therefore, were always the natural objefts of 
dfifire and averfion, was, he thought, abun- 
dantly evident. Nor was it lefs fo, he ima- 
gined, that they were the fole ultimate ob*^ 
jefts of thofe paffionsi Whatever elfe waft 
cither defired or avoided, was fo, according 
to him, upon account of its tendency to pro* 
duce one' or other of thofe fenfations^ The 
tendency to procure pleafure rendered power 
and riches defirable, as the contrary tendency 
to produce pain made poverty and infignifi- 
Cancy the objeCks of averfion. Honour and 
reputation were valued, becaufe the efteem 
and love of thofe we live with were of the 
greateft confequence both to procure pleafure 
and defend us from pain. Ignominy and 
bad fame, on the contrary, were to be 
avoided, becaufe the hatred, contempt, and 
refentment of thofe we lived with, deftroyed 
all fecurity, and necefTarily cxpofed us to the 
greateft bodily evils* 


1234 Cy Systems Part VII. 

All the pleafures and pains of the inind 
were, according to Epicurus, ultimately de- 
derived from thofe of the body. The mind 
was happy when it thought of the paft plea- 
fures of the body, and hoped for others to 
. come : and it was miferable when it thought 
of the pains which the body had formerly en- 
dured, and dreaded the fame or greater 

But the pleafures and pains of the mind, 
though ultimately derived from thofe of the 
body, were vaftly greater than their origi- 
nals. The body felt only the fenfation of the 
prefent inftant, whereas the mind felt alfo 
the paft and the future, the one by remem-^ 
brance, the other by anticipation, and confe- 
quently both fufFered and enjoyed much 
more. When we are under the greateft b0f^ 
dily pain, he obferved, we fhall always find, 
if we attend to it, that it is not the fuflfering 
of the prefent inftant which chiefly torments 
us, but either the kgonizing remembrance of 
the paft, or the yet more horrible, dread of 
the future. The pain of each inftant* confi- 
dered by itfelf, and cut oflT from all that goes 
before and all that comes after it, is a trifle not 
worth the regarding. Yet this is all which 
the body can ?ver b? faid to (uf[cv^ In thq 


Sefti II- af Moral Philosophy. 235 

fame manner, when we enjoy the greateft 
pleafure, we fhall always find that the bodily 
fenfation, the fenfation of the prefent inftant, 
makes but a fmall part of our happinefs, that 
our enjoyment chiefly arifes either from the 
cheerful recoUedion of the paft, or the ftill 
more joyous anticipation of the future, and 
that the mind always contributes by muqh 
the largeft (hare of the entertainment. 

' Since our happinefs and mifery, therefore, 
depended chiefly on the mind, if this part of 
our nature was well difpofed, if our thoughts 
and opinions were as they fhould be, it was 
of little importance in what manner our body 
was affedled. Though under great bodily 
pain, we might ftill enjoy a confiderable fhare 
of happinefs, if our reafon and judgment 
maintained their fuperiority. We might en- 
tertain ourfelves with the remembrance of 
paft, and with the hopes of future pleafufe ; 
we might foften the rigour of our pains, by 
recollecting what it was which, even in this 
fituation, we were under any neceffity of fuf-? 
fering. That this was merely the bodily 
fenfation, the pain of the prefent inftant, 
which by itfelf could never be very greats 
That whatever agony we fuflfered from the 
dread of its continuance, was the eflTeft of an 

ppinion of the mind which might be cor- 


i^6 Of Systems Paf t VIL 

re£ted by jufter fcntiments ; by confidering 
that, if our pains were violent, they would 
probably be of fliort duration ; and that if 
they were of long continuance, they would 
probably be moderate^ and admit of many 
intervals of eafe ; and that, at any rate, death 
was always at hand and within call to deliver 
118, which as, according to him^ it put an end 
to all fenfation^ cithSr of pain or pleafure, 
could not be regarded as an evil. When we 
are, faid he, death is not ; and when d^ath 
is, we are not; death therefore can be no- 
thing to us. 

If the adual fenfation of pofuivc pain was 
in itfelf fo little to be feared, that of plealure 
was ftill lefs to be dcfired. Naturally the 
fenfation of pleafure was much lefs pungent 
than that of pain. If, therefore, this laft 
could take fo very little from the happinefs 
of a well-difpofed mind, the other could «dd 
fearce any thing to it. When the body was 
free from pain and the mind from fear and 
anxiety, the fuperadded fenfation of bodily 
pleafure could be of very little importance 
and though it might diverfify, could not pro^ 
perly be faid to increafe the happinefs of this 

In eafe of body, therefore, and in fecurity 
or tranquillity of mind, confided, according 


SeSt. U, of Moral Philosophy. 437 

to Epicurus, the moft perfect ftatc of human 
nature, the moft. complete happinefs which 
man was capable of enjoying^ To obtain 
this great end of natural defire was the fole 
objeft of all the virtues, wliich, according to 
him, were not defirable upon their own ac^ 
count, but upon account of their tendency to 
bring about this fituation. 

Prudence, for example, though, accords 
ing to this philofophy, the fource and prin-p 
ciple of all the virtues, was not defirable upon 
its own account. That careful and laborious 
and circumfpefl: ftate of mind, ever watchful 
And ever attentive to the moft diftant confe- 
iquences of every adion, could hot be a thingj 
pleafant or agreeable for its own fake, but 
upon account of its tendency to procure the 
£reateft goods and to keep oflf the greateft 

To abftain from pleafure^ too, to curb and 
reftrain our natural paffions for enjoyment, 
which was the office of temperance, could 
-never be defirable for its own fake. The 
whole value of this virtue arofe from its utt- 
Jirty, from its enabling us to poftpone the pre- 
' ient enjoyment for the fake of a greater t5 
x:ome, or to avoid a greater pain that might 
«nfue from it. Temperance, in fhort, was^ 
*»oihing but prudence with regard to pleafure. 


«38 Of Systems. tart VIL 

To fupport labour, to endure pain, to be 
expofed to danger or to death, the fituations 
which fortitude would often lead us into^ 
were furely ftill lefs the objeds 6f natural de- 
lire. They were chofen only to avoid greater 
evils. We fubmitted to labour, in order to 
avoid the greater (hame and pain of poverty^ 
and we expofed ourfelves to danger and to 
death in defence of our liberty and property, 
the means and inftruments of pleafure and 
happinefs ; or in defence of our country, in 
the fafety of which our Own was neceffarily 
comprehended. Fortitude enabled us to do 
all this cheerfully, as the beft which, in our 
prefent fituation, could poflibly be done, and 
was in reality no mote than prudence^ good 
judgment, and prefence of mirid in properly 
appreciating pain, labour and danger, al- 
ways choofing the lefs in order to avoid the 

It is the fame cafe with jufticc. To ab^ 
ftain from what is another's was not defirable 
on its own account, . and it could hot furely 
be better for you, that I fhoiild poffefs what 
is my own, than that you ihould poffefe it. 
You ought, however, to abftain from what- 
ever belongs to me, becaufe by doing other- 
wife you will provoke the refentment and in*' 
dignation of mankind. The fecurity and 


Se&*n« 2/* Moral Philosophy. , ^j^ 

traaquilliiy of your mind will be entirely de- 
ftroyed. You will be filled with fear and con- 
fleroation at the thought of the punifliment 
which you will imagine that meii are at all 
times ready to inflidt upon you, and from 
which no power, no art, no concealment, 
will ever, in your own fancy^ be fufEcient to 
proted yoUr That other fpecies of juftice 
which confifts in doing proper good offices 
to different perfons, according to thq various 
relations of neighbours, kinfmen,* friends, be- 
nefafkorsy fuperiors, or equals which they 
may ftand in to us' is recommended by the 
fame reafons. To a^ properly in all thefc 
different relations procures us the efteem and 
love of thofe we live with, as to do otherwifc 
excites their contempt and hatred. By the 
one we naturally fecure, by the other we 
neceffarily endanger our own eafe and tran- , 
quillity, the great and ultimate objeds of all 
our defires. The whole virtue of juftice, 
therefore, the moft important of all the vir- 
tues, is no more than difcreet and prudent 
conduft with regard to our neighbours. 

Such is the dodrine of Epicurus concern- 
ing the nature of virtue. It may feem extra- 
ordinary that this philofopher, who is defcri- 
bed as a perfon of the moft amiable manners, 
ihould never have obferved, that, whatever 


€4« Of SYSTEMS Part VI!; 

may be the tendency of thofe virtues, or of 
the contrary vices, with regard to our bodily 
eafe and fecurity, the fentiments which they 
naturally excite in others are the objefts oiz^ 
much more paffionate defire or averfion than 
all their other confequcnces ; that to be ami- 
able, tp be refpedable, to be the proper ob- 
ject of efteem, is by every well-difpofed 
mind more valued than all the eafe and fectiT 
rity which love, refpedl, and efteem call 
prociure us ; that, on the contrary, to be odi- 
ous, to be contemptible, to be the proper ob- 
ject of indignation, is mor*e dreadful than all 
that we can fufFer in our body from hatred, 
contempt or indignation; and that qonfe- 
quently our defire of the one character, and 
our averfion to the other cannot arife from 
^ny regard to the effeds which either of 
them is likely to produce upon the body. 

This fyftem is, no doubt, altogether incon-p 
fiftent with that which I have been endea- 
vouring to eftablifh. It is not difficult, how- 
ever, to difcover from what phafis, if I may 
fay fo, from what particular view or afpefl: 
of nature, this account of things derives \x&, 
probability. By the wife contrivance of the 
Author of nature, virtue is upon all ordinary 
occafions, even with regard to this life, real 
wifdom, and the fureil and readied means of 
'9 obtain? 

Sfe£t. n. of^ Moral Philosophy. 241 

obtaining both fafety and advantage. Our 
fuccefs or difappointment in our undertakings 
ihuft very much depend upon the good or 
bad opinion which is commonly entertained 
of us, and upon the general difpofition of 
thofe we live with, either to aflift or to op-^ 
pofe us. But the beft, the fureft, the eafieft, 
ind the readieft way of obtaining the advan- 
tageous ^nd of avoiding the unfavourable 
judgments of others, is undoubtedly to render 
Ourfelves the proper obje£ts of the former and 
not of the latter. " Do you defire," faid 
Socrates, " the reputation of a good mufician ? 
" The only fure way of obtaining it, is to 
" become a good mufician. Would you de- 
*• fire in the fame manner to be thought ca- 
" pable of ferving your country either as. a 
" general or as a ftatefman ? The beft way 
" in this cafe too is really to acquire the art 
" and experience of war and government, 
" and to become really fit to be a general or a 
" fl:atefman. And in the fame manner if 
** you would be reckoned fober, .temperate, 
" juft, and equitable, the. beft way of ac* 
" quiring this reputation is to become fober^ 
*' temperate, juft, and equitable. If yoifj can 
" really render yourfelf amiable, refpedable, 
" and the proper object of efteem, there is 
" no fear of your not foon acquiring the 
VOL. II. R "love, 

242 Of S y s T ? MS P^ VII. 

" love, the refpeft, and efte^m of tbofe you 
" live with." Sinoe the pradice of virtue^ 
therefore is in general fo advantageous, and 
that of vice fo contrary to our iptereft, the 
confid-cration of thpfe pp»pofiteteudieqcies un- 
doubtedly ftamps aa ?i,ddition?Ll beauty afld 
propriety upon the oqe, and a new deforn^ity 
and impropriety uppq the other. Tempe- 
rance, magn^pip;iLty, j.mftic?, and beaeftqence, 
come thus to be approved of, npt only under 
their proper chara£ters^ but un^der the addi- 
tional charaiSter of the hig;heft wifdona and 
njoft real prudence. Aa4 in the fame iriaa- 
ner, the contrary vici?§ of intemperance, pu- 
fillanjroiity, injuftke,, and either makyolenfe 
or (ordicj felfijlincfs, pome to be difapproved 
of, not only under their proper ch?ir^^ers, 
but under the additional charaSerof che naoft 
ihort-fighted folly ar^d w^ak^efs. Epiciirius 
appears in every virtue to have attended to 
this fpecies of propriety pnly. It \% 
which is moJft apt to oc^c.ur to thofe who are 
endeavouring to perfuade others to regularity 
of conduiS:. When men by their pradice, 
an.d perhaps too by their maxims, manifeftly 
ibow that the natural beaw):y of virtue is not 
like to have njuch effejft upon them, how; is 
it ppffible to move them but by rcprefpnting 
the folly of their icondud, ai^d how pi^uch 


J&eft. II. of Moral Philosophy. 1243 

fhey themfeiv€s are in the end likely to fufFer 
by it? 

By running up ail the different virtues top 
tothis one fpecies of propriety, Epicurus inr 
dulged a propenfity, which is natural to all 
men, but which philofophers in particular 
are apt to cultivate with a peculiar fondnefs^ 
0S the great means of difplayiiig their ingenur 
ity, the propenfity to account for all appear- 
ances from as few principles as poflible.. 
And he, no doubt, indulged this propenfity 
Hill further, when he referred all the primary 
objeds of natural defire and averfion to the 
pleafures and pains of the body. The great 
patron of the atomical philofophy, who took 
fo much pleafure in deducing all the powers 
and qualities of bodies from the moft obvious 
and familiar, the figure, motion, and ar-r 
rang^ment of the fmall parts of matter, felt 
no doubt a fimilar fatisfaAion, when he ac- 
counted, in the fame manner, for all the 
fentiments and pafTions of the mind from 
thofe which are moft obvious and fami- 

The fyftem of Epicurus agreed with thofe 
of Plato, Ariftotle, and Zeno, in making 
virtue confift in ading in the moft fuitable 
jnanner to obtain* primary objeds of naturaj 

^ Prima naturae. 

R 2 defire. 

244 (y Systems PartVlL 

defirc. It differed froiii all of them in two 
other refpeds ; firft, in the account which it 
gave of thofe primary objeds of natural de- 
fire ; and fecondly, .in the account which it 
gave of the excellence of virtue, or of the rea- 
fon why tharquality ought to be efteemed. 

The primary objeds of natural defire con- 
fifted, according to Epicurus, in bodily plea- 
fure and pain, and in nothing elfe : whereas, 
according to the other three philofophers, there 
were many other objeds, fuch as knowledge, 
fuch as the happinejs of our relations, of our 
friends, of our country, which were ultimately 
defirable for their own fakes. 

Virtue too, according to Epicurus, did not 
deferve to be purfued for its own fake, nor 
was itfelf one of the ultimate objeds of na- 
tural appetite, but was eligible only upon ac- 
count of its tendency to prevent pain and to 
procure eafe and pleafure. In the opinion of 
the other three, on the contrary, it was de- 
firable not merely as the means of procuring 
the other primary objeds of natural defire, 
but as fomething which was in itfelf more 
valuable than them all. Man, they thought, 
being born for -adion, his happinefs muft 
confift, not merely in the agreeablenefs of his 
paflive fenfations, but alfo in the propriety of 
his adive exertions. 

Sea. n. &f Moral Philosopht. 245 


Of tbofe Syjiems which make Virtue conjift in 

npHE fyftem which makes virtue confift 
* in benevolence, though I think not fo 
ancient as all of thofe which I have already 
given an account of, is, however, of very 
great antiquity. It feems to have been the 
doftrine of the greater part of thofe philo- 
fophers who,, about atid after the age of 
Auguftus, called themfelves Ecledics, who 
pretended to follow chiefly the opinions of 
Plato and Pythagoras, and who, upon that 
account are commonly known by the name 
of the later Platbnifts. 

In the divine nature, according to. thefe 
authors, benevolence or love was the fole 
principle of adion, and diredted the exertion 
of all the other attributes. The wifdom of the 
Deity was employed in finding out the means 
for bringing about thofe ends which his 
goodnefs fuggefted, as his infinite power was 
exerted to execute them. Benevolence, how- 
ever, was ftill the fupreme and governing 
. R 3 attribute. 

a4<5 0/* System* VittVit 

attribute, to which the others were Hibfervi- 
ent, and from which the whole excellency, 
or the whole morality, if I may be allowed 
fuch an expreflion, of the divine operations, 
was ultimately detived. The whole perfee- 
tioa aad virtue of.the hutnan mintf conMed 
in fome fefemblance or participation of the 
divine perfedlions, and, confequently, in be- 
ing filled with the fame principle of benevo- 
lence and' love which influenced di the 
afltions of the Deity. The af^ions of meil 
which flowed from this motive were alone 
truly praife-worthy^ or could claimf any me^ 
rit in the fight! of the Deity. Ic was* by ac- 
tions of charity and love oniy that we could 
imitate, as- became m^ the condu<a: of God^ 
that we could exprefe our humble and devoun 
admiration of his infinite perfeftions, that by" 
foftering. in our own* minds the faove divine 
principle, we could bring our own afibdiona 
to a greater refemblance with his holy attri- 
butes, and thereby become taore proper oh* 
je<as of his love and efteem; till at laft we 
arrived at that immediate convcrle and com- 
munication with the Deity to which it was 
the great objeft of this philofophy to raife 

This fyfl:emy as it was much eft^emed by 
many ancient fathers of the Ghriftian ckurchj 


6eft. II. of Moral Philosophy. 247 

fo after the Reformation it was adopted by 
feveril ditities of the iiioft eminent piety and 
learning and of the riioft artiiable rtiartiiers ; 
particularly, by Dr. Ralph Cudworth, b^ 
Dr. Henry More, arid by Mr. John Stnitk 
of Cartibridge. But of all the patrons of this 
fyftem, ancient or modern, the late Dr. 
Hutcljefon was undoubtedly, beyond all 
comparifon, the moft acute, the moft diftiiift, 
the mdft philofdphical, and, what is of the 
greateft confequence of all, the fobereft.ancl 
moft judicious. 

That virtue confifts in benevolence is a 
notion fupportcd by many appearances in 
tuman nature. It has been obferved already, 
that proper benevolerfce is the mort graceful 
and agreeable of all the afFedtons, that it is 
recommended to us by a double fympathy, 
that as its tendency is neceflarily beneficent. 
It is the proper bbje£^ of gratitude and^ 
reward, and that upon all thefe accounts it 
appears to our natural fentiments to poflefs a 
merit fuperior to any other. It has been 
obferved too, that even the weaknefles of 
benevolence are not very difagreeable to us, 
whereas thofe of every other paifion are al- 
ways extremely difguftingk \^ho does not 
afehor exceflive malice, exceffive felfiQinefs, 
or exceflive refenttnent? But the njoft ex- 
R 4 ceflive 

?f48 Of Systems Part VII. 

f effive indulgence even of partial friendfbip 
is not fo offenfive. It is the benevolent paC- 
fions only which can exert themfelves with- 
out any regard or attention to propriety, and 
yet retain fomethipg about them which is en- 
gaging. There is fomethipg pleafing even 
iti mere inftindiye good-will which gpes on 
^o do good oflBces without once refleding 
whether by this conduct it is the proper 
pbje<9t either of blame or approbation. It is 
pot fo with the other paffions. The moment 
they are deferted, the moment they are un- 
accompanied by thefenfe of propriety, they 
ceafe to be agreeable. 

As benevolence beftdw^s upon thofe actions 
which proceed from it, a beauty fuperior to 
all others, fo the want of it, find much more 
the contrary inclination, communicates a pe- 
culiar deformity to whatever evidences fuch 
a difpofition. Pernicious actions are pftea 
punifhable fpr no other reafon than becauf^ 
they fhew a want of iiifficieht attention to the 
happinefs of our neighbour. 

Befides all this, Dr. Hutchefon * obferved, 
that whenever in any adion, fuppofed to 
proceed from benevolent afFedions, fome 
other motive had been difcovered, bur fenfe 
pf the merit of this adion was juft fo far di- 

f geq Inquiry concerning Virtue, fedl. i. and 2. 


Seft. II. of MokAL Philosophy. 249 

minifhed as this motive was believed to have 
influenced it. If an adion, ftippofed to pro- 
ceed from gratitude, fliould be difcovered to 
have arifen from an expe£tation of fome new 
favour, or if what was apprehended to pro- 
ceed from public fpirit, fliould be found out 
to have taken its origin from the hope of a 
pecuniary reward, fuch a difcovery would 
entirely deftroy all notion of merit or praife- 
worthinefs in either of thefe aftions. Since, 
therefore, the mixture of any felfifh motive, 
like that gf a bafer alloy, diminiflied or took 
away altogether the merit which would other- 
wife have belonged to any adion, it was evi- 
dent, he imagined, that virtue mull confift in 
pure and difinterefted benevolence alone^ 

When thofe adions, on the contrary, which 
are commonly fuppofed to proceed from a 
felfifii motive, are difcovered to haye arifen 
fjrom a benevolent one, it greatly enhances 
our fenfe of their merit. If we believed of 
any perfon that he endeavoured to advance 
hi^s fortune from no other view but that of 
doing friendly offices, and of making proper 
returns to his benefadors, we fliould only 
love and efteem him the more. And this 
obfervation feemed ftill more to confirm the 
fonclufion, that is was benevolence only 


2$iy OflSvsttius. Part VII 

whicfi cGutd flamp tpoh any a€li(5a tlie cha- 
radker of virtue. 

Laft of ail, what, he imagined,' XtaS 2lii 
evident ptoof of ther jiiftnefs of thid account 
cf virtue, in all the difputes of caftiffs con* 
cetning the reditude of eondtifl:^ the piiblie 
good, he obferved, was the ftandartf to which 
they conffiantly referred j thereby u^Tvcrfally 
acknowledging that whatever tended tfo pr6-* 
mote the happinefe of mankind was right, ind 
latidable, and virtuous, and the contrary, 
Wrong, hlatoeahie, and vicious. In the latd 
rfebate^ about paflive obedience and the right 
of refiftance, the folc point in contfoverfj^ 
attiong men of fcnfe was, whether utiiverfat 
fubnrilfion would probably he attended with 
greater evils than temporiry infarredions 
when privileges Were Invaded. Whether 
what, upon the whole, tended nioft to the 
happinefs of mankind, was- not illb nfiorally 
good, was never once, he iaid, made a 

Since benevolence, therefore, was the only 
riiotive which could befl^ow upon any a^tioii' 
the charader of virtue, the greater the bene-' 
Vblence which Wa^ evidenced by any aftiott, 
the greater the pmife which mxift belong to' 


9 Thoft 

Seft* n. of Moral Philosopht, aj*i 

Thofc adions which aimed at the happi- 
ticfs of a great community, as they demofi'* 
ftrated a more enlarged benevolence than 
thofe which aimed only at that of a fmaller 
fyftem, fo were they, lifcewife, proponioft*- 
ally the more virtuous. The moft virtuous 
bf all afieftigns, therefore, was that which 
eitvbraced as its objeflks the happinefs of all 
intelligent beings. The leaft virtuous, ou 
the contrary, of thofe to which the character 
of virtue could, in any refpefl: belong, was 
that which aimed ho further than at the hap* 
pinefs of an individual,^ fuch as a fon, a bro« 
ther, a friend. 

In diredirig all our adions to promote the 
gircateft poflGible good, in fubmitting all infe- 
rior afiedlions to the defire of the general hap- 
pimefe of mankind, in regarding one's felf but 
a«: one of the many, whofe profperity was to 
be purfued no further than it was confiftent 
with, or conducive to that of the whole, con- 
lifted the perfedion of virtue. 

Self-love was a principle which cduld never 
be virtuous in any degree or in any diredioiv. 
It was vicious whenever it obftrufited the 
general good. When it had no other effed 
than, to make the individual take care of his 
own happinefs, it was merely innocent, and 
though it deferved no praife, neither ought 


25^ 0/ Systems Fart VIL 

it to incur any blame. Thofe benevolent 
adiions which were performed, notwithftand- 
ing fome ftrong motive from felf-intereft, 
were the more virtuous upon that account. 
They demonftrated the ftrength and vigour of 
the benevolent principle. 

Dr. Hutchcfon * was fo far from allowing 
felf-love to be in any cafe a motive of yirtuous 
aSions, that even a; regard to the pleafure 
of felf-approbation, to the comfortable ap- 
plaufe of our own confciences, according to 
him, diminifhed the merit of a benevolent ac- 
tion. This was a felfifh motive, he thought, 
which, fo far as it contributed to. any a£tion, 
demonftrated the weaknefs of that pure and 
difittterefted benevolence which could alone^ 
ftamp upon the condudt of man the character 
of virtue. In the common judgments of 
laankind, however, this regard to the appr(> 
bation of our own minds is fo far from be-^ 
ing confidered as what can in anyjefpeft 
diminifh the virtue. of any adion, that it is 
rather looked upon as the fole motive which 
deferves the appellation of virtuous. 

Such is the account given of the nature of 
yirtue in this amiable fyftem, a fyftem which 
has a peculiar tendency to nourifh and fup- 

* Inquiry concerning virtue, fe*^. 2. art. 4. alio Uluftra- 
tions on the nioral fcnle, feft. 5. iaft paragraph. 


ISea. 11. of Moral PHiLdsoPHv. 253 

port in the human heart the nobleft and the 
moft agreeable of all afFedions, and not only 
to check the injuftice of felf-love, but ia 
fome meafure to difcourage that principle 
altogether, by reprefenting it as what could 
never refle£t any honour upon thofe who 
were influenced by it. • 
. As fome of the other fyftems which I have 
already given an account of, do not fufBci- 
cntly explain from whence arifes the pecu*- 
liar excellency of the fupreme virtue of be^ 
neficence, fo this fy'flem feems to have the 
contrary defed^ of not fufficiently explaining 
from whence arifes our approbation of the 
inferior virtues of prudence, vigilance, cir- 
«umfpe6tion, temperance, conftancy, firm- ' 
nefs. The view and aim of our afFedions, 
the beneficent and hurtful efFeds which they 
tend to produce, are the only qualities at all 
attended to in this fyftem. Their propriety 
and impropriety, their fuitablenefs and un* . 
fuitablenefs, to the caufe which excites them, 
are difregarded altogether. 

Regard to our own private happinefs and 
intereft, too, appear upon many occafions 
very laudable principles of adion. The ha- 
bits of oeconomy, induftry, difcretion, atten- 
tion and application of thought; are generally 
fuppofed to be cultivate^ from felf-interefted 


^54 iCy Systems Part VH. 

modve^y and at the fame time are appreheo4* 
cd to be very praife-woithy qualities, which 
deferye the efteem and approbation of every 
Jbody. The mixture of a felfifti motive, it is 
true, feems often^ to fully the beauty of thofe 
jBuSions which ought to arife from a benevo^ 
lent affection. The caufe of this, however, 
is not that felf-love can never be the motive 
of a virtuous adion, but that the benevdent 
principle appears in this particular caie to 
want its due degree of ftrength, and to be 
akogetfaer unfuitable to its obje£t. The charao- 
fer, therefore, feems evidently imperfedt, and 
upon the whole to deferve blame rather than 
jwraife* The mixture of a benevolent motive 
in an adion to which felf4ove alone ought to 
)>e fulBcient to prompt us, is not fo apt iur 
deed to diminifh our fenfe of its propriety, or 
of the virtue of the perfon who performs it. 
We iare not ready to fufpeft any perfon 6f 
being defedive in felfiflinefs. This is by flfo 
ineans the weak fide of human nature, or t|ie 
failing jof which we are apt to be fuipieious. 
If we could reaily believe, however, of any 
man, that, was it not from a regard to his 
family and friends, he would not take that 
proper care of his health, his life, or his for- 
tune, to which felf-prefervation alone ought 
to be fufficiei^ to prompt him, it would im- 


1Se$. II. <f MonAL Phjj-osqphy. ^55 

doubtedly be a falling, though one of thol^ 
amiable failings whiqh render a perfon rather 
the objed of pity than pf contempt or hatred. 
It would ftill, however, fqmewhat diminifli 
Xki^ dignity and refpeSablep^fs of hj^ charac- 
ter. Carele©i$(s ancj want of ceconamy ^re 
upW^rfally difapprov^d of, not, however, as 
proceeding from a want of benevoleince, but 
froqi ^ want of the proper atjeijijtio^n to the 
^je£t$ of felt-iijitereft. 

Though the ftandiard by which cafqifts fce^ 
queqitly determine what is right or wrong in 
bwnaQ co^dui^, be ks t^n^dency to the w^d- 
fare or diCorder of focigty, it does not follqw 
that a regard to the welfare of focicty fhpul4 
be the fole virtuous motive of a^ion, but onljF 
th^, in any competition, it ought to eaft the 
bal;;in<;e againft all other motives. 

Benevolence may, perhaps^ be the fol^ 
principle of adion in the Deity, and there 
are feveral, not improbable, arguments which 
<(^^d to perfuade us that it is fo. It is not eafy 
to conceive what other motivp an independent 
a)ad all-perfefl: Being, who ftajnds in need 
of nothing external, an.d whofe happinefs is 
<;Oimplete in himfelf, can ad froixi. Bujt 
whatever may be the cafe with the Deity^ fo 
imperfe<3; a creature as man, the fupport of 
whpfe e:s:iilence requires fo px^ny things ex- 

255 Of By%.'Ttiiz Pdtt Vlt 

ternal to him, muft often afit from many 
other motives. The condition of human 
nature were peculiarly hard, if thofe affec- 
tions, which, by the very nature of our 
being, ought frequently to influence our 
condud, could upon no occafion appear vir-^ 
tuous, or deferve efteem and commendation 
from any body. 

Thofe three fyftems^ that tvrhich places 
virtue in propriety, that which places it iii 
prudence, and that which makes it confift iii 
benevolence, are the principal accounts which 
have been given of the nature of virtue. To 
One or other of them, all the other defcrip- 
tions of virtue, how diflferent foever they may 
i^ppear, are eafily reducible* 

That fyftem which places virtue in obedi- 
ence to the will of the Deity, may be counted 
tither among thofe which make it confift in 
prudence, or amoftg thofe which make it 
confift in propriety. When it is afked, why 
we ought to obey the will of the Deity? this 
queftion, which ^ould be impious and abfurd 
in the higheft degt-efe' if Jifked from any doubt 
that we ought to obe"*^rm, can admit but di 
two different anfwer^ It mfeft either be fai3 
that we ought to obey tb^" will of the Deitf 
bccaufe he is a Being of infinite power, wh6» 
will reward us eternally if' v^e do &, ancf' 
- y- -'"" ^- punifH 

SeA.!!/ £f Moral Philosophy. ^$7 

punifli us eternally if we do otherwife : or it 
muft be faid, that independent of any regard 

, to Qur own happinefs, or to rewards and pu- 
nifhments of any kind, there is a congruity 
and fitnefs that a creature ftiould obey its 
Creator, that a limited and imperfect being 
ihould fubmit to one of infinite and incom- 
pr^henfible perfedions, Befides one or other 

. ofthefe two, it is impoflible to conceive that 
any other anfwer can be given to this qu^f^ 

-tion. : If the firft anfwer be the proper one. 
Virtue cob lifts in prudence j or in the proper 
purfuit of our own final intereft and happi- 
nefs ; fince it is upon this account that we 
are obliged to obey the will of the Deity. If 
the fecond anfwer be the proper one, virtue 
muft confift ill propriety, fince the ground 
of our obligation to obedience is the fuitable- 
nef$ or congruity of the fentiments of humi- 
lity and fubmiflion to the fuperiority of the 
pbje^ which excites them; 

That fyftem which places virtue in utility, 
coincides too with that wbkh makes it confift: 
ki propriety. According to this fyftem, all 
thoTe qualities of the ifltod which are agree- 
able or ad^ntageous, either to the perfon 
kimfelf ^ to othersi are approved of as viiv 
toous, and the conitrary difapproved of as 
^nciouf. Qm th0 aigreeablenefs or utility 
VOt.lU % of 

•^58 0/* Systems PJairt VH. 

of any aflfcdron depends upoti the dej^e 
which it is allowed to fubfift m. fivefy 
afFediion is lifeful when it is confined ^io^a 
certain degree of moderation ; and every 

^ affe£tion is difadvantageous when it exceeds 
the proper bounds. According to this fyfti^m 

' therefore, virtue coniifts not in any ohe afife'i- 
tion, but in the proper degree of all thealffet- 
tions. The only difference between it and 
that which I have been endeavouring to ^fli- 

" blifli, is, that it makes utility, and tior fyri- 
pathy, or the corrcfpondent affedkion of tfie 

.iipedator, the natural and original meafiireof 

' this proper degree. ^^^ 

Of licentiws Sjifiems. 

v.. r 

7i LL thofe fyftems, which I have hifhefto 

given an: account ofy ^uppofe that thfte 

-is a real and- eflential diftindition4)erwetii'%4ce 

and virtue, whatever thefe qualities rtlayiioii- 

fift in. Thereisa«al aiid effefttial iiflfer- 
- fence between the propriety ^nef iAipi^pfifiety 

of any affeftion, between bencvoleAct'^aiid 
• iny other principle of a^on, bitw^eti^^ltal 
-^prttdtHdi& and ihpit-fightal €<A1^^^ 
^^'•^^ > '^ '.:: _ r-tate 

tfOe^ ?raOineff,, In t^e mala toci ^i of.thpni 

jjojfitribute tp pncourage the praife-wpr^hy, 
and^to difcQuragp the bjameahle d'^i'pofitioti* 

It n^ay be true, perhapf;^ of foixie of them, 
tl^at th^y teful, in fome tDeaiufe, to b^e^k 
thp balance of the aff^ftionp, jand to giii^e t^e 

_ lia^nd a particular bias to fonije . principles of 
^jS^ipti^ l^ey^nd theiproportion tbat^is diiis to 

vt))e^* Tjie ancient lyftems which place yir*» 
tf^e \^ propriety, feem chiefly to recomn>end 
t]:^^ great, the j^wful, and the refpedable yir* 
^{^cfi^ thi?|Vii[iuesof felf-gpvernnjent, andfelf- 

. CO[aiq[xaif^d ; fortitude, .magnanimityy ind/e#- 
pendency upon fortune, the contetjiipt of all 
outward accidents, of pain, poverty, exile, 
and It is in thefe great exertions that 
the nobleft propjfiety of condudl is difplayed* 
The foft, the amiable, the gentle virtues, ali 
the virtues ,«f^^fiulgent hurpanity, are, ia 
comparifon, but little intifted upon, and feem, 
*flft1^t>t CQMtaryioby^he. £k<)ic8 in partipi^lar, 
,^^f^€tb^»i(Often^Tegi^rdled as iiwi;e .wyk- 
y^^fe Mipt Jf^b^ a wife ^im^ PPt .tp 

it^iiiThi9,i^fl9fii{Ojtet;g (yO^eiXi, on ^he othpr hatld, 
.mW^qif^'i %tft^K)ir,?md ^nc0urage?; aM .^h^'P 
hm^^^>m^N^'^ 19. ti^r-feighfil degree, fe^gis 
?r.fPtffsi)F/j^; i^spglffSt th* oj^r^ayvfinl! anf isei- 

'^U) s 2 nies 

i6b ' (ySVSTKMS PiittW, 

nies them the app^ellation of virtues. It calls 
them moral abilities, and treats them a:s qua- 
lities which do not deferVe the fame fo#t of 
efleem and approbation that i^ due to wfadtjs 
properly denominated virtue. All thofe prin- 
ciples of aftion which aim only at otir o^n 
intereft, it treats^ if that be poflSble, ftfll 
worfe. So far from haviiig any mdrit of their 
own, they diminifh, it pretends, the merit of 
benevolence, when they co-operate with it: 
and prudence, it is aflerted, when employed 
only in promoting privdte intereft, cari never 
even be imagined a virtue. 

That fyftem, again, which makesr virtue 
confift in prudence only, while it gives^ the 
higheft encouragement to the habhs 6f citi* 
tion, vigilance, fobriety, arid judlcit)iis mo- 
deration, feetns to degrade equally both^ the 
amiable and refpcQ:able virtiues, andtd^ffepip 
the former of all their beauty, and the litter 
of all their grandeur. ^ ^ ^42:^ .;; 

But notwithftanding thefe defeSk, thc^* , 
<neral tendency of each of thofe 4hifee fyfems 
is to encourage the beft arid moft il^ttidedjlc 
habits of the human mind : atid^ it vrefd^ ^wdl 
for fociety, if, either mankind ingefieirali or 
even thofe few vvho pretend ^^ iive.aBccDrdji% 
to any philofophical rule, were to regulate *h6t 
condud by tfaie precepts ^of a/ny xxk of th^m. 


IJeft. It 6f Moral Philosophy. a6i 

We may learn from each'of them Ibmething 

tb^ i6 both valuable and pecujiiar. If it was* 

♦poffible, by precept and exhortation, to in-^ 

fpira the in:ind with fortitude and magnani-- 

mity, the ancient fyftems of propriety would 

feem fuffiqient to do this. Or i£ it was poffi- 

hWjb, by the faoie means, to>foften it into hu- 

. n^iapityj and tp awaken the affedions ofkind- 

iiiefs and.genet*^ love towards thofe we live 

Vfith) forne :qC the piftures with which thp; 

rl^enevplent fyftem preftats us, might feem 

^ap^ble of producing this effedJ» We may 

learn from the fyftem of Epicurus, though 

3]4ni4pubtedly the mod imperfe<a . of all th^ 

^i^l^r^, hpw much the pra<3:ice of both the 

^fixiafele audi refpediable virtues is conducive* 

,ljQ our pwi;^ intereft, to our own eafe and. 

♦faf^tyjind qjLiiet even in this life. As Epicu-. 

srufiplaaed happinefs in the attainment of eafe 

;2tn4i f^flwrity* hp exqrtqd bimfelf in a particu* 

lar manner to fliow that virtue was, not 

^miemly jhe bed wd the fureft, but the only 

.meli]!^ ofiJicquiring thofe invaluable pofTel- 

^Itomsi The good ^fF^ds of virtue, upon our in- 

w»dti:anquiUity and peace of mirid, are what 

otHeir philofophera have chiefly celebrated;, 

jSpicunw,: wftthout negle<aing. this topic, has 

?ehiefly xnfiftcd upon the. influence of that 

ai^mi^bAe 4|uaUty oa our putwv4 pfofpenty 

- ;/ 9 ^ ^nd 

2ۤ OfSririm Part Vll* 

arid Tafety,, It v^s upon this accdont ih^,h»li 
wfftitTgs vtett fo much ftudied^ ip tl^^,.f«iTi 
cient world ' by m^n of all different phiji^i^ 
phical ponies. It is from hrnk that jQrcendV 
th6 griat eriemy of the Epicurean fyfteni^ 
borrbw^ his moft^ agreeable prr>of$ that vffd 
tue aloncf ^s fuffidJent to ftciirfc happioefe! 
Sertfca, though a Sioic, the ie^JUKA bppo* 
fite to that of FpicuruSy yd quotes tbi& phw 
lofophertnore frtquently than a«y other^?^ )a:. 
There is, however, anoiher fy^^^to whftlh 
fecms to take away altogether the diftkiftioii 
between vice and virtue, add of Which *the 
tendency \tt^ upoq that account, wholly pc*- 
niiious; Imean the fyftem of Dr; N4and«i 
ville. Though the notions of thi^author^an 
itt almoil every ref[ e£l erroneous, Jtherbind^ 
fky^ivtr^ fdme appearances in huma^to^attirb; 
"i^hjchf when viewed in a <5crtain nlfetfi^ic r^ 
feem at firft fight to favour ihom. T*icfq, 
defcribed and exaggerated by fhe Jiivi3ly:aand 
hnrtiorouB^ though coaifc ind :. ruftie i ehi* 
• quenee of Dr. MjndeviHe, baveitflrowp Wfxm 
bis di>af ines an air of: truth and probabUity 
which is vei^y apt to iinpiaieiUpcM) t^r uni|Lii-o 

■•■fur ^^' :'':*■ '■■;-^;v. ;ja; ' ' >'^/i*:i jli' .tj/ju)- 

V i^Wtf Mandfetille confidfirsiHuhatiirjemislcJkMie 

, ffimJIit • (ev^k of' propriety,? «fro|ik a, f egarrdilo 

^ha«%M^oa]^^ aad ipi^aife^utrdopttcyiy as 

- being 

S«ER IL - Bf MoRAi^PmLtnpPHY. 2^3. 

bseih^done from a lovc^ of; praMe aod^?om-. 
m*li(hitlt)n, dr as he calls it froBoi .vaaky., 
Min, he obfcifves, is natwally much . more- 
iistereflded ih his Qwa happiflefs than in that . 
of others, aBd it isumpoffible that in l^is heartj 
kexan ever > really prefer their pco^erity tOf 
Ini^ OMrn4 Whenever he appears to do fo, we. 
uasf be aflkred that he impofesupon us, and 
that he is then a^ing from the fame felfifk 
motivea as at all other times*. Amopghisr 
ijith^r fdfifii pafGoBS, vanity is one of the 
ftTOtlgeft,"^ and he is always eafily flatter^ 
ftild greatly delighted with the applaufe? of 
thofe 2Lbout him. Wh^n he appears to faerie 
fice>hi^ own intereft to that of his comp^ni-^ 
i&a%^ \r knows thftt this condufS:; will b^ 
highly agreeable to their fclf-Jove, and tbaj: 
^thcy wilt not fail to exprefs their fati§fa^<?a 
bynbeAowing^upon him^ the mod extravagaoit 
pmifts. The pkafure which he expels 
ifrom this, over-^balances, in his opinion, the 
4]itereft) whidh he ^ abandons in order to pro* 
OTiye \U' Mis 'C0ndu€l:, therclforei upon this 
"^dcbaifion^ i^ in reklity juil as feliiih, at)4 arifes 
-fr4^\n i juD; as mean) a motive as upon. any 
other. He is flattered, however, and he fla^ 
tei^himiyf ^with the beKef thaU^it fe eqtiSrely 
odiOntqveded; finqe, un^fe this was fuppof^, 
cit would) nGtieem tot mens .any i^copiinenda*. 
^ T. J s 4 . tioii 

af4^ - OfSysJi^EM-s VmV^ 

tiGsiidkhpr iai hi^ ovirn eyes or in thbfe of 
ot^s^' AH ^bHcl Spirit, therefore, M preffe- 
trace uif|aiblk «© prira^ intei«eftj is, accord- 
iiigi - to'^him^^ a, tnei^e cheats and inipofitito 
u|>Qi\.imaii]^kind ; acid that human virtue which 
isib rnmahr|>qa&td iof, and which i^ the eccar 
flop, /cf io nmch emulation among men, Mib^ 
mepiB pffsprmg ctf flattery begot upon pride. . 
^jW^hethefi the moft generous and puWic^r 
fpiijited a^ion^ may not, in fome fenfe, bft^' 
regarded aa proceeding from felf-lovc, I fhall 
not ! at prefent eKamine. The decifion of - 
tliif qnt^ftion 18 not, I apprehend, of any iin* 
portance towards eftabliflhing the rcalityooft ' 
virtue^ :finjce. felf4ove may frequently be a ^ 
vittuoufi motive, *of adion. I ihall only en-^ ' 
de^Tour? to ihow that the defire of doing 
wbat is honourable and noble, of rendering 
ourjfclvjCSi the proper obje(Sis of efteera and' 
approbation^ cannot with any propriety ' 
be. ,i:^l^d' vanity. Even the love of welt^ * 
groiunfj^d fame and reputation, the defire of 
acqniring ^eftcetn by what is really eftiihabi^^ 
doosinQti deferye that name. The firft is the ' 
love pfj.virtuci' the nobleft and the beft paA: • 
fiqii of -hj^wnaniaiature. The fecond isth#>' 
lo\ie cf tcwe glotyv a paffion inferior no doubt ' 
t;o4iteformciViih(ut which in dignity appears 
to noihccjinajis^iately after it. He h guilty. > 
. :l"' ' ' of 

ofov^mty wbfh dffires praife for qualities 
wJyyia^re eUbe5-i0Pt; pwfc'-worthyN i^ any 
do^^^ qr skq%in ihd^tji^grw in which he ex-* 
P9^$i to be^ praifed for them ; who fets hia 
chkra6:eF upon , the frivolous ornamenu of 
drofe-arihi equtpage, or upon the equally fri-P 
vdiiuft acoQnn|)iifhments of ordinary behavi-f 
our. He is] guilty of vanity who defires 
praife ;for what iodeed very well defprves it, 
bitt^hathe perfeftly know« does not belong to 
him* / The empty coxcomb who gives himfelf 
air^ of' iilAportance which he has no title to, 
thefilly liar who afFumes the merit of advcnn 
turos /which never happened, thefoblifli pla- 
giary who< gives himielf out for the author of 
whiit hi. has no pretenfions to, are properly 
ace)ufed« of this paflion. He too is faid to be 
guilty of vanity who is not coiitented with 
thfe iileat fentiments. of efteem and approba^ 
tionv who feeras tobe^fonder of their noify 
exprefiions and ilcclamations than of the fen^ 
timcnts rthfimfelves, who is never fatisfied but 
wb^i^bis.ownipraifes are ringing in his ears^ 
and/iwho:foUcit^ with the mod anxious im- 
portufiity . all ; jextc^nfal manrks of refped, is 
foQd pf ititleSi of complimetus, of being vifited^ 
of ibeitig attended, of being taken notice of 
in pubHc phides. wit^ the appearance of defe^ 
rence aQdiattention. ^ Thisr > frivokmcp ipaflion : 


266 Of Sy ST IMS ic ^ Pait VIJ,- 

15 altogether different from either of thd two* 
former, and is the palEon of the loweft a^nd" 
ihe leaft of mankind, as they arc of the no-? 
Weft and the greateft. oi 

But though thefe three pafFions, the deftffei 
of rendering ourfelves the proper ob}eft* cf r 
honour and efteem ; or of ^becoming whatiir' 
'JbonouraWe and eftimable ; ' thjc defire of actfi 
qairing honour a:nd efteem by really defers 
ving thofe fentiments ; and the frivolous der 
fire of praife at any rate, are widely differant$i 
though the two former are always apptovcde 
<tf, while the latter never fails to be defpifed;? 
there is, however, a certain remote affinityi 
among them, which, exaggerated by ^ the 
humorous and diverting eloquence o( dm 
lively author j has enabled him to impofo upcmr. 
his readers. There is an affinity between; 
vanity and the love of true glory, aSiboth 
thefe paflions aim at acquiring efteem and 
approbation. But they are difibrenc infebis^ 
that the one is a juft, rearonabkyandjequitAbk^ 
paflion, while the othjer 1$ tnjuft^ abford^ 
and ridiculous. Th^ ma« whadefireaieftiebm 
for what is really eftimable^ dofirfiSi.notiUAgi 
but what he is juftly entittledrtoi^and iwhat 
cannot be refufed him ^ithoat ibmeifoftoof 
injury. He, on the contrary, whodefircsit 
upon any other terms, dematlds^ what he has 

- no 

Seft. IL of Moral Prtlqscphy. 267^ 

no juR claim to. The firft is edfily fMis6^9 
is not apt to be jealous 01? fufpicious thai m^i 
do not efteem him eaough, anid is foldOHi- 
foHcitous about receiving /nrany external 
marks of our regard. The other^ on the con- 
trary, is never to be fatisfied, is full of jca* 
loufy and fufpicion that we do not efteem ^ 
him fo much as he defires, becaufe he has 
fome fecret confcioufnefs that he defirfes mor&> 
than he deferves. The leafl: ncglcft of cerc^ 
mony, he confiders as a mortal aiTronjt, and 
as an expreflion of the moft determined con* 
tetnpt. He is reftlefs and impatient, and^ 
perpetually afraid that we have loft all reipeifi^ 
for him, and is upon this account alwaysb. 
anxious to obtain new expreflions of eftc^m^r 
and. cannot be kept in temper bu( by coiiti* 
nual attendance and.adulation. : 

There is an afiinity tod between the defif«^ 
of becoming what is honourable and eftih 
mable^ and the defire of honbur and efteeqa^ 
between the love of virtus and the Idreof 
true glory. They rcfemble one anotherlnot 
only in this reijpe£t, that both aim at really 
being what is honourable and noble, but eveii 
in that xefpeft in which the JoVe^ 4>f ^^^ 
glory refembles what is properly called >v^ 
nity^ fome reference to th^^^fen^ments ^ 
others^ The xnao of the gii^eft^^agnw- 


'^pB: Of Systems* Part VII. 

iftity, who defires virtue for its own fake, 
and is moft indifferent about what aftuaily 
. ^are the opinions of mankind with regard td 
him, is ftill, however^ delighted with the 
thoughts of what they fhouM be, withthb 
confcioufnefs that though he may neither be 
l^moured nor applauded, be is ftill the propk 
object of honour and applaufc, and that if 
tnankind were cool and candid and con^Iieiifl; 
with themfelves, and properly informed 
of the motives and circumftances of his; cOE^r 
du6t, they would not fail to honour and ap# 
piaud him. . Though he defpifes the opinions 
which' are adlually entertained of him, he has 
the higheft value for thofe which ought to be ' 
eotertained of him. That he might think 
bimfelf worthy of thofe honourable (fenti^ 
ments^ and, whatever was the idea which 
oth^r men might coticeive of his charaftw; 
that wheti he fhould puthimfclf in th^iriihi* 
auidn, and confider, not what was, but what 
ought to be their opinion, he fhould : always 
have the highefl idea of it bithfelfi was th€r 
great and exalted motive of hIscorldu£t, As 
^ven in the love of virtue, therefore, therfe 
it ftiil fome reference, though not to what 'la,* 
yetfo what in reafonatid propriety ought^ to 
be the opinion of ^h6rs^ there is* e vein in thisf 
rfefpeft fome affinity bet^en. it aiid> the^id** 
. / of 

6e£t.,II. ^Moi^AL PfetLCSoPHV. hSi) 

of true glory. Theife is howevet, at the 
fame time, very great diflference between 
them. The man who ads folely from a 
>?egai:d to what is right and fit to be doite, 
from a regard to what is the proper objeQ: 
of efbeem and approbation, though thefe fen- 
ttments fiiould never be beftowed upon him, 
a&s. from the mod fublime and godlike mo^ 
tive which human nature is even capable of 
conceiving. The man, on the other handj 
^ho while he defires to merit approbation is 
af.the fame time anxious to obtain it, though 
he is too laudable in the main, yet his mo*^ 
.tives have a greater mixture of human infit^<* 
jnity- He is in danger of being mortified by 
t$ie> ignorance and injufticeof mankind, and 
his happinefs is expofed to the envy of his 
rivals and the folly of the public. The hap- 
pinefs of the other, on the contrary, is alto^ 
gethcr fecure and independent of fortune, and 
of the caprice of thofe he lives with. The 
eootetopl land. hatred which n\ay be thrown 
upon him by the ignorance of mankind, he 
cfirnfid^rs; aft not belonging to him^ and is not 
at all iQPffkified by it. Mankind defpife and 
hatCi him from afalfe notion ox hischara£ter 
and x^ondki^ If they knew him better, they 
Wtould efteem and love him. It is not him 
)^hom, properly fpeaking, they hate and 


^efpift, but another perfon whom they mif- 
take him to be. Qui: frien^^ whom we 
,fhpul4 me^t^t a.xnafqacraje in the garb (^ 
^ur enemy» ivoml4 be more diverted thaa 
^lortihed, if under that dii^uife we (hould 
veot Pur indignation againft him. Su(;h ar^ 
ttte fer)tinf)enu pf a man of real magaapiniity, 
when expoM ?p unjuft cenfure. It feldop^ 
hstpp^QSi however, that human pature ar^^ 
rives at this degree of firmnefs. Though 
none but the weakeft and mpR wprthlefsof 
mankind are much delighted with falfe glory^ 
yet^ ,by a ftrauge iiiconfiftency^ falfc igqp- 
jpc^iny IB often capable of mo|:tifying tbofe^yfep 
appear tfie moJOL r^folute atid deter mined^t ; 

Dr. Mandeville i§ not fatisfied with r^^pi;^^ 

ientiag the frivolous motive of yanity^^f ^l:^c 

ipurcp of all thofe adlions which iu-e ^pip- 

mpaly accounted virt^qus^ He ea^e^vp^n 

to ppint out the imperfedion of J^uq^^n yir^ 

t\i,ein many other refpeflts. ^ In ev^ry ^afe, 

he pretends, it falls (hort pf that coq^pl^^c 

felf-denisd which it pretends ^p^ aad, iti^ea4 

of acpnqueft^ i^ commonly no n^ofc; th?^ a 

^ concealed indulgenc« of our pafljqpsv Whfj|-f- 

^ ever pur referv^ wit.h regard to^^ pjeafu^e jfaJJs 

,<hort,of t^ej^9ft a(c?tic abf^inence, he ifj^ijts 

it a? igrpf^ luxury, ^ndjenfiia^ity., j^vqry 

tbing, »QCQjr4ing tP'/Jhiisi, k Jujyijy ^i^ich 

.J ^ exceeds 

Sett. Iti of MbkAL Philosophy. 1274 

exceeds whit is abfblutely neceffaty for the 

•ftrppbrt of humail nature, fo that there is 

%ice even in the ufe of a clean fllirr, or of a 

^rohvenient habitation. The indulgence ^f 

-the inclrnation to fex, in the moft lawful 

^nion, he confidei's -as the fame fenfuklity 

%ich the moft hurtful gratificatioii of th^it pafr- 

iidn, and derides that temperancie and that 

chaftity which can be pradtifed at fo cheap k 

kate. The ingenious fophiftry of his reafon- 

^ing, is here, as upon many other occafions, 

covCTed by the ambiguity of language. There 

fire fome of bur paffions which have no 

other names except thofe which mark tl^ 

difagreeaWeand ofFerifive degree. Thfe fpec- 

tatbr is more apt to take notice of them in 

^this 'degree than in any other. When they 

"fli'bck his own fentiments, when fhey give 

* him fome fort of antipathy arid uneafirieft, 

he* is nedeflafilyobliged to attend to them, and 

ife from thetiCe naturally led to give them^ 

'name. When they fall in with the natural 

ftate of his oWn mind, he is! very apt to over- 

^look them altogether, and either gives them 

..tib name iat 5all, or, if he give them any, it is 

'otie which- niarts rather the fubjeftion and 

Vefti*aint of the paffion, than the d^griee 

<^hi^h it ftiil is allowed tb fubfift iii, after it is 

^^fc llibj>aed^ an^ reftraiiied. Thu^ thccoofe- 

^'bt3i.v^^4.^ , • r - • snon 

thibn names''^ of the love of pleafure, an^of 
ifhe love of fex, denote a vicioiis arid bffenfive 
degree bf thbfe paffiotis. The words 'tem- 
jpcrancie and chaftity, on the ♦ other han^^, 
feem to mark rather the feftraiht and rut||ec-| 
tibn which they are ke{)t'uilder, than the ^e- 
jgree which they are ftill allowed to {libfift:* in. 
When he can fhow- therefore/ that tlh'eytf ill 
fubfift in fome degree, he imagines lie has 
entirely rfemoliflied the rieality of'the vir^Ves 
of temperance and chattity, and AioVn tneri 

'• :■ ■ . , /,.k - ' ^- . ' -!^i'4 ^r.i.;!. •/i(>]l 

to be mere impoiitidns upon the mattentioti 
and iimpHcity of mankind. Thole Virtues.' 
however, do not require ah entire infehiibiiit^' 
to the objeds of the paflions whicii ^tiieVj 
ihean to govern, lliey only aim at tcftrain- 
ing the violence of thofe paflions, fo far ^a 
aot to. hurt the individual, and neither . ^ifl 
turb nor offend the fociety. , 

it is the great fallacy of Dr. MaridevillejS 
bookf to reprefent every paflion as whollj 
vicious, which is fo in any degree and in any 
direftion. It is thus that he treats cvcrjj 
thing as vanity which has any reference, ei- 
ther to what are, or to what ought to be the 
fentimen^s of others: and it is by means qf 
this fophiftry that he eftablifhe^ his fayouritf 
conclu(ioii| that private vices are public bis^tj 

' -.♦ Luxury aadlttft, / f Fable of Uic Beau' ' 


Slb^. 11^; cf Mor.a;u IPhilosophy, 073 

iitg. If the love of magnificence, ^^afte^fpj^ 
the elegant arts and improvements |of ,h^m|^^^ 
life, for whatever is agre.^able in 4refs, furjoi*^ 
tjjre, or Qquipage, for architecture;, ftftiiary, 
painting, and mufic, .is tQ l^e a;eg^r4ed,a» 
luxury, fcnfuaHty, and ofitentfiti^n, ty^ny^ 
thof)3 whofe.fituation allovvs witboM^ ar^y iii- 
cor^veniency, the indulgence of thofe pjalTvpnt^ 
it is certain that luxury, fenfdality, and qften-, 
tation, are public benefits r fipce without the 
qualities upon which he thinks proper to be- 
ftow fuch opprobrious nam^s, the arts ^ of re-, 
finement could never find ^ eticpuragerneur, 
^nd mud languish for Wcint of employment.i 
Soii\e popular afcetic dpdlFinca, which bac|, 
been current before his time, and which placed. 
Virtue in the entire extirpation and anni- 
hdationof all our paffions, were the re^jL 
foundation of this licentious fyftem. It wfii 
cafy for Dr..MapdeviIle tp prove, fuft, t;i^at 
this entire conqueft never adually took »pjacq 
among men, and fecondly, that if it was tp 
take place univerfaHy, it would be pernicious 
to fociety, by puttirig an end to all induttry 
and commerce, and, in a manner to the whole 
jbtifinefs of human life* fiy the firft of tbefe^ 
jhropbfitioiis he feemed to prove that ther^' 
1^8 n6 real vhliie,. and that what pretended 
l(3*B§'foeh^, vms a mere cheat kud Itojpofiriofi* 

^4 ..vH7.):(^'S'5sTAi«rf/[ > RirtiSB. 

^hichjoti[|p9[jn»de;<p .9)Uph wife) in thftiwfirW, 
^\^^ ,,^mh Jspm : P^iw i caft^V^;'^©! ^«^ 

l¥?AP'"%^ ■^■r^t.toai n.!.'r >•:::• ihyn osb en anoifiil 

^pefi?-Y«ry ;|)|^flt>letiao/y)ftfefiftlfi«g ifisift 
Dflfc Gmc^cwem rl eg«d«idijJby^ae>Tliryoii^|Bfe 

vS^jib ^ Moral P^mosoPHY. nf^ 

arc-^titt€fl^ lmpe(0ibl^ i^tt^'- if 'th«y dWfexiSt 
^td'Jpr<i)d[uc3(£oiAich efi^£ta'^ ar& i»^c«it>e4 

teads td aecbOrit foT'tbi btigttt "bf 6u^"lk^ 
fetitiitietits^tiitttt^t <Jfec^iVe uS' f^ g^fcifely/ihtrf 
"depjirf foVery fkt ff^ ill Wftbibkttfee 4'tk6 
liHith-. WHWi a? traveller iglf^s ah Acmi^'M 
fotfte diftiftiifc fcodritty, Jie ma^ itnjiofe li^iop 
bui^ credulity the ititift jjtpui^lcirs an<i aliftjl'd 
fidions as the moft cert^n matters of -i^Sd 
But Wheh a perfon pretiettds' tb 'Mtttm^i^ of 
Wttae jjtfffesi'iii- otit h^ighbourhbodi $iid'of:tfia 

a^li-s'^f -tU6^ v^ry p^ri|h' ^1xkf» #4 ^yBiUl 
dif2>4feB^ htfiftod, If ^e Ate |b fiat*pj<^<>"ji^^ ^?)« 
i»4xtfto*'t(liittgs with pup dW ej^esj'^ljiK 
flliify^dt^iVtf -as in mafty re%c^s,y€*'lb^ 
gl^t^faili^^idd^ whi^h he impof^ yp^b'ti^ 
iifilft lie^ f6i«^ ftTebablanci to the truU|i,^pjJ 
d«dJ[> rfetveb' 1iaf\^ ■ a ^^oofiderable ittixtt«-.e ^qf 
Iftilfe^iiKtl^lni^ < Ati«authot who treitd of fta-^ 
lerai^HltefojrfiJ, aft^f^tetends to affigh»thf* 
cittf^' k)f **e^gtdatJ phiSSDjOimena of the ' ifftt^ 
■*6rfe,5''^ai!hdi'to- give^'di!^ account- of the 
iSS^ifiSif/'tf '^^f^^diftaflt'^tttftry, C6t*c<ihil6g 
T^feinf l&-iifliky"teli^U8 \^hk lle^leafesi' itill k 

?«dl T 2 of 

«76 Of Sys-xeu^ / ^ ??rv^l» 

of feeimng poflibility he need not defpair of 
gaining our belief. But when he propofes to 
explain the origin of our defires and a;ffec- 
tions, of our fentiments of approbation and 
difapprobaticiii, li^'^^ifefends ioigive au ac- 
count, not only of the affairs of the very pa- 
rifli that we Uv^^in, but of our own don?e^i^ 
concerns. Though here too, like indolent 
mafters who put their truft in a fteward who 
deceives them, we are very liable to be im- 
pofed upon, yet we are incapable of paffing 
any account which does not preferve fome 
little regard to the truth. Some ^ of thp af^fi- 
cles, at lead,, jnuft be juft, and even tMdfe 
ivhich are moft overcharged muift have h^ 
Jfome foundation, otherwife the fraud lA^^uJfl 
be deteded even by that carelefs iafp^(S|:ii<m 
whkh we are givei , The i^uthi^ 
who flaould affign, as the caufe of anyflatiy-^:! 
fentiment, fome principle which neither bgd 
any connexion with it, nor refpml^^jiiifty 
other principle which had f^me-X^P^; ?5>J^- 
nexion, would appear afefurd aiad ridiqyliQiyis 
to the moft injudicious and unexperi^jifiipd 
.readeiv . - ; .. ,• .-^ ..:, :,,.^ '\;\, .^^,rj 

4^/Hfi of Moi:kL PfiffLpsoPHY. 47,7^ 

lo iif^p:'b ion 'L:>.;. 

1 isi / ] 

01 8:;l()<]0Tq ^:J iiL»H 

// j^'J 

-o^iB,/- Uw. .:;^:^;!^ 

::j^; J.'> 

](-i(i' ';^»(j "••' \{;\ J 

.-0£\.-S .,,§,:EC:TI,a.N III. 

<!)f the different Syftems which have been 
formed concerning the Principle of Ap^ 


-ijjjL F^gR the inquiry concerning the nature 
^*~^ of virtue, the next queftion of import- 
Write in Moral Philofophy is concerning the 
^tJiiidplie of approbation, concerning tlie 
-^JidWfer or faculty of the mind which renders 
^^irtUin characters agreeable or difagreeable to 
^fi^,' nlkk6i3 U3 ptiefer one tenour of coriduCl to 
^flbthfer, deiidminate the one right and the 
Y<^e¥ #fong, aM confider the orie as the db- 
^i&a of a{iprc^batidft, honour, and reward ; the 
'^th^r^iutat of bkme, cjeofure, and puriilh- 

; Thre^ different accounts have been given 
of this principle of approbation. According 
to fome, we approve and difapprove both of 
our own adtions, and of thofe of others, from 
feltlove only, or from fome view of their 

T 3 tendency 

tendency to our own happinefs or difadvauT 
tage : according to others, reafon, the fame 
faculty by whic|i ^f^ ^diftingqifh between 
truth and falfehood, enables us to diftinguiih 
ietwwu what is fit s^nd unfit both in aftioM 
a[nd afFedUons^Y^qorQ^ing to ot^9^^^ this dff- 
tindion is akogether the effefft olF immediate 

i^isfaftioft Qt: 4ifguft with whic^hthi^j^feewJof 
jrerfain it^^na rQrr^ffe<3t|op$ jafpiff efc )i}Sjn u§Slfe 
Ibwi^/arcafoni fandufenrfmenj^^ th^^fmp^ #1? 
<the,|li&e different ifQlirqest whi(Jhbh%y^i Jbcp^f 
^ffigosdffbrcthie (yrincipie of app?^t^j^.^iX7[ 
jofB^foDCjIl proc^d: to give; sifif4^Uc^t^^f^ 
thbfo t different i fy il^?Qa$4 1 xnuft pb%^^ ^th^ 
ihtti^ iihttrtsAxiztkjia of thi^ fei^pitd ^,qf^Q^^ 
ifljbti^idlf the ^eatfift impott3ftGefi%fpfsv%' 
^A(DOkyjis. ofdnoQiSfjin pi^ice. o^Uft iqi^i^^gs 
«toncer©iDg ( thel . laat^we ' of Nhtt9i§:. ^eg^s^j 
iias fofaibiinfluehce lipon wr cn^ti^pfl.p^j^gj^ 
;aftdi W/FoiDig' in . thany pa*ticulfltjj )/fiftfe(i^ ^> ixFM^ 
Qitonttii&vtg tbe prihctplefof ^ajppfdfezUJ^i^ffisigi 
l^ciifflbly have np fuijh effeftaih^TaiaeiiaiEi^ffc 
lirobitWhai^contrlvancqf or nxhdbaaiTm^wi^ttd^ 
i^&^ifFeiicnti notiftiisr dt ieiMiimcfotBiari£:^^s 
*^met4 mikr of ^phlk^fophkaJr^itd 


r • 

. - ^iiprobdilon Worn ^elf-Lo , 

?3% gtifcyi^tteil of confufibn and ioatxairapyyai 
ftff 4hfe!f ^ '- difiit'^t fy ftetns.^ * iAticoa^diilga if© 
Mr.-'libbfee$;s fend d any of Mb ^fblfowe^'S'f^i 
lAatt^ f ^ ^d'^lv^flf^ to take refuge in: fbciet^v f^ot 
^^anyfeitiifat love which h^g 'biraiiabtoldib 
^^^fcifid/ but beeanfe u^ithoiat thcTaffi^ 
'tf^'dffl^rfe h<? is inciajlaBle of fubfiftiii^fwillh 
%9f6' M^fafdty. Sodiety, upon thfe accgfim&s, 
lyi^eSf^eG^ffaty ^o him, and whatevertemb 
*i^tts^TU]^<^tt iand wdfare, h^ confideh lafc 
IS^ng^tbrnotS' tendency to his bTOiinterisfts; 
ftfid/i^n^ 'ihrj $onbary^ wha^v^et ta Kk«iy»dt«> 
:diftafb ©lo deftrfiy ilt, rtejiregardsvad in item^ 
jfltt«iflfiweriTiard&da:oio penoidons) to 'himfoll. 
2VidhiP2Pi«?ttoeigr£3it fapportTand 
diftur^tiocfj:^Qk'ijo&bife5yi^^^ iTfeer:foE?«?eE, 
therefore, is agreeable and the l^ter ofFenfive 
to every man ; as from the one he forefecs 

• puffendorff, MandcvIUc. 

T4 the 

296^ ^^"Of^S^^'^Ei^r '■' ^ Part'VU^'C 

tUe^pmtfittlVfy atid from the' other the i^uiti^^ 
zhtd^difcffJitr of whatb fo neceflary for the* 
c6'mfort awd fecnrity of his exiftence. • ^ -^ n 

^.Tha^t the tendency of virtue to promotcvi 
and of vice to difturh the order of fociet?^,)^ 
when we confider it codly and philofophicaUy^i^ 
refledfi a very great beauty upon the one,-andn 
fiJWry gf eat deformity upon the pther^, cm^^ 
not'yas I have obferved upon a former p^cb£:ii 
fion^ibe called in queftiom Humail fociejtyjc 
when we^ co^ntemplate it in a eertairi abftpa^^ 
and philofopihicallighty appeal^ |ike^^ gv^jl 
ail iiivmfenfe;iniurhin'e, whofe regular aid ^hM^!^ 
moMowij movements produce a %hpti(ah^Bi 
agreeaWe ^eiffec^ts. ' As in any fother beaUtifWlq 
Jaad/Doble machine that was the produifitfeiab 
of ! human art, whatever tended to ^ teprd^Xi 
its >rhovements more fmooth and eafy^ «\Mi>uli^ 
derive a beauty from this effed^ and^ion th^it 
contrary, whatever tended to Qbftru6fc' thacmn 
would difpleafc upon thatjaccount : ibJ*irtirtiian 
which is, as it were, the fine polifh ^ta theJ) 
w^eel? of fpciety, neceflarily pleafes;} ^laild/: 
vice, like the vile ruft, which makes rtheftxfc 
jajifand grate upon one another, is as.a^ytff- 
fafily offenfive* This account, therefbre^;bfb 
thf: piigin.:^f: ^pprobiitipn and difapprobatiool^ii 
fa- fa^fA^/Ud^riye^ them. from a regard toiih^^ 
ocdeir wf>fafaQ^6y^ :riins into > ^hat ptin^plev 

Biib which 

Seffl;>;lHii^^ I of MoRrAi.£ Pi^f irpsctyny, 2^4f ? 

it is from.^hj39G«xtli^ti fibisffjnftom fdreriyfislrdlD 
tl^atoQrppcq:ranrce)off prbbatilAr^^fi/shioH) itLi^it 
feJS^si i( Wbemibufe atrlii!Qnsfld«foribeivth!e> h^:: 
npfhccafelp)arfy^^tage^!(&i)a euUlAra'ted -atxiifck 
clbhi^h^^we >4i / fafVAge ^nd ;loiitary /life j. A^Mtii 
th^,-^e^pqi|tmte, , )$ [Xixa ^ tliei : necejflit yi of • v^rtiie r 
attdD'^cyojdiiOrder Iror the maintenance toffthei; 
ppiCi ind (feiniQjriftrate: how infallibly thelpre*; 
vikube: rof fyke ;and difobediencCi to the hysrs/ 
t^mlt^ ) brmg ^acl?- the other, the reader is . 
Qhutntd -with the novelty and igrandeur ofr 
thpf/e^ (Views wh4ch ; they opent to him : he* feeai 
pytily a new beauty in virtue, and k neVr 
de^mlty in vke) which he had never] takfeai 
ji^lce?of before^ and is commonly foiddigiit-^r 
eAlwiih thfe. diibovery,. that he feldomvtarhes* 
tifliie to. reflect;, that this political view baring K 
iiev«at)oocuriribd to him in his life before, can^ 
nptiffoffibly beithe> ground of that p^ppibba^' 
ti&hi and difapprobation with which he bak 
ali^a^s been apcuftomed to confider thoffe • 
^iffcr^nt jqtialitiies* ' , - r 

Wbi^tt thofe authors, on^ the oth^r hand, 
Adduce from felf^love the intereft which <\toei 
t^jbe in< the \pelfafe of fociety, and the ^i^itt^^ 
yrfucb upon that acccHint' we beftdw updnP 
fipt^Pi tinpyi do! not i mean^ tlj^t when ^ we In 
u,>..i this 

3^ liOfS'y^r^Mi. \ fikvW. 

AffQ miyinf^of^Gitititit; dur fentifflpim areoifc. 

ceive from the one, or of abyd^iAletttxite 
^^fffeVfi-bni thfe Oth^r. ''' Itvm not beqscuftrfthe 
|)fOf^Wity or [ fubt^rfibii' df focidcyi ' m'^>tho& 
l§ik©tei ag?s jand/natibng^ was^ ^ppr^hcndprf to 
t^ovfc dnj^^ iiiflueHte >upx!w »tirrliiqppinef8:rHM: 
ihiiiry in' the prfefent timefe ; that ? according 
t0 thofe philbfophers, we efleemed the v&tw 
^0<is^ and blamed th« diforderiy charaijm, 
They niifever 'ifti^gined that our ientiknfciift 
wgre Influend^d by aiiy betiefit or diima^fe 
Whfeh' we fiippdffed aduaWy to re^trad ito^, 
lT©ai^dth^}' biK %y that whkb mighi7;|]a«ie 
teddtit^d to us/ hid we live)| iin^tbcffq dift 
lan^^ages ^ni- cduiitHds; pr bythit^fjAftdh 
tei^t Ml *edotind to us, if in' okir owfFfitijei 
Wfii^uld>inkt m bharaiSfcers of tfie^^i^tril 
i^|iid.iiH^)heidaav hi flioh^w^icfa thofeb^o^ 
^totsiwwcT'grppiKg abrait, diut okbicdv tjmi^ 

teAde^ f^^patKy )#hxcfei!wN4r;feelbwitl^ 
j^atlt^ J0rii!!efmicm€n^6f dtcfe t7H0'Feca<rbi 
ihy bt^:Befit>5^)fif]%redf ^e> wfuUiiig 

fteitf^^feefi oppdfitte^'cHarafters :^^^ 
«hiiii;^l|i(5b rth(dy wdre iiMBfUndly'pointi^kg^ 
4irhcai tb«ytfaidl,> tfiatit 'Was nottfie^thtetij^ 

^oqtj prompted 

4KejiaD0ceptrQii /ofuimagi^au^^ 

jBty J with^ fiieh aflbqiatcs* , ^ r t or (i 1 vv to 
- i! &ympad)y^ however, cmtif^ilthl^VfT ftfife, 
dbofiregar^ed as a felfifti prm0i|^e. ^i?W^fen^ 
dyinfiathitze i^ith your forrp^fr qr yQur i^gr 
toition^ itr may be pretended^ iritieed^.tbal Jijyff 
^mbtion is founded in felf*'k)y;ei, becatilfeTitt 
aarifes front bringing your cafe hoiDnte to Imy^ 
/df^frofei putting myfelf in your fituatio^ 
.moid tlkefice conceiving what! fliouW feel fill 
iJ^C like circumftances. But though fymp^r 
^j:j il very properly faid to arife > (rotm t^ 
imaginary chaiige of fituatioii$ vsrith the |>9r? 
£oti principally concerned, yet this itti^ia^y 
rihaftge is not fuppofed to happen to me ,ifli 
jRjyiQwix perfoa and charader, but itt that /pf 
ihtf^^pef fbn with whom I fympathize. Wheivl 
condole with r^u for the Ipfs of your oaly 
{jm^ ilk ordecto enter into your grief 1 4o 
jiotc^nfijicr^htt I,*a petfoli oif fuch a ^har. 
l^aiiSt^ and profoflioB^ fliOuld fuflTer if I ha^ 
^^oii,. And If chat fon was unfortunately to 
^liibut I^cotlfider vfrhat lihould fuffer if I 
i^sa(f$ rfeaJlyyou^ >4nd I not only change fisM 
fun^^ii^fes jw^ y oti, but I ebdn^ perfoni 
a3d4^6h^rad:er^.u My grlef^ therefore, is 6n^ 

b^aqxxioi] upoa 

vfponjvnf GWH^' 'it ii^^iibv; thferefore^i^'kiqth? 

ftlfifli pkffioiy^ t^bich f doe? tixoti artftfl jdyeoJ 

fi?dm^tliib im^gihation^df/ any thing thtit^iia)^lDi0ii 
feH^nf, ob thfift ipetetesi to my felf^' mmly) oroiujSrfa^^ 
p^r piefifiia^hd chaipa'flier^ butiwhiciDiiedtirolji? 
occupied abcMUt ' wKat rekti^s td |j^ouii A1 igaiB 
may fympathize* with a'w<DJnnraBH iii/cl;|ildfeb^ejji;i 
th^gh it i$ impofiible thit' hfe ihoirld' (otai^ 
^ c'elvbbimfelf as fuffe^irtg her>paiifi6^>in!hisix>wh{ 
prbper^ petfon dnd H:hara<Ser; '' That >wfebk) 
iGboivnt(ol' human natjupcyho^e^ry whicbi 
deduces? ail fentinients and a>ffe(^i(to3; fecoofc 
felf-ldvei which has • made (q miip^i noife jiij 
the.\i?iorUv b^it^^hich, fo fai: aslikdowvlhaet 
never. Jyet been >fiilly and diftiiKQly cxpiaifaid;^ 
fisetnis td n^eto b^ve anreniiit)aii<& 
fufitdinifapprehenfion of.ihe fyftedxdf fjfriw 
piifcliy^:.(li ,j:,^f^:w-\: '.-'■^ .nil t:> ^wi;( 9flT 

Tdn w yiriell knowd to faa^e beem tihe:dodki;i]|^ 
,< of/JVjr.iHidbbiMi, t^^ ia ftateoof tnalujijyiaf 
jt i^^^r^^ ttridi ithat antesoeddnubi ^odw 
inf^kmian jofcWH igoycnjment^ ithefet jdgirf4[ 
be)tib && cv fDQac£abte]&(^^7 jimc»ftgtQ^ 

S(j0x Ht ^ of MoaAt iPiJH-QfOPHy. ^/^, 

T(J prefq^ve ifockty,? tihecef&re^ ;i^epi/t}}ngi(ji<fr> 
him, fwaatto XujJpovtj ciyil/gcMemji^f^rtiit^} ^r)}^i 
tOjiieftxloyi ctvii g<j^^ero!m^i>t yrasrjjtlrp /^^e! 
thiohgr is?:t6: pubaa endto XocieSytni iJlitL^betl 
©iQifl(oncc of 'dtvili gdverom^nt dopdind^ .uiptfni 
t]hb I iobediedcei that • isr paid tf Lth^rr £ii!pf y !t^ 
magiflfrateiv The iBomenfeHe/W^ftibi^i atjtlD^ 
ijiiyVialll govcrnfiavent is dt an;endi/j A^ii ^lirn 
praierMatiorij thferefore^ teacher i^erit ^0>i;ji^,4:J 
pb«d wfliateveir tendfe to prbmate tlienwbyii'ej 
ofcfdciety^Sdnd to bjamd whatever^ 13 Hkcl(yrl:Oj 
hfurd it ;; rfo th« fanf>« principk, U* theyi wm^M 
thinfc and fpeiik (tonfiflemly^^ouigKfc iQ.ic4cii:' 
tlqiealfto applaud :upon allVQcfc^fipil^obeditrtCi} 
toj tli^v-civil imagiftratie, and /to blany^ali diik 
<)8Mdicbce) and rebellion. The-^nd-y ide^^of 
knadable and bla^meable, ought to l>c tbeikmd: 
wiiljl thofe ofi obedience 'and. difobfidiinie) 
The laws of the civil magiftrate, thec<?f61^ej 
ought to be regarded as the fole ultimate 
ftandards of \^\vii Was Ijtiffe and unjuft, of 

' It was the jivowed intention of Mr. 
Hobbes, by propagating thefe notions, to fub* 
jjDd: tbe coiD^ckncdsjof men immediaidely to the 
civil, and t not 1 to the bcclefiaftickl povticrs, 
^hofe tuurbuleoce and ambition^ he had ])i^ea 
iaught, by the example of his own times, tct 
jregard .as the principal fource of tbii diforJ 
■ ders 

ms '■' Of tkrtzu^ V l^ikM 

^eA^ibclky/ Hiaabatiriei i^fro^Cfafs^B. 
Wmty wis pecuHiriy- <^n6ve td' ^te>i3^ 
^fensi \*hC) accordingly "did iidtMl iia'Srt^ 
Iheir IhdigrktfdH againft hiih< With' gre^t ^^^ 

^^iaM''fe)Utfd3nft»^ift8,>#'tt f&p^ftd^ i«ift 

^^^!^4va§' HSP'ii^uM' -diftifiai^ 4^twaM 

kd ,^^tl^Mhi 'i«d dep€Tid6(!lf' ii^' ^ 
mere arbitrary^ jwHI oi the ' 'cfvlt' iSa^ltkkfe 
'I'hiS^itecotiiiC-of- things," " t^ei:*6fo^' yi'S^^X" 
tickerd' frbta' lall qijarters andby^all'ferftlodf 
^♦!(e'4p6{i8,'b7' fdber teafon as w^U'^9' %>fi»^ 
©tt«(kc1amatidril'' '■' .'- -■ '!-'-* -oIjo;i Ki'dj 
^'tlar^]fa6i' KX eohfiite fo odious a d<y6i^^l(l 
#a«*ge4flStfjrkii prdve, that ant^cedeHt't^# 
UW' b^' p5f«ive ' inftitiitioh, the - inin^ ' WailiitfJ 
tmW^ endiojecd with a faculty^,; by 'ivbfeb% 
diftii^taifhed ia tier taia anions aUd ^aldi^,' 
dife-^alitied of i%ht, laudabifei ftti# Vi!ft\icfu3i^ 
attii ia bthetfif thote'tif wrong; Blakeafila,'^ti<f 
viiadUB^ •'^- - -'•' ' '''^ ' ■ •■'-■ ] ''-^= ^ ■^••'^^ i:v/iffi:b 
^Eaw; It-wafSjufttyobiferV^d tjh^l^. G^-? 
worth*,; CO JM^^iwfetfetWdtigirtdi'fbti 
thtofe f^iMaaJens V fwcp, upori the iB|i^fif 
ti^i«f3uch k I»W, it inuft eithtet br r^tit tt^ 
'ofefe5^ StiMi^ 1***>^ to difoh&y k^iyt iiidifi^ 

u. ' fent 

m^^l^^a ^ii9feP3FP4iM» or,j41feJi^|,c^ 
»ffffe#fi«q»i4 ill# sf¥Qh it jRa^sigilsit ite£Pl^«^ 

I^SI^ 4€;f5fjtfiCBder^t.,,IW>tiqi»5 QKvid«»fo(9^' 
5Igfeftj?»d3^/pnS^:53P^ :;??iat pt^.ienS;fix:tqr!tl|f- 
^ Yff^q(fpn;fQ|;fli^a^ie. tQ,the i(ieJii,Qf rigfet, i,^^ 
^^^m^ |tip-:,thftt of wrtJOg^^ t ,. . . r r ! i s yisrri 

^^ofe^ ^ fl'hii^ipn.s j anteq?4f iifl S^ \ isjl i \%-M all 
<4fj^e4j n^ccfia^ily to faUpvjTjf itfeaf ri^fjef jy^ 
this notion from reafon, whiflhiprnMedj Ptf^ 
tj^eo<^^^t>Q^ . between right )%A* V5«»ig» 1 in 
^ if^rR^jRwnper in which i^ <JI4 ^fe^R l)^«»^«e<^ 
tffl4th/r?yQfl i felf^bpo4 • and tbi»)jeftRt:lttfi««*' 
^lasfei Y^bptiglv «?-u# io foto« tre^iSfi* ^il:«rt 
tl5fif)fefty. »^fi>tJ^«f »i ?ff^^ (in^re.fgiGJf !t§%w»r^ 

diflind: offices and powers of the difie^gg^lipih^ 
<aft\5i9S «?ft tjMP j^na^ijf cn^if4! f Wr b^ea^^^e- 

iKcn thaughl: of :from whtch any fuch ideas 
«ouy poifibly lie,fti^pp(^«d^«^ej It became 

Mx% ' ; at 

488 Of SrsTEirfs Part VIL 

at this time, tTiereforr, the popular dodrine, 
that the eflence of virtue and vice did lidt 
confift in the conformity or difagreement of 
human adions with the kw of a fuperior, but 
in their confoi'mity or difagreement with rea-* 
fod, which was thus confidered as the origi- 
nal fource and principle of approbation and 

That virtue confifts in conformity to rea^^ 
fon, is true in fome refpeds, and this faculty 
may very juftly be confidered as, in fome 
fenfe, the fource and principle of approba-* 
tion and difapprobation^ and of all folid 
judgments concerning right and wrong. It . 
is by reafon that we difcover thofe general 
rules of juftice by which we ought to regu- 
late our adions : and it is by the fame faculty 
that we form thofe more vague and indeter- 
minate ideas of what is prudent, of what is 
decent, of what is generous or noble, which 
we carry conftantly about with us, and ac- 
xording to which we endeavour, as well as 
we can, to model the tenor of cur eondud. 
The general maxims of morality arc formed^ 
like all other general maxims, from experi« 
ence and indudion. We obferve in a great 
variety of particular cafes what plcafes or dit^ 
pleafcs our moral faculties^ what thefe ap^ 
prove or difapprove of^ and, >y ia(Judioa 

7 feom 

$e£):. tit r/ MojJiAL Philosophy* aSp 

from this experience, we eftablifti thofe ge- 
neral rules. But indudion is always regarded 
as end of the operations of reafon. From rea- 
fon, therefore, we are very properly faid to 
derive all thofe general maxims and ideas. 
It is by tHefe, however, that we regulate the 
greater part of our moral judgments, which 
would be extremely uncertain and precarious 
if they depended altogether upon what is li- 
able to fo many variations as immediate fen- 
timent and feeling, which the different ftates 
of health and humour are capable of altering 
fo eflentially. As our moft foHd judgments, 
therefore, with regard to right and wrong, are 
regulated by maxims and ideas derived from 
an indudion of reafon, virtue may very pro- 
perly be faid to confift in a conformity to 
reafon, and fo far this faculty may be con- 
fidered as the fource and principle of appro- 
bation and difapprohation. 

But though reafon is undoubtedly the 
fource of the general rules of morality, and of 
all the moral judgments which we form by 
means of them ; it is altogether abfurd and 
unintelligible to fuppofe that the firft percep- 
tions of right and wrong can be derived from 
reafon, even in thofe particular cafes upon the 
experience of which the general rules are 
formed. Thefe firft perceptions, as well as 

VOL. !!• u all 

igo 0/ Systems Pm.VU. 

all other experiments upon which any gene- 
ral rules are founded, cannot \)C the object of 
reafon but of immediate fenfe and feeling. It 
is by finding in a vaft variety of inftances th^t 
one tenor of condudl conftantly pleafesina 
certain manner, and that another as cp%- 
ftantly difpleafes the mind,, that w^ form t^ 
general rules of morality. .But re^fonr qaft- 
not render any particular obj/e<^^ith,er[,2^gi;f^r 
able or difagreeable to t^je mind for U^t<?is5?iji 
fake. Reafon may fhow that this obje^,^ 
the means of obtaining fo^le otl^^r wjiiqh is 
naturally either pleafmg or difpleafiog). aji^^l 
in this manner may render it either agro^abte 
or difagreeable for the fa,ke of fomethi^g-^114. 
But nothing can be agreeable or dif^^v^e^hk 
for its own fake, whi^h is nojt rendarpd? fiich 
by immediate fenfe and; feeUhg^juIfi^^irtiifi, 
therefore, in^every .particular ^^ftancie^.iiecrf- 
farily pleafes for its own fafce^^and if ^raceias 
certainly difpleajfes the mindj itcannotidDe 
reafon, ..but » immediate fenfev^and^qjfeeKng, 
which, in this:manncr^l reconciles^ us tpj^thfe 
one, and alienates us from th© dthfr^ > i ' 4 n om 
. Pleafure and > pain arc the i great obji^Ste of 
defire and aij^erfTon^i^but^ dvefe^atte^ idiftitb- 
gui&ed^^not i by ^.reafon; but' ^^y^clmitt0ii«e 
fenfe and feeling. ^ K .virtu^-'^bwefom^ ^ 
defirable for its own fake, and if vice be, in 
^ ^ the 

Seii. nti tf MdRAL Philosophy. 291 

the fame manner, the objeft of averfion, it 
cannot be reafon which originally diflinguifhes 
thofe difFei^eiit qualities, but immediate fenfe 
^tid feeling.* ' 

A^teafori, however, in a certain fsnfe, 
itoayjuftlybe confidered as the principle of 
ip^robatidh alid difapprbbatton, thefe fenti- 
tncntS? Were, through inattention, long re- 
garded is ori^nally flowing frdm the ope* 
rUtions of this faculty. Dr. Hutchefon had the 
merit of beirig the firft who diftinguilhed 
ivhh atiy degree of'precifion in what refpedt 
All moral diftindions may be faid to arife 
frota reafon, and in what refped they are 
founded upon immediate fenfe and feeling* 
In his illuftrationd upon the moral fenfe he 
has explained this fo fully, and, in my opi'- 
nioD, fo unanfwerably, that, if any contro-i 
TCffy isftill kept up about this fubjeft, I caa 
impute it to nothing, but either to inatten- 
tion to what that gentleman has written, or 
tDafupecftitious attachment to certain forms 
of expreffioDi a weakriyefs not very uncom- 
mon among the learned, efpecially in fubjeds 
fo deeply interefting as the prefent, in which 
aman of. virtue is often loath to abandon, 
cyem the propriety of a finglie phrafe whicU 
}ie bas hoe0 laccuftodc^^ to» ; . 

u a 

^$i 0/ SYstuus Part m. 

CHAP, nu 

pf thofe Sterns which make Sentiment the 
Principle of Approbation. 

^TpHOSE fyftems which make fentiment 
^ the principle of approbation may be 
divided into two different claffcs. 

I. According to fome, the principle of ap- 
probation is founded upon a fentiment of a 
peculiar nature, upon a particular power of 
perception exerted by the mind at the view 
of certain anions or affedtions ; fome of which 
affe£ting this faculty in an agreeable and 
others in a difagreeable manner, the fqrmer 
are damped with the charadters of right, laud- 
able, and virtuous ; the latter with thofe of 
wrong, blameable, and vicious. This fenti- 
ment being of 'a peculiar, nature diftinft from 
every other, and the effefl: of a particular 
power of perception, they give it a particular 
name, and call it a moral fenfe. 

II. According to others, in order to ac- 
count for the principle of approbation, there 
is no occafion for fuppofing any new pawer 
of perception which had never been heard of 

5 before : 

SeBi. III. of M6tLAh Philosophy. i§^ 

before : Nature, they imagine, aidts here, as 
in all other cafes, with the ftridteft oeconotoy; 
and produces a niultitude of efFecSs from one 
and the fame cailfe ; and fympathy, a jiower 
which has always been taken notice of, and 
with which the mind is manifeftly endowed, 
is, they think, fuffifclent to' Account for all the 
cfFedls afcribed to this peculiar faculty. 
. , L Dr. Hutphefon* had been at great pains 
Ho prove that the principle of approbisition 
was not founded, on felf-love. He had de-* 
pionflfrated too that it could not arife from 
any operation of r^afon. Nothing remained, 
he thought, but to fuppofe it a faculty of a 
peculiar kind, with which Nature had eti-* 
do^yedthe human mind, in order to produce 
this one particular and important effeft. 
, When felf-love and reafon were both exclud- 
ed, it did not occur to him that there wa^ 
any pther known faculty of the mind which 
cpuld, in* any refp$ft anfwer this purpofe, 
Xhip new power of perception he called a 
. mo^^, fpnfe^ and fqppofed it to be fomewhat 
-analpgous to the e:?cternal fenfes. As the bo- 
dies around up^^.by afFeding thefe in a certain 
jgiaflnqr, appear to poflefs the different qua- 
^ .iitfps pf JjpWR^* tafte, odour, colour ; fo the 

♦ Inquiry concerning Virtue. 

u 3 various 

fi94 Of Systems Part Vlt, 

Various affedions of the human mind, by 
touching this particular faculty in a certaia 
manner, appear to poflefs the different qua-? 
lities of amiable and odious, of virtuous and 
vicious, of right and wrong. 

The various fenfes or powers of percep-? 
tion*, from which the human mind derives 
all its fi in pie ideas, were, according to this 
fyftem, of two different kinds, of which the 
one were called the dire£l or antecedent, the 
other, the reflex or confequent fenfes. The 
(lired fenfes \\ ere thofe faculties from which 
the mind derived the perception of fuch fpe-? 
pes of things as .did not prefuppofe the ante- 
cedent perception of any other. Thus founds 
and colours were objedls of the dire^ fenfes. 
To hear a found or to fee a colour does not 
prefuppofe the antecedent perception of any 
other quality or objed. The reflex or confe- 
quent fenfes on the other hand, were thofe 
faculties from which the mind derived the 
perception of fuch fpecies of things as prefup- 
pofed the antecedent perception of fome othert 
Thus harmony and beauty were objedls of 
the reflex fenfes. In order to perceive the 
harmony of a found, or the beauty of a co- 
lour, we mufl firfl perceive the found or the 

• Trcatife of the Paffious.. 


Seflr. III. 2/* Moral Philosophy. agg 

colour. The moral fenfe was confidered as 
a faculty of this kind. That faculty which 
Mr. Locke calls refledion, and from which 
he derived the fimple ideas of the different 
paffions and emotions of the human mind, 
was, according to Dr. Hutchefon, a dire<3: 
internal fenfe. That faculty again by which 
we perceived the beauty or deformity, the vir- 
tue or vice of thofe different paflions or emo* 
tions, was a reflex, intesnal fenfe. 

Dr. Hutchefon endeavoured flill farther to 
iupport this dodlrine, by fhewing that it was 
agreeable to the analogy of nature, and that 
the mind was endowed with a variety of 
Other reflex fenfes exadlly fimilar to the mo- 
ral fenfe ; fuch as a fenfe of beauty and defor- 
mity in external objects ; a public fenfe, by 
which we fympathize with the happinefs or 
mifery of our fellow-creatures ; a fenfe of 
ihame and honour, and a fenfe of ridicule. 

But notwithftanding all the pains which 
this ingenious philofopher has taken to prove 
that the principle of approbation is founded 
in a peculiar power of perception, fomewhat 
analogous to the external fenfes, thej-e are 
fome confequences which he acknowledges 
to follow from this dodrine, that will, per- 
haps, be regarded by many as a fufEcient 
u 4 ?onfuta- 

2f^ Cy Systems PartVIL 

cdtlf ULtetl6n' of it ' The qualities, he allows *, 
vrlitehfbelong to the objedis of any feafe, can- 
tti^ Without the greateft abfurdity, be afcri- 
be*l!o the' fenfe itfelf, Who ever thought 
of cilHng the fenfe of feeitig black or white, 
trhcfeofe of hearing loud or low, or th^ fenfe 
6{ tiffing fweet or bitter ? • And, according to 
hitoi' it is ecjuklly abfurd to call our moral fa- 
chlltleii virtuous or vicious, morklly gbo4 or 
eVif. Thefe qualities belong to- the objedis 
of 4;hofe faculties^ not to the faculties them- 
felv^s.. If any man, dietefore, was fo ab- 
furdly conftituted ae to approve of cruelty 
ihd injiiftice as the higheft virtues^, and to 
flifaf>p*ove of equity and humanity as the 
l»6ft pitiful vices, fuch a conftitution of mind 
lAight indeed be regarded as inconvenient 
both to the individual and to the fooiety^ and 
IilteWife as ftrange, furprifing, and unnatural 
in ftfelf ; but it could not, without the great- 
cift^dbfurdity, be denominated vicious or mo- 

Yet fiirely if we faw any man fhouting 
^ithkd miration and applaufe at a barbarous 
and tinmerited execution, which fome info* 
leiit tyfatit hadorderedi we Ihould not think 

• Illuftrations upon the Moral Senfe^ fe(5t. u p. '237, et 
feq. ; tbird edition. ;- ;" 

' ■ ^ we 

Se£t IIL tf Moral Philosophy. 1297 

we V9ttt guilty of any great abfurdity in de- 
nominating this behaviour vicious and mo- 
rally evil in the higheft degree, though it ex-* 
preffcd nothing but depraved moral faculties, 
or an abfurd approbation of this horrid a^ion, 
as of virhat was noble, magnanimous, and 
greatv Our heart, I imagine, at the fight of 
fuch a fpedator, would forget for a while its 
fympathy with the fufFerer, and feel nothing 
but horror and deteftation at the thought of fo 
execi»able a wretch. We Ihould abomin^e 
him even more than the tyrant who might be 
goaded on by the ftrong paffions of jealoufy, 
fear, and refentment, and upon that account 
be more excufable. But the fentiments of 
the fpedator would appear altogether with- 
out caufe or motive, and therefore moft per- 
fedly and completely deteftable. There is 
no perverfion of fentiment or afFe<9:ion which 
our heart would be more averfe to enter into, 
or which it would rejedl with greater hatred 
and indignation than one of this kind ; and fo 
far from regarding fuch a conftitution of 
rnuid as being merely fcmething ftrange or 
inconvenient, and not in any refpedl vicious 
or morally evil, we (hould rather confider it 
as the very lafl: and moft dreadful ftage of 
rooral depravity. 


itg&: Of Systems Part VII. 

'Cortefit moral fentiments, on the contrary, 
naturally appear in fome degree laudable and 
morally good. The man, whofe cenfure and 
applau^fe are upon all occafions fuited^ with 
the gi'featcft accuracy to the value Or unwor- 
thrnidfs^ iof * the objedli feems to deferve bl de- 
gi4e eVtn of mord approbation. We admire 
tbii delic!ate precifion of his moral fentiments : 
they lead our own judgments, and, upon ac- 
cou-nt of their uncommon and furprifihg juft- 
nefs, they even excite our wonder and ap- 
plaufe^ We cannot indeed be always furc 
thd^t the conduct of fuch a perfon would be in 
any refped correfpondent to the precifion and 
acburacy of his judgments concerning the con^ 
du£t of others. Virtue requires habit and re- 
fofutibn of mind, as well as delicacy of fenti- 
ment ; and unfortunately the former quali- 
ties are fometimes wanting, where the latter is 
in the greateft perfedlion. This difpofition 
of mind, however, though it may fometimes 
be attended with imperfeftions, is incompa- 
tible with any thing that is grofsly criminal, 
and is the happieft foundation upon which , 
the fuperftrudure of perfedt virtue can be 
built. There are many men who mean very 
v^U, and ferioufly purpofe to do what they 
thiiik theit duty, who notwithftarfding are 
' ' o ^ ^^ ' " ' dilagree-^"^ 

Scft. HI. of Moral Philosophy. %§^ 

difagr^eable on account of the coarfenef&.pt 
t^eir mpr^l f^ntiments. ^i vij; / 

It may be fj^id, perhaps, that though, tl^c 
prin,ciple pf approbation is not founded jiAPQUi 
any power, of perception that is in any refpe<^ > 
jjnalpgous to the external fenfe^, it n^iayfltillfl' 
be founded upon a peculiar fentiment vvl^ic^- 
^nfwers ^his one particular purpofe and,|nQ.i 
Qther. Appro|)ation and difapprobatipp, yit; 
ipay be pretended j are certain feelings or CHftOr, 
tions which arife in the mind upon the vip^ 
of different charadlers and adions ; and asitor,. 
fentment might be called a fenfe of injurie?, 
pr gratitude a I'enfe of benefits, fo thefe wayf. 
very properly receive the name of a fenfe of, 
right and wrong, or of a moral fenfe. , ,., 

But this account of things, though it m^y. 
not be liable to the fame obje(a:ions with ;he, 
foregoing, is expofed to others which nat:^/ 
equally unanfwerable. ^ , 

Firft of all, whatever variations any parti-, 
cular emotion may undergo, it ftill prefejrves 
th^ general features which diftinguifli it to bp; 
2^n emotion of fuch a kind, and thefe geapra^/ 
features are always more ftriking and remark-?; 
able than any variation which it may undergo , 
in pjE^rticular cafes. Thus anger is an.en^o^/ 
tion of a particular kind : and accordingly its; 
general features are always more diftinguifh- 


ioor (y Systems Part VII. 

able fhan all the variations it undei^goes in 
particular cafes. Anger againft a man is, no 
clbuDti Somewhat different from' anger againft 
a* womaii, ,and that again from anger againft 
a childi In eadh of thofe three cafes, the ge- 
neral paflioH of anger receives a different mo- 
dification from the particular^ charalfter of its 
dbjedt, as may eafily be obferved by the at- 
tentive. But ftill the general features of the 
jpaflibn predominate in all thefe cafes. To 
diftinguifli thefe, requires no nice obferva* 
tion :' a very delicate attetition, On the c6n- 
trary, is neceflary to difcover their variations j 
cVdry body takes notice of the former, fcarce 
any body obferves the latter. If approbation 
and difapprobation, therefore, were like gra- 
titude and refentment, emotions of a particu- 
la;r kind, diftinft frOm every other, wd fhoulH 
^xpeiSt that in all the variations which either of 
them might undergo, it would ftill retain the 
getieral features which mark it to be an emo- 
tion of fuch- a particular kind, clear, plain, 
and eafily diftinguifhable. But in fad: it 
Happens quite otherwife. If we attend to 
what we really feel when upon different pc- 
cafions we either approve or difapprbve. We 
Ihall find that Our emotion in one cafe' is 
dfteh totally different from that in another, 
and that no common features can poffibly be 


SeS. in. of MonAi- Philosophy. 30 i 

4ircOyeared betweeij tfeeidn; Tiiu$ th,^ m^pro- 
bation wUb \^ich we view a tender, delicate, 
and huiji.4ne fentiiAent, \% quite ^\%tr^xi%ix:Q4i^ 
that with which we are ftmclc by one that ap- 
pears. great, daring, and ipagnajQin^bus, , pur 
approb^tipn gf bQth may, upon different oc- 
cafions, ibe p€rfe<3: fnd entire ; but \ye ^r^ 
fofteped by the pne, and we are elevate^ by 
the other, m^ there is no fort of r^femblaj^cp 
between the lemotions which they excite iri 
us. But, according to that fyftepi whic|i,I 
^aye been endeavouring to eftablifh, tm$ 
muft neceffarily be the cafe. As the emotions 
pf the perfoa whom we approvp pf are, iqi 
thofe two cafes, quite oppofite to pneranpr 
ther, and as pur apprpbatlon arifes fron^ 
fympathy with thofe opppfite emotion^, ^what 
we feel ppon the one occafion, Qan Ijiayq no 
fort of r^eqablance to what we feel ppon the 
other. . But this could not happen if appro- 
bation confifted in a pepyliar enjotipn which 
had nothing in common with the fentim^ nts 
we approved pf, but which arofe at the view 
pf thofe fentiments, like any other paffipn 4t 
the view pf its proper pbjed:. The fame 
^ing holds truis with regard to difapp.rp^ 
|)ation. Gur hprror fpr pruelty has ^o fort 
of reftpablance to ppr contempt fpj^ n^e^T 
fpiritedocfs. It is quite ^ di^ereai fpf^Us of 


3aa Of SvsT£M8 Pan VIL 

difoordi which we feel at the view of thofe 
two diiFerent vices, between our own itiirids 
and thofe of the perfon whofe fentimeiits arid 
bebayiour we confider. 

Seqondly, I have already obfefved, that 
not only the different pafEons or affe£tions of 
the human mind which are approved or dif^ 
approved of, appear morally good or evil, but 
that proper and improper approbation appear 
to ouir natural fentiments, to be ftimped 
with the fame charafters. I would afk, therfe-» 
fores, how it is, that, according to this Tyftem^ 
we approve or difapprove of proper or imp^o* 
per approbation ? To this queftion there is^ 
I iinagine, but one reafonable anfwer, whic4 
can p^bly be given. It muft be'faid,^tlwt 
when the approbation with which our neigh* 
bour regards the condufk of a third perfon 
coincides with our own, we approve of his 
apprd>ation, and confider it as, in fome m^a'* 
fure, morally good ; and that on the contrary^ 
wlDsn it does not coincide with our own fendh 
ments, ^t difapprove of it, and confider it as^ 
in fome meafure, morally evil. It muft be at^ 
lowed, therefore, that, at leaft in^afe^ 
the coincidence or oppofition of fentimeats^ 
between the obferver and the perfon obferv^J 
conftitutes moral approbation or difapproba* 
tion. And if it does fo in this one cafd^ I 
- ^ would 

Sed. III. §/* IVToRAL Philosophy. J03 

would afk, why not in every otheri to?<whit 
purpofe imagine a new power of pefbdpticfft 
in order to account for thofe fentitneiitsr'' g 
Againft every account of the prindpddx^f 
approbation, which makes it depend ^IpDd a 
peculiar fentiment, diftindt from every other, 
I would object; that it is ftrange that this 
fentiment, which Providence undc«ibtediy 
intended to be the governing principle of 
human nature, fhould hitherto have been fo 
little taken notice of, as not to have got a 
name in any language. 'The word moral 
fenfe is of very late formation, and cannot, 
yet be confidered as making part of' th^ 
Englifli tongue. The word approbation hais 
bujt within thcfe few years been appropriated 
to denote peculiarly any thing of this kiild'. 
In propriety of language we approve of 
whatever is entirely to our fatisfa^ion, of 
the form of a building, of the contrivance of 
a machine, of the flavour of a difh of meat^ 
The word confcience does not immediately 
denote any moral faculty by which we apt- 
prove or difapprove. Confcience fuppofes^ 
itulee^v the exiftence of fome fuch facultyi 
?md properly fignifies our confcioufnefs-cif 
having aded agreeably or contrary to ita idli 
rc^ions^. When love, hatred, joy^» foitirow^ 
gratitude, refentment, .with fo mafty otfeer 
■[ . paflions 

3C4 (y Systems Part VH* 

paffioQS which are all fuppofed lo be th^ fiib- 
jcds of this principle, have made themfelves 
confuderable enough to get titles to kaoMr 
them by, is it not furprifing that the foyereign 
of them all ihould hitherto have been fo 
little heeded, that, a few philofophers ex- 
cepted, nobody has yet thought it worth 
while td beftow a name upon it ? 

When we approve of any charafter or ac- 
tion, the fentiments which we feel are, ac- 
cording to the foregoing fyftem, derived 
from four fourccs, which are in fomerefpeds 
different from one another. Firft, we fym- 
pathize with the motives of the agent ; fe* 
condly, we enter into the gratitude of thc^ 
who receive the benefit of his adions ; thirdly, 
we obferve that his conduct has Jpceai agre€^ 
able to the general rules by which thofe two 
fympathies generally ad ; and, laft of ^I, 
when we confider fuch adions as maldag a 
part of a fyftem of behaviour which tends to 
promote the happinefs cither of the individual 
or of the fociety, they appear to derive a 
beauty from this utility, not unlike that which 
we afcribe to any well-contrived madiine. 
After d^eduding, in any one partkjijlar caff, 
all that muft be acknowledged to pcocetd 
from fome one pr^o^her of thcfc four priaci- 
ples, I fhould be glad to know what xemaws^ 

Seit. iVJ of M6ral PfliLoaioi>HY. 305 

and I fliall freely allow this overplus ^o be, 
afcribed to a moral fenfe, or to any other .pe- 
culiar faculty, provided any body will afcer- 
tain precifely what this overplus is. If might 
be expe^ed, perhaps, that if there was any 
fuch^ pectiliar principle, fuch as this moral 
ferife is fuppofed to be, we (hould feel it, in 
fome particular cafes, feparated and dejtached 
from every other, as we often feel joy, for- 
row, hope, and fear, pure and unmixed , 
with any other emotion. This, however, I 
imagine, cannot even be pretended. I have 
never heard any inftance alleged in which 
this principle could be faid to exert itfelf alone 
and ulnmixed with fympathy or antipathy, 
with gratitude or refentment, with the per- 
ception of the agreement or difagreement of 
any action to an eflablilhed rule, or, lad of all, 
with that general tafte for beauty and order 
which is excited by inanimated as well as by 
animated objects. 

II. There is another fyftem which attempts 
to account for the origin of our moral fenti- 
ments from fympathy, diftind from that 
which I have been endeavouring to eftablifli^ 
It is that which places virtue in utility, and 
accounts for the pleafure with which the fpec- 
tator furveys the utility of any quality from 
fympathy with the happinefs of thofe who are 
VOL. II. X affedted 

5o6 . t>f Systems Part VIL 

afFedcd by it. This fympathy is different 
both from that by which we enter into the 
motives of the agent, and from that by 
which we go along with the gratitude of the 
perfons who are benefited by his ad):ions. It 
is the fame principle with that by which we 
approve of a well-contrived machine. But no 
machine can be the object of either of thofe 
two laft-mentioned fympathies. I have al- 
ready, in the fourth part of this difcourfe, 
given fome account of this fyftem. 

Seft. IV. ^ Moral Philo^ophIt* 307 

. S£:cTrON IV. 

Of the Manner in which different Authors 
have treated of the pradlical Rules of 

Tt was obferved in the third part o^ this 
"*- difcourfe, that the rules of juftice are the 
only rules* of morality which are precife ancj 
accurate; thatthofe of all the other virtues 
are loofe, vague, and indeterminate ; that the 
firft may be compared to the rules of gram-^ 
mar ; the others to thofe which critics lay 
down for the attainment of what is fiiblime 
and elegant in compofition, and which pre- 
fent us rather with k general idea of the per-^ 
fedlion we ought to aim at, than afford ui 
any certain and infallible diredlions for ac- 
quiring it. 

As the different rules of morality admit 
fuch different degrees of accuracy, thofe au- 
thors who have endeavoured to collect and 
digeft them into fyftcms have done it in two 
different manners; and one fet haS followed 
through the whole that loofe method to which 
they were naturally direded by the confider- 
" X 2 V atioa 

3p8 Qf Systems PartVIL 

ation of one fpccics of virtues ; while another 
has as univerfally endeavoured to introduce 
into their precepts that fort of accuracy of 
v^rhich only fome of them are fufceptible. 
The ftft have \v^rote like critics, the fecond 
liKe grammarians. 

I. The firft, among whom we may count 
all the ancient moralifts, have contented theni- 
iclves with defcribing in a general manner 
the diffi^rent vices and virtues, and with 
pointing out the deformity and mifery of the 
one difpofition, as well as the propriety and 
happinefs of the other, but have not afFeded 
to lay down many precife rules that are to 
lipid good unexceptionably in all particular 
cafes. They have only endeavoured to afcer- 
tain, a^ fair ^s language is capable of afcer- 
tainihg, firft, %herein confifts the fentimfcnt 
of the hear^updn which each particular vir- 
tue is f6un6ed, what fort of internal feeling or 
emotion it is Which xbnftitutes the effence of 
friendftiip, of htimanity, of generofity, of juft- 
ice, of magnaninlity, and of fjl th^ other 
virtues, ate well as of the vices which ire op-r 
pofed to them: and, fecondly, what is the 
gederal way of adHng, the ordinary tone 
tnd tfeptor of ibndu^ to which each of thofe 
fentiments would direct us, or bow it is that 
afnendly, agen^ou^, abrc^ve^ ajqft^ and a 
5 humane 

Se£k. IV. of Moral Philosophy. 309 

humane mati would, Upon ordinary occafiohs^ 
choofe to aft. 

To charaflerize the featiment of the heart, 
upon which each particular virtue is founded, 
though it requires both a delicate and an ac- 
curate pencil, is a tafk, however, which may 
be executed with fdme decree of exadbiefs. 
k is impoffible, indeed, to exprefs all the va- 
riations which each fentiitierit either does or 
ought to undergo, according to every poffible 
. variation of circutnftances. They are endl^fs, 
and language want3 names to mark them by. 
The fentiment of friendfhip, for e^mple, 
which we feel for an old man is dj^erent 
from that which we feel for a young : that 
. which we entertain for anauftere man differ- 
ent from that which we feel for one of fofter 
andgentlgr manners; and that again from 
what we feel for one of gay vivacity ?ind fpi- 
rit. The friendflvip which we conceive for a 
m*n, is different from that with which a 
Wptnan ^e£t$. us, even where there is no 
mibcture of any grofler paffion. What author 
^6ul4 enumerate and afcertain thefe and all 
> ^he otheir infinite varieties which this fenti- 
ment is capable of undergoing \ But (lill the 
ygenejral, fentiment of friendfliip and familiar 
j,^)ttachm^at v^hich is common tpthem^^ll, 
: IW<^y b? afcertained with a fufficienttfJiegree of 
V ;. > *3 accuracy. 


310 0/SysTJEMs Part'VH. 

accilracy. The pidure which is drawn of it, 
though it will always be in r^any refpedls in- 
complete, may, however, have fuch a refem- 
|}lance as to make us know the original when 
we meet with it, and even from 
otlier^fehtiments to which it has a confider- 
able refemblance, fuch as good-will, reiped, 
efteem, admiration. 

To defcribe, in a general manner, what is 
the ordinary vs^ay of acting to which each 
virtue would prompt us, is flill mpre eafy. 
It is, indeed, fcarce poflible to defpribe th^ 
internal fentiment or emotion upon which 
|t is founded, without doing fomething of 
this kind. It is impoflible by language to ex-' 
prefs, if I may fay fp, the invifible features of 
^11 the different modifications of paffion as they. 
fhow themfelve§ within. There is no othqr 
way or marking and diftinguifliing thenpi from 
one another, but by defcribing the cfFefts which 
they produce without, tjhe alterations which 
they occafion in the countenance, in the ^ir dnd 
external behaviour, the refolutions they fug- 
geft, the a(5;ions they pronipt ,to. It is, thus 
that Cicero, in the firft book of his Offices, 
endeavcurs to dired us to the practice of the. 
four cardinal virtues, and that Ariftotle in the 
practical parts of his Ethics ppints out to us 
ihe different habits by which he would have 


Seft. IV. g/* Moral Philosophy. 31 i 

us regulate our behaviour, fuch as liberality, 
magliificence, magnanimity, and even jocu- 
larity and good humour, qualities which that' 
Hidulgent philofopher has^ thought worthy of 
a place in the catalogue of the virtues, though 
tire lightnefs of that approbation which w^- 
naturally beftow upon them, (hould not feem 
to entitle them to fo venerable a name. 

Such works prefent us with agreeable and * 
lively pidures of manners. By the vivacity * 
of their defcriptions they inflame our natural* 
love of virtue, and increafe our abhorrence of' 
vice : by the juftnefs as well as delicacy of 
their obfervations they may often help both 
to corredl and to afcertain our natural fenti- 
ments with regard to the propriety of conduft, 
and fuggefting many nice and delicate atten- 
tions, form us to a more exact juftnefs of be- 
haviour, than what, without fuch inftrudion,' 
we mould have been apt to think of. In' 
treating of the rules of niorality, in this man- 
ner, confifts the fcience which is properly 
called Ethics, a fcience which, though, like 
crilicifm, it does not ad^lit of the moft accu- 
rate precifion, is, however, both highly ufe- 
ful and agreeable. It is of all others the moft 
fufceptible of the embellifhments of eloquence, 
jind by means of them of bellowing, if that 
X4 be 

bovjpoA^Q, a ncwiimportaoDe xtpon tih^ . 
foialfeft ifttlcsvof iiduty. lit*' precqpts,: whetii 
thus dreflQd.ttf¥}^cia!^^»v. are capable of piOi*/ 
daisii^i(^ppcm^J|heide^ilUyiof yom ^(ij6- 
bh^ ftflidHikDft laftiog i^ 
fall iia:]Qrith thje:naturaliiKighanimity/of> ftbat 
geoeious >agey :tlxcy arc able to iiypire,^ for ap 
time' a| 4^^ the mail heroic ix^ohitiemfi; ixxi^ 
tbu6 tend^&oth^torjefiablifh and coafirrn tiid 
beftjaQd^neft ttf€fulliabit&c]f.^bich^the m 
of man isfufc^dbl^. Whatever preneipt a^^^ 
exhoftation can do to animate las; to the |>rii^-^ 
tioe of :.TOrfue j is doike by this fcieoce delivered^i 
iatl^ifl mariner; ^ 

:U. The fecoodDfet of moralifts, among^q 
wboni:we may count all the cafuifts ofec^he ^ 
nMSiCjmd latter ages .of thb chriflian ehiirtl^p 
ad.^ all thbfe whaiaibis and i«>thei ' 
preceding, dentury have treated of wllat'i^fe/ 
called. liatural ju|ifprudencev dci notjco^ent'- 
tb^a^ehes: with' chara,€berizing; in this getie-« 
ralmpicner thal;.teiior> pf condaft v^bich thgy ^ 
wouldniecoinmend to iie^ but i&ndeavdur to 
lay down exa^ aadprecife fnhi^ for^ the di*-* 
^•eidSon of ^very circiiftiftanfce of dur beha*^^ 
viour* : ^s ^oftice ^ is the oh4y vikiie with rd^' 
gard ta .wh&h ^ fOcH^xa^a rules can properly i 
U-^i^en; il^ ii this virtue that has chiefly 

SeS. IV«; £f Moral PaiLOipPHY. ^t$ 

fallen under ihe confideratian of Aofe two 
diffetent fei:t of writers; They treat "6f it> 
however, in a very dillhrent mannfer. 

Thoie who write upon the principles of 
jurifpriidenee, corifider only What the' perfoa 
ta^whom the obligation is due ought to 
dunk himfdf entitllsd to e±a6); by force; 
what every impartial ^edator would approve 
of him for exaifHng, or what a judge or ar^ 
biteiV to whom he had fubtnitted his czky ami 
who had undertaken to do him juftice, ought 
to jc^lige the other pcrfon to fuffer or to per* 
form* The cafuifts, on the other hand^ do 
not fo much examine what it is that might; 
properly be exaded by force, as what it is thiat 
the perfon who owes the obligation oughttia 
think hiimfelf hound to perform from the inclk 
faciied and fcrupulous regard to the general 
rules of juftice^ and from the moft cpnfcien-^ ; 
tious dreader eitha: of wronging his neighbburj, 
or o£ violating the integrity of his own thaj*^ 
Tz&et. h\\» the end of jurifprudence to pre* 
fcribe rules for the decifions of judges and ar^ 
biters. It i$ th^ end of cafuiftry to prefcribe 
rules for the ;i:ondiiw3t of a good mdn. By 
obferviijg all the rules ofjurifpriidenifce, fup*t 
pofi fig them ever fo perfe^i we flwtild ' de- 
ferve,i?othing but to be free from ejcternal 
puniihnientf B^ obferving thofe of cafuiftry, 


^i^ Of S*sTBMs^ ' ' Part VIL 

fuppofing them, fuch as they ought to be, we 
fhpulfl b^ entitled tq cQnfider^ble pr^ife by 
jhe exadtand fcrupuloius delicacy of our be- 
havioijir. ^ 

It may frequently happen that, a good matf 
ought to think himfe,l;f bound, from a facred 
and confcientious regard to the general rules 
of juftice,. to perform mauy things which it 
Yrould be the higheftiryuftice to^xtpr; from, 
him, or for any judge or arbiter to .impofe 
upon him by forces To give a. trite example j 
a highwayman, by the fear of death, obliges 
a traveller to promife him a certain fum of 
money. Whether fuch a promife, extorted- 
in this manner by unjuft force, ought to be, 
regarded as obligatory, is a queftion tha.t has 
been very much debated.. . : 

- If we confider it merely as a queftion of 
^urifprudence, the decifion pn admit of no 
doubt. It would be abfurd to fupppfe that 
the highway m^ft can be entitled to ufe, forcc^ 
to conftrainthe other to perforo^. To extort 
the promife was a crime whicjh deferved the 
higheft punifhment^ and to extort the per-^: 
formance would only be adding a new crime 
to the former. He can complain of no injury 
who has been only deceived by the perfon by 
whom he might juftly have been killed. To 
iuppofe that a judge ought to enforce thq 


BeEt. IV. of Moral Philosophy. 315 

obligation of fuch promifes, or that the ma- 
giftrate ought to allow them to fuftain action 
at law, would be the moft ridiculous of all ab- 
furdities. If we confider this queftion, there- 
fore, as a queftion of jurifprudence, we can be 
at no -lofs about the decifion. 

But if we confider it as a queftion of cafu- 
iftry, it. will not be fo eafily d<?termined. 
Whether a good man, from a confcientious 
regard to that moft facred rule of juftice, 
which commands the obfervance of all ferious 
promifes, would not think himfelf bound to > 
perform, is at leaft much more doubtful. 
That no regard is due to the difappointment 
of the wretch who brings him into this fitua- 
tion, that no injury is done to the robber, and 
confequently that nothing can be extorted by 
force, will admit of no fort of difpute. But 
whether fome regard is not, in this cafe, due 
. to his own dignity and honour, to the invio? 
lable facre^nefs of that part of his chara<3:er 
which makes him reverence the law of truth 
jind abhor every thing that approaches to trea- 
chery and falfehood, may, perhaps, more 
reafonably be made a queftion. The cafuifts 
accoi^dingly are greatly divided about it. One 
party, with whom we may count Cicero 
among the ancients, among the moderns, 
]Puffendorf, Barbeyrac his commentator, and 

■ abov^ 

3i6 ^Systems Part Vlt. 

above all the late Dr. Hutcbefon, one who 
in moft cafes Was by rio mean! a loofe tafuift^ 
determine, without any hefitatlbn, Aat no 
fort of regard is dUe to any fuch protbife, aiad 
that to think otherwife is mefe Weaknefs and 
fuperftltion. Another party, among whom 
we may reckon* fome of the ancient fathers 
of the church, as Well as forne veiy eminent 
modern cafuifts, have been of inothef opi- 
nion, and have judged all fuch prortiifes ob- 

If we confider the ihatter according to the 
common fentiments of mankind, We (haUfind 
that fome regard would be thought dtie even 
to a promife of this kind; but that it is ira- 
poffible to determine how much, by any ge- 
neral rule, that will apply to all dlfes With- 
out exception. The man whtf wasf quite 
frank and eafy in making promifes ?tf^?fcis 
kind, and who violated them with as little 
ceremony, we fhould riot choofe fbf^*6ur 
friend and companion. A ' gentleman who 
fiiOuld promife a highwaynian five ^buhds' 
and not perform, would incur fonie blame. 
If the fum promifed, howev^t', was irery 
great, it might be more doubtful whit wafia 
proper to be done. If it wasfuib,' fof fexaiitah 

I T ' *<St, Awguftinc, La PlaccUe. • * -^^ '' 

^r-^^:^^.:^':- ' pie, 

spa. IV. gT Moral Philosophy. 317 

pie, that the payment of it would entirely 
ruin the family of the promifer, if it was fo 
great as to be fuflScient Cor promoting the n>oft 
ufeful pqrpofes, it would appear in fqme 
meafure criipinaU at leafl: extremely impro- 
per; to throw it, for the fake of a pundilio, 
intp fuch .^^prthlefa harxds. The naan wha 
ilioijld t^gar himfelf, or who fliould thrpw 
aw^^y^n hundred thoufaiid pounds^ though he 
could afford that vaft fum, for the fake of 
obferving fuch a parole with a thief, would 
^ppe^r to the common fenfe of mankind ab- 
furd and e3ttravagant in the higKeft degree. 
Such profufion would feem inconfiftent with 
his duty, with what he owed both to himfelf 
and others, and what, therefore, regard to a 
proipife extorted in this roanaer, could by nq 
n^eans authprife. To fix> however, by any 
precife rule, what degree of regard ought to 
be paid to it, or what might be the greateft 
fum .which cQi^ld be due from it, is evidently 
impoffible. This would vary accord^n^ to 
the charader§ pf the perfons, according ta 
their, » circuipftances, according to the fo- 
leo^nity of the. prpmife^ a^nd even according 
to the incidents of the rencounter : and if the 
pi:pmifei;,had been treated with a great de^l of 
that fort of gallantry which is fometimes tq 
be met with in perfons pf the mpft abandoned 


charadlers, more would feem due than iipon 
ether occafions. It may be faid in general, 
that exa£t propriety requires the obfervance 
of all fuch promifes, wherever it is not incon- 
fiftent with fome other duties that are more 
facred ; fuch as regard to the public intereft, 
to thofe whom gratitude, whom natural afFec- 
tion, of whom the laws of proper beneficence 
ihould prompt us to provide for. But, as was 
formerly taken notice of, we have no precife 
rules to determine what external adlions are 
due from a regard to fuch motives, nor, confe- 
quently, when it is that thofe virtues are incon- 
fiftent with the obfervance of fuch promifes. 
It i» to he obferved, however,^ that when- 
ever fuch promifes are violated, though for 
the moft neceflary reafons, it is always with 
fome degree of diflionour to the perfon who 
made them. After they are made, we may 
be convinced of the impropriety of obferving 
them. But ftill there is fome fault in havifig 
made them. It is at leaft a departure from 
the higheft and nobleft maxims of magnani- 
mity and honour. A brave man ought to die 
rather than make a promife which' he can 
neither keep without folly, nor violate with- 
out ignominy. For fome degree of ignominy 
always attendsr«rfituation of this kind. Trea- 
chery and falfehood arie vices fo dabgerous, 


9ea. IV.: 5/* Moral PenAsoPHv. jtj 

fo dreadful, and, at the fame time, fucH as^ 
may fo eafily, and, upon many oacafions, fo 
fafely be indulged, that we are more jealous 
of them than of almdlahy other; Our ima- 
gination therefore attaches the idea of fhame 
to all violations of faithyin every circumflance 
and in ev^ry fituation* They, refemble, iii 
this refpe^t, the* violations of chaftky in the 
fair fex, a virtUie of which, for the lUcereafons,' 
we are exceflSvely jealous ; and our fentiments 
are not more delicate with regard to the one, 
than with regard to the other. Breach of 
chaftity difhonours iri:etrievably . No clr- 
cumftances, no folicitation can excufe it; no 
forrow, no repentance, atone for it. We are 
fo nice in this refpe£t that even a rape diflio- 
Bours, and the innocence .of the mind cannot, 
in our imagination, wafli out the pollution of 
the body. It is the fame cafe with the viola- 
tion of faith, when it has been folemnly 
pledged, eyejn to .the ipoft worthlefs of man- 
kind^ Fidelity is fo ncceflary a virtue, that 
we apprehend it ih general due even to 
thofe to whoin nothing elfe is due, and 
whom we think it lawful to kill and de- 
ftroy* It U tanopurpofe that the perfon 
vyho has been, guilty of the br<each of it, urges 
that he promifed in order to. fave his life, and 
t^t he hroke; hifepronpiife be^aufe it was inr 


|9# QTStstemIi Pait^ 

eonfiftent with fome other refpedable duty tc^ 
keep it Thefe circumftances may alleviate, 
but cmnot entirely wipe out his diflionour. 
He appears to have been guilty of an a&ion 
with whieh, in the imaginations of men> fome 
degree of fliame is infeparably conae£led. 
He has l»roke a promife which he had £> 
leitmly ayerred he would maintain ; and his 
chara&er if not irretrievably ilained and pol* 
luted, has at leaft a ridicule adffiiced to it, which 
if will be very difficult entirely to efface ; ani 
do man, I imagine, who had gone through 
an adventure of this kind would be fond of 
telling the ftory^ 

This inftance may ferve to £how whtfein 
confifts the difference between cafuiftry aind 
juriiprudence, even when both of them cotk^ 
fidar the obligations of the general rules of 

'But though this difference be real and ef- 
fetitia!, though thofe two fciences prqpofe 
quite different ends, the famenefs of the M^ 
jed has made fuch a fimilarity between them, 
that the greater part of authors whofe profeff- 
eddeilgnwasto treatof jurifprudence, haiFf^ 
determined the diflEerent queftions they esur 
nsine, fometimes according to the prinoipkt: 
of that fcience, and foQietimes accor(iii% to 
tltofe qS caluifl^y; without diftioguftfiikig^ ud^ 

^^ periiafi, 

^fi&. IV. cf Moral P^msophy. 331 

perhaps, without being thecofelvea aware 
when they did the one, and when the other. 

The dodrine of the cafuifts, however, i^ by 
no means confined to the confiderajtion pf 
what a confcientious regard to the general 
rules of juft ice would demand of us. It emr^ 
braces many other parts of ChriHian and mo^ 
ral duty. What fcems principally to have 
given occafion to the cultivation of this ipe- 
cies of fcience was the cuftoiii of auricular 
confeflion, introduced by the Roman Catho* 
lie fuperftition, in times of barbarifm and ig- 
norance. By that inftitution.the mod: fecret 
anions, and even the thoughts of every per^ 
fon, which could be fufpefted of receding in 
the fmalieft degreefrom the rules of Chriftian 
jJtirity, were to be revealed to the confeflbr. 
The confeffor Informed his penitents whelther, 
and in what refpedt, they had violated their 
duty, and what penance it behoved them to 
undergo, before he could abfolve them in the 
name of the offended Deityl 

'^'Th6 confcioufnefs, or^ven the fufpicion of 
having done wrong, IS a loaH upon every 
mind, and is accompanied' with anxiety and 
terrbr in all thofe who are^iot ha^^^ by 
lotig habits of iniquity. Mcn^ in this, asia. 
air other difirefles, are naturally eager tQ dif- 
burthen themfelves of the opprefEoa iPv^hicbr. 

^^X)L.ii. ^ *" Y / ' they 


3^^ <y Sy6Tem$ PaitVlL 

theyjeel upon their thought?, by unbpfoming, 
t^e agoi^y of their inind to fome perfpft whofe 
fecr^cy ,ap4 difcretipn they caa coijfidp im 
T|^e Jh^me which they fufFer from this ftq- 
knpwledgment, is fully compenfa,teci by thftt 
alleviationof their yneafinefs which the fyiTJ-. 
pathy of their confident feldom fails to .occa- 
fion. It.relieves them to find that ^they are 
not altogether unworthy of regard, and tha^ 
howievi^r their paft condufl; may be cenfur^d» 
their prefent difpofition is at leaft approved 
of, an<J is perhaps fufBcient to compenfate the 
other, at leaft to, maintain them in fome de- 
gree of eftecmwith their friend. A^, numer- 
ous and artful clergy had, in thofe times of , 
fuperftition, infinuated themfelves iqtp thq 
confidence of almcft every private family. 
They poflefled all the little learning which the^ 
times could afford, and their ms^nners^ thoi^igh,, 
in many refpeds rude and diforderly, wg^-p;^ 
polifhed and regular, compared with thofe of 
the age they lived in. They were regarded, 
therefore, not only as the great diredors of ajii 
religious, but of all nioral duties. : Thejr 
familiarity gave reputation tp whoeveir }?vas. 
fo happy as to poflefs it, and every mark of 
their difapprobation ftamped thedeepeft igno- 
miny upon all who had the misfortune to 
fall vinder it. Being confidercd as the. great 


SeQ:. IV. of Moral Phiwsophy. 323 

judges of right and wrotig, they were natu- 
rally confulted about all fcrUples that bccuf red, 
and it was reputable for any perfon to have it 
known that he made thofe holy men the con- 
fidents of all fuch fecrets, and took no im- 
portant or ^elic^te ftep in his coqdudl; without 
their advice and approbation. It was not 
difficult for the clergy, therefore, to get it 
fiftabliftied as a general rule, that they fhould 
be entrufted with what it had already become 
faftiionable to entruft them, and with what 
they generally would have been entrufted, 
though no fuch rule had been eftablifhed. 
To qualify themfelves for confeflbrs became 
thus a neceflary part of the ftudy of church-r 
men and divines, and they were thence led 
tocoUedt what are called cafes of confcience, 
nice and delicate fituations in which it is hard 
to' determine whereabouts the propriety of 
condtrda: may lie. Such works, they imagined, 
plight be of ufe both to the diredlors of con- 
fciences and to thofe who were to be direded ; 
and henx:e the origin of books of cafuiftry. 
. The^ moral duties which fell under the coa- 
/{ideration of thd cafuifts were chiefly thofe 
yirhkh can, in fome meafure at leaft, be cir- 
cumfcribed within general rules, and of which 
the -violation is naturally attended with fome 
^ejgree of rcmorfe and fome dread of fuffering 
• y % puniflir 

3^4 (y Systems PartVll. 

puttifhment. The defign of that inftitudo]^ 
which gave occafion to their works,^ wa» 
to appeale thofe terrors of confcience which 
attend upon the infringement of - fuch duti^b 
But it is not every virtue of which the de- 
fcdl is accompanied with any very fevere 
eompundians of this kind, and no man 
aipplics to hisconfcflbr for abfolntibniy biec^ufe 
he did not perform the moft generous, the 
inoft friendly, or the moft magnanimous ac- 
tion which, in his circumftapces, it was poflii- 
ble to perform. In failures* of this kind,' the 
rule that is violated is commonly not very 
determinate, and is generally of fuch a nature 
too, that though the obfervance of it mi^t 
entitle to honour and reward, the vi^s^^n 
fecms to expofe to no pofitive blame,; ceq/i^fe, 
or punipiment. The exercife of fucl^ viTftfies 
the cafuifts feem to have regarded aa a fort of 
worksi of fupererogation, vvhich^cpuld not be 
Tery ftridly exadted, and which it wa.5 there- 
fore uniaeceflary for them to treat of , ; : 

The breaches of moral duty, th^refpre, 
which came before the tfijbimal of thp pon- 
fdibr, and upon that account fejl u^dprthe 
cognizance of the eafuills, w?re ^iiic^y of 
. [three different kincjs. ; ,. - /;<- 

; Fir^ and principally, brea(;fies pf t^e i;ules 
of juftice*, ^,TJtie.rpleshei;parf?fll^ 

. pofitive^ 

Se^. IV; ttf Moral Pkcilo^ophy. 3^5 

jpldfitiv^, and the vioktidn oftliem 13 n^tw^Jy; 
aftlcnded with the confcioufoefs ofvdeferviiag^ 
iaitidtfae dread of fufiering puoiihmiQat.l^ptii 
from God and mao. i i ! ^ 

Secondly) breaches of the rules of chaftity; 
Thefe w ail grofler inftances arc real breaches 
of thetulesof juftice, arid no perfon can be 
^ilty of theiti without doing the moft unpar- 
donable injury? to foine other. In faialler 
iiaftati^es, when they amount only to' aivio- 
Iktion of thofe cxaft decorums which ought 
tX> be obferved in the converfation of the two 
iexes^ they cannot indeed juftly be confidered 
as violations of the rules oiF juftice. They are 
generally, however, violations of a pretty 
|)lain rule, and, at leaft in one of the fexes, 
leiid to bring ignominy upon the perfoa who 
hks been guilty of them, and confequcntly to 
^be attended in the fcrupulous with fome de- 
'gi*e^6 of Ihanie and contrition of mind. 

Thirdly, breaches of the rules of veracity. 
The violatioti of truth, it is to be obferved, is 
not' always a breach of juftice^ though \t is fo 
upon many oecafions^ and cdnfequeritly can* 
not always ekp6fe to any external punifhment. 
The ^ice of common lying, though a mod 
miferable meannefs, may frequently do hurt 
'to lidbody, and ifa this cafe no claiib of ven- 
^eancdor fatisfaSion can be^ due either to the 
*'^^ ¥3 perfons 

3^6 Of SYSTEMS Part VII. 

rppffons .impofed upon, or to others. But 
tbpugh tjh? violation of truth is not alwstys a 
bi:e;aclf.9f! jufliqe, lit is always a breach of a 
veryp^in rule, and what naturally tends to 
cover with ihame the perfon who has been 
guilty of it. 

. There JCeems to be in young children an in- 
ftiaftive difpofition to believe whatever they 
Retold. Nature feems to have judged it ne- 
ceflury for their prefervation that they fbould, 
for fome time at leaft, put implicit confidence 
in thofe to whom the care of their childhood, 
and of the earlieft and moft neceflary parts of 
their education, is intrufted. Their credulity, 
accordingly, is excelEve, and it requires long 
^nd much experience of the falfehood of man- 
kind to reduce them to a reafonable degree of 
diffideage and diftruft. In grown-up people 
the degrees of credulity are^, no doubt, very 
diffe)rent. The wifeft and moft experienced 
^re generally the leaft credulous, , But the 
man fcarce lives who is not more credulous 
t^han he ought to be, and who d<?e3 not, upon 
many occafions, give credit to tales which 
not only turn out to be perfedly falfe, but 
which a very moderate degree of refle<3:ion 
and , attention niight have taught him could 
not well be true, The natural difpofition is 
alway to believe. It is acquired wifdomi and 


Sefl:. IV. of Moral Philosophy, 327 

experience only that teach incredulity, and 
they very feldom teach it enbugh. The 
wifeft and mod cautious df us all frequently 
givies credit to ftories which he himfelf is 
afterwaikls both afhamed and aftonifhed that 
he could poffibly think of believing. 

The man whom we believe is neceffarily^ 
in the things concerning which we believe 
him, our leader ind direftor, and we lookup 
to him with a certain degree of efteem and 
refpedt. But as from admiring other people 
we come to wifh to be admired ourfelves; fo 
from being led and direded by other people 
we learn to wifh to become ourfelves leaders 
and directors* And as we cannot always be 
fatisfifid merely with being admired, unlefs we 
can at the fame time perfuade ourfelves that 
WB are in fome degree really worthy of admi- 
ration ; fo we cannot always be fatisfied mere- 
ly with being believed, unlefs we are at the 
fame time confcious th^t we are really worthy 
of belief. As the defire of praife, and that of 
praife-worthinefs, though very much a*kin, 
are yet diftin<lt and feparate defires; fo the 
defire of being believed and that of being 
worthy of belief, though very much a-kin, 
tbo^ ai^e equally diftin<3: and feparate defires. 

The defire of being believed, the defire of 
pcrfuading^ of leading and direding other 

> ¥4 people, 

54» ' (y &TSTE1M ■ . PartViH 

p*df)Te,-ft«m»^to-bd one of the&toagi&oi atf 
($jt<i^ h^tiit-itl[d(i(irdSi It is p^rh;^, the kfftuuft: 
i^oh' Wbid) is funded the hcvkf <>{ ^eiadi^^ 
the ^d1iat^^rilfcicii( faculty (^ human laaXmS, 
.N6'oih6t ahiiial' poffeffes tWe feeylty, r»»d- 
wi'fciniiolf'diftoVef! in any othdf Sfli&ut^ftny 
d^fi^^'toilekd 'irtid' direaitbe jtt^nvenc aiid 
djnddrtSt bf ?t8 'fcltewsi GreAi ambitioa^ tbef 
dijftl^ of teal fopetiority, of leading dnd di^^ 
ffeAing, feems to be altogether pecuiiabxoi 
itiiifit and fpeech is the great inftrnnictitr fbf 
iMiMotiy of real fuperiority, of lesdiikg'ind 
diteldklg the judgnients and condteft t>f •otber 

^ - 1§ is- always mortifying not to be be^ved^ 
and it is doubly fo when we fufpefl: tbao'itis 
befeaure-W& afe^foj^ofed to be unwsortBy of 
b^itf ahd^fca|:^ble of ferioufly audi wilfully 
^fefcH-Hh^. To tell a mah thtthie KeSjVii.of 
J?!" kfff<9nta! the nioft mortal; ^ Bm. whoeVilk: 
fj^riotafly and witfully deceives J ie wfecjefflawly 
eiiifttob's to himfelf thiat'be nie^itsithis af&eifti 
(haf'hfe does hot defence fo b^ beHev^^ dmd 
that he fprfeitS all title to that fort of eisedit 
ftbvci which aloiife he can derive any ;foft)of 
l^afej eotofott, Oi^'fatigfaaiottin the focicty* of 
Ifift-' equali^ * The man whoi had the Btiirfor- 
iy^iHi'Wiin'i^h'i kMi nbbody 'belioved- a fingle 
*Wft^ fii^fi^ wtjttia ftfel hittfdf theoutcatt 

of human fociety, would df ead 4he jVc^jr-;. 
thought of going into i^, or of p^efcQting- 
hitnfelf before it, and C6ul4 icar<:0t*fai)^,'jt 
tbftok^ to die of defpain It is prpbab^bpT^f- 
^Fcar, that no man ever had j^uft. r^*foft lo^ew^ 
t^rtain ihia humiliating rpp^li^a^9£r^)liflQt^^ 
The moft notoriow liar^ I - ^a^n diip^e^^^^ 
believe, tella the fair truth at le^fttwcp^y, 
times for once that he ferioufly. and de)li|i^t 
rately lies ; and, as idi the mqil cautious, th& 
difpoAiion to believe is apt to prevail <>^r tl^at 
tb doubt and diftruft; £0 in thofe who ar^ 
the xnoft regardlefs of truth, the natural idif^ 
pofitionto tell it prevails upon moil ^occaAqs;ia 
over that to deceive, or in any re^eQ to ajter 
or difguife it« > . .^^ 

1 y^ arc mortified when we happan tp, de^ 
ceive other people, though uninteatioi^llyi' . 
;tod from l&ving heen ourfelyes djsc^jiyed* 
Though ^18 involuntary falfehood may fre? 
quently be no mark of any want of vW/*pity^ 
pf any want of the moft perfe<a love^jf truth, 
it is always in fome degree a mark of w:ant of 
judgment, of want erf memory, of improper 
credulity, of fome degree of precipitancy and 
raflinefe. It always diminifhes pur authority 
to perfuade, and always brings fanje >4^gi;ec 
of frifpici^n uppnour fitnefs tpjead and dir^(9:. 
The man vsfhp fometinaes. roiflead* iroppi 
' miftake. 

53^ 0/ Systems. Part VIL 

iriiftikej hdW^ver,, is wid'ely difFereirt from 
him \HrKo is cafpable of wilfully deceiving. 
. Ilie former mky fafely be trufted upon many 
occafions ; the latter very feldom iipon any. 

' Frahkhefs arid bpetinefs ; conciliate 'eotafi- 
dence. \Ve truft the man who feems wl'lliflcr 
tdti-tifttis. 'We fee clearly, ive think, the 
road 'by which he rfieans to ccndud: us, and 
*we'ahahdon ourfelves with pleaAire ta his 
giiidancie and diredlion. Referve and con- 
cealment, on the contrary, call forth difii- 
ddrice. We are afraid to follow the man Who 
is' going we do not know where. The great 
jfyleafure of converfation and fociety, befides, 
aHf^s from a certain correfpcmdence of fenti- 
riiieti^s and opinions, from a certain harmony 
df triinds, which like fo many mufical inftrii- 
ttifeiits coincide and keep time with * one 
aHdther. But this moft delightful harmony 
fca6ni6t be obtained unlefs there is a free' com- 
munication of fentiments and opinions. We 
all defire, lipon this account, tofeel hbV^teach 
other is affefted, to penetrate into each other s 
bofoms, and to obferve the fentiments arid 
affeflions which reaily fubfift there. The 
itian wh6 indulges us in this natural paflion, 
who invites us into his heart,' who, as it 
w^t?i feis bpeil t%W gates of his bread to us, 
r^Qfii^i<> eketcife'a fpedies'bf hofpitaflity^more 


3€ft. IVi ^ Moral Philosophv. 331 

. delightful thaa any other, .No maix, who is 
inordii^ary good temper, c^n fail of ple^fing, 

^^ if he has th^ courage to utt/2r his real fenti- 
rnexits as he feels them, and becaufe he feels 
th^m. It is this unreferved fiQcerity which 

.^renders even the prattle of a child agreeable* 
How weak ajid imperfe£t foever the views of 
,the ppen-^hearted, we take pieafure to ; enter 

.into them, and endeavour, as much as we canj 

, to bringdown our own under ftanding to the 
Jevelof their capacities, and to regard every 

< iubjeft in the particular light in which they 
appear to have confidered it. This paffion to 
difcover the real fentiments of others is natipi- 
rally fo ftrong, that it often degenerates into a 

,,trot|blefome and impertinent curiofity to pry 
into thofe fecrets of our neighbours which 
they have very juftifiable reafons for cor>ceaI- 
ingj and, upon many occafions, it requires 
prudence and a ftrong fenfe of propriety, to 
govern this, as well as all the other paffions 
of human nature, and to reduce it to that 
pitch which any impartial fpedator can ap- 
prove of, Tqdifappoint this curiofity, how- 
ever, when it is kept within proper bounds, 
and aims at nothing which there ca,n be any 
juft reafon for concealing, is equally ^ifa- 
greeable in its turn. Tha man who eludes 
our moft iianocent queftipns, who give« no 


^3* QT Systems Part VII.' 

fafisfjiifiioii to bur mbft inoffenfive inquiriesi 
Vf1^6 plaiiily wraps himfelf lip in impenetra- 
ble bbfcurity, feetnB, as it were, to btrild a 
wall aboiit his' breaft. We ruh forward to 
^et Within it, With all the eagcrnefs of liariil4' 
lefs curibfity ; and feel ourfelves all at bncC 
puihed back with th6 rudefl and nioft ofien* 
five violence. 

The man of referve and concealmient, 
though feldom a very amiable character, is not 
difrefpeded or defpifed. He feems to feel cold- 
ly towards us, and we feel as coldly towards 
him. He is not much praifed or beloved, but 
he is as little hated or blamed. He very fel- 
dom, however, has occafion to reperit of his 
caution, and is generally difpofed rath6r to 
value himfelf upon the prudence of his re- 
ferve. Though his conddd, therefore, may 
have been very faulty, and fometimes 6ven 
hurtful, he can very feldom be difpofdd to 
lay his cafe before the cafuifts, or to fancy 
that he has any occafion for their acquittal 
or approbation. 

It is not always fo with the rrian, who, 
from falfe information, from inadvertency, 
from, precipitancy and rafhnefs, has itivbliin- 
tarily deceived. Though it fhould be in a 
matter of little confequence, in telling la jiibce 
of common news, for e^xample, if He is a real 


Se&. IVr of Moral Philosophy. 3^ 

loyer of truths lie is a,ftiamed of hh own c^r^r 
leflhefss and never fails to embrace the firft op-,^ 
portunity of making ^he fuUeft s^cknpwi^dg-^ 
ipents. Jf it h in a matter of fome confe- 
q^ence, his contrition is ftill greater; and if any 
unlucky or fatal confequence has followed^ 
from his i^ifinformation, he can fcarqe eyer 
forgive himfelf. Though not guilty, he fcel^ 
himfelf to be in the higheft degree what the 
ajicients called piacular, and is anxious ajf^d 
^ger to ipake every fort of atonement in his 
power. Such a perfon might frequently bq 
diipofed to lay his cafe before the cafuifts, 
who, have in general been very favourable t<^ 
him, and though they have fometimes jiiftly 
condemned him for rafhnefs, they have vnir 
Verfally acquitted him of the i^nomir^y ojF 
falfehood. \ 

But the man who had the nioft frMueiU: 
pccafion to confult them, was the pia^n ctf 
equivocad^pn apd mental referyafiop^ t^rman 
who feriouflyjand deliberately meant to dece^^, 
but, who, at the fame time, wifhed tp^flatiper 
himfelf that he had jreally told the truth. 
• 'With him they have d^alt yaripljfly. ^ ^hp^ 
they approved very mijcli of the motivf^s P,£.^s 
<^eceit, they have fometimes acquitted .hij^^ 
tjiough^, to do them juftiee^ they ^^y^ ip ^^^' 
, Tal andimwh more frequjantlycgndeiTr^ned^ 

334 QT Systems Patt VIL 

The chief fubjeds of the works of the ca-r 
fuiftsv therefore, were the confcientious regard 
that 18 due to the rulesof juftice; howfar we 
ought to rcfpc£t the life and property of oyr 
neighbour ; the duty of reftitution ; the laws 
of chaftity and modefty, and wherein confift-i. 
ed what, in their language, are called the fins 
of concupifcence ; the rules of veracity, and 
the obligation of oaths, promifes, and con- 
trads of all kinds. 

It may be faid in gene;Fal of the works of 
the cafuifts, that they attempted, to no pur- 
pofe, to dired byprecife rules what it belongs 
to feeling and fentiment only to judge o£ 
How is it poflible to afcertain by rules the 
exad point at which, in every cafe, a delicate 
fenfe of juftice begins to run into a frivolous 
and weak fcrupulofity of confcience ? When - 
it is that fecrccy and referve begin <a grow into 
diffimulation ? How far an agreeable irony 
may be carried, and at what precife point it 
begins to degenerate into a deteftable> lie ? 
What is the higheft pitch of freedom and cafe 
of behaviour which can be regarded as graces 
ful and becoming, and when it 13 that it firft ■ 
begins to run into a negligent and thoughtlefs 
licentioufnefs ? With regard to all focli 
matters, what would hold good in any ene ' ' 
cafe would fearce do fo exadly in any othierj. 


Seft IV# of MoRAJL Philosophy. 335 

and what conftitutes the propriiBtyaii4 hjitppi- 
tiefs of behaviour varies ia every cs^feiw^^lh? 
fmalleft variety of fituationi. Bopksof i^iafur 
iftry, therefore, are. generally a& ufelefe ^s 
they arecominonly tirefome.. They cQuJd be 
of little ufe to one who fhould confult thenqi 
upon occafion, even fuppofing their decifions. 
tobejuft; becaufe, notwithftandiQg the mul- 
titiide of cafes colleded in them, yet upon 
account of the ftill greater variety of poJIibl? 
circumftances, it is a chance, if aniong all 
thofe cafes there be found one exadly parallel 
to that under confideration. One who 13 
really anxipUs to do his duty, muft be very 
weak, if he can imagine that he has much, 
oocafioo for them; and with regard to one 
who is negligent of it, the ftyle of thofe writ^ 
ings is not fuch as is likely to awaken him to 
more attention* None of them tend to ani^ 
m^te us to what is generous and noble. 
None of them tend to foften us to what i$ , 
gentle and humane. Mai^y of them, on the 
•contrary, tend rather to teach us chican? 
with our owa confcieaces, and by their vaia 
fubtikies ferve to authorife innumerable eva^ 
live refinements with regard to the moft eflen- 
f ial articles of our duty. That frivolous accu- 
racy which they attempted to introduce into 
Aibjedls which :do joot admit of it, almoft ue^ 


f36 Qf^tTEus^ fmMt 

eerily betrif qd th^eia ioto tlofe ^^mgeo^ 
crrcM^ tnd at tl^ £un^ tiinp? rei^dcised r llipk 
.work« dry and dUkgre^able^ abpiudpgis^^ 
Jtri^e and mi^taphy^c^) di(Ui3i^oii8, bt^^^ji^ 
pablc of exciting ia the heart aay <^ t4^# 
eniotions which it is the prlncip^ iiife ^f jjimritfl 
of morality to excite. I '/ 

The two uieful parts of moral phtWfQfhbfrf 
[ therefore* are Ethics and JurifprudeiiCfi^; 
cafuiftry ought to be rejeded aJtog^idbier ; 
and the ancient moralifts app^r to hd^ 
judged much better, who in , treating of |^ 
fame fubjeds, did not aflfeift any fucb cic* 
exaftnefs, but contented themfelves witl^ 4#r 
fcribing, in a geperal manner, what ia ti^ 
fentiment upon which juftice, modefty, ^4 
veracity are founded, and what is the 4)f^ 
nzxj way of ading to which thofe vii^]^ 
would commonly prompt us, , ^ 

Something, indeed, not unlike tbe 4q^ 
trinq of the cafuifts, feeras to have been at- 
tempted by feveral philofophers. There }$ 
fomething of this kind in the third <boi^ of 
Cicero's Offices, where He endea^vours like f^ 
cafuift to give rules for our condud in ms^j 
nice cafes, in which it is difficult to determine 
Whereabouts the point of propriety SMy lie. 
It appears too, from many paflages in. the 
i^me book, that ifeveral other philqfoplteara. 
. . 9 . M 

Sefifc IV. g^ Moral pHiLc^oPHY. "^337 

hffdl attempted fomcthing of the fame kind 
Wore him. Neither he nor they, holrevef, 
appear to have aimed at giving a compleife 
fyftem of this fort, but only meant to ffioW 
how fituattons may occur, in which it is 
<loiEbtful, whether the higheft propriety of 
condu<3: contifta in ohferVing or in recedlog 
ftom what, in ordinary cafes, are the rules of 

. Every fyftem of pofitive law may be re- 
garded as a more or lefs imperfedl: attempt 
towards a fyftem of natural jurifprudence, 
or towards an enumeration of the particular 
rules of juftice. As the violation of juftice 
is wh^ men will never fubmit to from one 
another, the public magiftrate is under a 
neceifity of employing the power of the com- 
monwealth to enforce the pra6:ice of this vir- 
tue. Without this precaution, civil fociety 
would become a fcene of bloodlhed and dif- 
order, every man revenging himfelf at his 
owii hand, whenever he fancied he was in- 
jnred. To prevent the confufion whicli 
#ould attend upon every man's doing juftice 
t6 Wmfelf, the magiftrate, in all governments 
that have acquired any confiderable authority, 
undertakes to do juftice to all, and promifcs 
to hear and to redrefs every complaint of in- 
jury. In all well-governed ftates too, not only' 
judjges are appointed for determioing the 
VQIh !!• • z contro- 

Q^8 .ymr^zoQ/^^^nmh-xr .^^W- 
judges; and thefe rules are,.3ifjfg^n|^J,gjp- 

£ opmi^j,f§i)fJi^lr^4ef^ft ,%^ ^jj^rLfgx ^^e 

5^c record? of tl^ ^entiment? pf swnland 


"^Sitefeiit toiffttHiJ^, ' flibtiia'^IiaviB'^iviftf ^ffAjCa- 
« ^Sff'^^h^nqilti-y Ifitc/^Mf ^d'i^thfe'ntiWafal 
"^^-dT*^^ bf jteiliee' iwd^petider^t bf dll p<!yfiitS*e ih- 
^ftiruiabtf.^'''ft ai%hl We'^ifehvisf^^ 
^%<^ft^r^teiFtf^s'fhbtria ??af tf^l^d *^ik 

-^^d^Aitf 'thtbhj^ and Ibfe 'th^lbUhdaflbS^Jthe 
"Cl^fr'bF alf ha!tS)n«. ' 'Btft tfiotigh 'tfete '^eSftih- 
^^^j^s^drna^^fji did prbdudeTbtfietliiii^ bPl Bis 

"^^ialf^^of ¥Hfe'faWs^t>f any pattlculai'^AHWit^, 

x<*HtMt'irfta^wrx!n^ ?ift Ms- #bi-k' ifiii^ bm- 

^=¥liibft^'%f ■ttl^'^fbi'i ; 'it' W^s wr^ lite itil^^fie 

~^HV particfilkf iii 'ftfitib^sof ihy ^^'hmtm, 

"^%4ttf t^pftbvi^a^Bs^ partidH^^ 

'^^'tfe' riilts bif jtiftite. 1 C^ceimk iSs Offi^s, 

bniJinfini to ajn-^-iujcj^ -^j lo aLio;j3i 9^ 

340 Of SysTBMg, &c. Part VH, 

the iame general manner in which they treat 
of all the other virtues. In the laws pf Cicero 
and Plato, where we rpight naturally have 
(xpeded feme Attempts towards an enume- 
ration of thofe rules of natural equity, which 
ought to be enforced by the pofuive laws of 
every country there is, however, nothing of 
this kind. Their laws are laws of police, not 
of juftice. Grotiys feei^ig to have been the 
lirft who attempted to give the world any 
thing like a fyftem of thofe principles whiqh 
ought to run tjirpugl^ and be the foundation 
of the laws of all liations ; and his treatife of 
the laws of war anj} p^aqe, with all its imper-- 
fe£tions, is perhaps at this day the pioft 
complete Wbrk that has yet been given upon 
the fiibje<3:. I.iJ^aU iii i^npther difqourfe en- 
deavour to give an agcount of the general 
principles of law and government, and of the 
different revolutions they have undergone in 
the different ages and periods of fociety, not 
.only in what concerns juftice^ but in what 
concerns police, revenue, and arms, an4 
whatever elfe is the objedt of law. I fhall not 
therefore, at prefent enter into any further 
4etftil coficerning the hiftory of jurifp^dep^e^ 


. OTrnJ to o7-^i-. 1>MJ iW --^.aijljv V;/^ ^0 Difj iU fO' 

ib::i-',^ ^/^ii;;/; li.^-''i.r- vj r-^'in 'j^:>»ir }=.. iioUlt 
'h)a ^.:>Jii-}'-i io t^//i.; ru^ />i>j iru! I ..biri-i aiiil 

, . , .©jflfetcnt Genius of Qrisin?tl An4 compoiinded 

I. ^ / 

^no o^u^^.. '^'^ " t'ANGtJAGESl '--^^-^ ^^^^ 
joa ,Yt^iij':»l to c.ooa;-j • • ; :. -■ -^k ?'jj:3^:h ^iit 


^.AO 1 i A 't J ( c ,/l o :> 

Tj'lM iHt -^ . ' - 4 s, .r^oT 

^lOA n:-^.^'A f 'V' /OJTAMiiO? 


iDvoii Liiil u.iv .r^i^^ -V : .vT .o-^uj-gnd 'io 

Li;;/ :ii ii?:': jJ :u oi ii:07£:>bn5 bluow ^axij 
gaiitiJliJ vd ^i:>ni{» Ajt::' oi old'lgiibjtni 8Jfl£W 

yfno cSj-jido t;i(-itT .>;.b^[^do vABnoj oion 
rijidw bn^ .oi^dj oi i^iihind ilom si^v/ rioiriv*^ 




^(. isfc. i^c. 

npHE affignation of particular names, to de- 
^ note particular objefts, that is, the in- 
ftitution of nouns fubftantive, would probably 
be one of the-firft fteps towards the formation 
of language. Two favages, who had never 
been taught to fpeak, but had been bred up^ 
remote from the focieties of men, would na- 
turally begin to form that language by which 
they would endeavour to make their mutual 
wants intelligible to each other, by uttering 
certain founds whenever they meant to de- 
note certain objeds. Thofe objeds only 
which were moft familiar to them, and which 

24 they 

34^ F08.MAtl<^N OF 

Tb^npa^ttdiiiibt^avferiwhofe coterHlg iflTciteredi' 
thjaoii froin jtbo^nYbrtbw^ the// pirdcirlail J ttee^ 
*v^hftfe fruit/ r^HcirfcdvJthcir hunger^- ^qjofU^i 
cufcM:.fouat;iin fMihxDfe water allatycd t^irtbifffj' 
w^uld firft bcjdeiioniiaated by thtbiords ttmwl 
tru^ fQtmtaini mhj\ whateyjer;i)thbri aj^pdfe^' 
tiot)8 they ajigbt ;thiak: pro^per^ri^ thodt prkiii^n 
tivcrj^rgon to mark them. Afterw^i?ds,^wheqi 
theimOJire enlarged eKperiencc of thefe jfayagbsfi 
hadil^d thecHito obicrve, and their nc^effiw-y 1 
ocftafijErtis obliged them to make meiatioaTof ; 
otbiptqiiy*^ aftd other trees, and other feim*^ 
tain^$,thfcy would naturally beftow tipoa^ eachr: 
of vtjirofe new objea:8, the fame liamcy byq 
whkh^they had been acciiftomed to eiqpreftj^ 
*th9dfimilar t)bJ€<9: they were firft acquaintediJ 
with. fXhe new obje£ks had no^ie of Jthoap£ 
any oame of hs own^ but each of theraii^siw/ 
ViOCij refetnWed anofhfei? objei9^'' whichchad)! 
fucli aft appeHation. It wate impoffible *hatD 
thojfe favages dould behdld iter neiprpbje£tep> 
without reooIIcAing the old <roes: ; aild then 
name of the old ones^ towbichv the new hm^^^ 
fo cjpfe atieferaWaace.' Wheil tliey^fe'ad'lJGcaOi^ 
fi on^: .ibeffef^re, ! !ca m mtion^. ar:itt) porn* ,outii 
to c^h letber^rarty^f ii^hcrnewxrljeaas^ith^ 
wj&qldi^t Mallyi uttet tte aafiae df the tjorrrfl \^ 
CK // fpondent. 

Iponcknt lold^ am^i of >whichi jJiefidfca. ccxald liiot' ^ 
fail^-dt thht iflifamt tor pnef^^ thtit^ 

memory 1n:.theAron^c£Kirnti/Kvel^^ 
And thiis thxife wotds^rwbich/wett origlnaHy' • 
the {wrppekt paii^esiof biflivfcdaaU, wOuM edob ' 
of^tbemtialeafibrlfy become t^!eoi])firU)n rtaime 
of a^multittwlcir^ I A' chiidahatfisijwft^leflhrbi^ig^' 
toisptt^k^ cfldlbicviery perfoQ ijvbo com^^^t<i tbte^ 
houfe itis patjpaf^ br«kg mama ; Sand tbus^b^ftoi/t^gi ' 
upod tbeijwhtjieifpeeies ^ tbofe names ^hldh it ' ^ 
had bcch taujght) tD> appiy to two individmials/ ^ 
I harVe known ia down who did hot icciowth*' 
proper nann^ o£> the riveriwbii^b ran dby hi& 
oWn door, it was /^^yw^, Ee-fakJi 
never heard any other name for^ kv tHis.cSi*^ 
perienee it feems^ had not led him fo obfdrvd 
any^; qtfaer rLver^ The general word' r/kw^*^ 
therefow^ was^ it is evident, in hh accepfr^i ^ 
antie of it^ a^ipropfcr name fignifying ab indii' 
^idual Qbjcflx;^ df this »pterfon had bieert dsmridd- ' 
tcfoaiiother! a?iv0rv would he not readily have /: 
caHdd itSaliri'sifer/? Could we fuppofe any per^^ • 
4bnrlfevJHRigvoiiith« barifcfi of the Thax3MS fo %^ 
noronf^jflfi ^ottolcndw the general word /irw/^ 
bntrto be acqbaibtcd only with the |iartictilar 
"worASTlmki^s^ if fee Was brougbt tc^ any 6th«r ' 
HtieiFy w«iy»W<be not -readily cdWta-TbafheJ^f^ 
T^sv ' ivt' t^aHty,^ is no 'more than what ^ thw^y^ 
tvhoTVKre> Well wquainted, svith the ^^rietatl 
'■'Hi^lQ-^\> - word. 

Hi l^i ^^ A!^.'^^^4e»; ; of an dr^tw, thatjh|^8ja„ 

ipoied to give to onepbieflt the-, 
)t any ot 

name of any other, ittrhich nearlyjrefembTesjt. . 
. thil^ to denominate ^ mylutude. by: what : 


^'V^h^'ri Ae'ii-ktdr part '6B'()i^€i$s ^ k' th^r 

nfme|;rt was impoffiBle thk Ihe gfeat^#|^4il'' 
of that almoft infinite riuthtjer of indivi-*^-^"'^-^ 

cotftprehended Under each phrtic War aflo^tmefit* 
ot-'Tpecles could have khypecuTiar'br p/rbp^f ' 
n^fe> oF their own, diftina rroiri tlie gfeMif^ 
name of the Ipecies. When there Was occa- 
fi^n\ ttiereforcj to metltidn any paniculisit' o8i'' 
j^ft, it often became heceflaryto diftinguiflilP 
ffbm'tlie other obje£^8 compreliehded iinaer^^ 
the lame general iiame, eittieri firft, by 

tOiQE^ Hence the neceQary origin ot two 

• Qngtnc <fe rlnegalit^. Parjtic Frcmiere/p. J70, 377.. 

o^ s^ other :« 

-6tKeV fe^^bri^'Ms, of w!il<ih t)i6 'O^^ 
citVefs quality* jith^ 'othei^, r^litibn? ' ' ''*'"' 
'^'tsjdtfns idjeStivB are the Wot'ds t^lntfi^^ik 
prefs quality confidered as qiialifj^^ ^% 
fft^''fai6'6lmen fay, 'ift tbtitir^t^ 'WMii "^^m 
|^Wr(iuiar filtijc&j Thus the ivdfcf'^/^i^%^ 
Jireflfej 'a tfdhiih qtiality cdnfiliere'a aS^q{lii#- 
^^;- 'bt 'asiri cohfctete with; tliti "paftlcfifet fife 
j^(ft' to -Which ' it tiiay be 'applied. ^'^ V^of&m 
t'Fris kittd, it 16' evident, 'ma^ ferfe'to diffifif- 
j^iiiffipai-tifeufet objeds frOtn iJtli^S ea&^- 
freiidtd trader the fatne general apfjenaftftn. 
't'lit"y}'^or6s gfetfi treh^ for exaiiijple/'iiii^ 
terve to diftiriguiih a particular tree Trb'S 
ethers that Were withered bir blafte'dj " ''^^ 
" Prepofitibhs are the words wHicii exljiiyf* 
ir'elatibn cbti{idered,in the lame feaniier^ ii?!J:^ 
ttetfe wJth "the cfo-relative objedlf.''''I1i\isf^^tle 
{fr^bfitioiis ^ io^fsf^ 'wiih^hf^ahtvefbW^ 
&cVmote fome relation, ftbriftitigtetWl^a 
ihid'objVas ekprefled by t!id>vbrds''l)et^§ai 
Which th6 prejpbfitibhs are placed J arfd Sffie^ 
denote that this relation i$ cbn^dered in jcofi'> 
cretc with the co-retat^ve ' blijeMi ' Words of 
diis kind ferve to'di{liheuii^,particiilaroDiequ 
irotn otners ot the fame Ipeqies, wne^ tnofi 
particular obtects cannot be fo properly 
marked out by any peculiar qualities of their 
own. vVhen We fay (be green tfee of tBi 


-%i way ;ii;?!^jhipb M^W^^M \\{^^ 1^^^ 
3^(^u,14,be of ip^vffcb.earljler. iayqpt5j9n,tb^^\^]^9^^ 

j^^lj^ty^;, ^, f9Qn9r inyeiate.4, tha9i,t;ii,ft,w<?^4» 

erj^, , Tp, in?(ei^ ;w9r(Js pJF ;;he^ Uftef If i^^j rer 
^i]4]^^8f a, n^uc|i, greater effort pf .^b^l^^^ipjtj 
than to invent tliofc of the iptfq^^,, |tj^ 
probable, thereforcr that fuel? ^fj;rfk^; tj^^fiw 
woi^W be of much later iQ(iUij^ipa, ^Acpcy^ 
ji^gly, ^Jicir etymologies g^^^|ilJy ihe^YJth^^ 
they are fo, they being |generally4^iye4 
from others, that are concrete. . ,; 

, But though the invention of ijpuns adj^c* 
tpe bp much more natural than that of thg 
^bftrait nouns fubftantiye derived frop^themi 
It would ftill, however, require a confi^er- 
Ible 4egree of abftraftion and |jer\eraU2^tion 
Wttlei M example;, who n^ft in^v^tVc^^ 
.^ , \ ^'^ ' words 

.SCW?(?kf?4<fe?ki:f iS^ffiblinPW fend (tilgtnrilhAdes 
4?krr^pf^f©f tf^ ^Uty of^ CG^DUr^f and fl»|ft 
^^^aiir^Uige^ifj^^^il in fthdif cmn niiiids^^iiito 

jftdje^|V9:^%by n*lB^^ gwefiiliia^dTn fcftnc 
IiflifafHre T«nr ,abftra<a ivvi)i5di iaiiK4otte^i6rii7 
j^^fai^pofe^i J^he ^i4^a : (^f ^Ti:re^ti6ni3£pdd^dor 

jp0O]!(f9ent i^hi^4, to alltof ;ii^Hi:failm eq^i^y 
^•Ptl)i^ia{We. The word ^>v^M«Oiricfifl5*tjdi8 
,i¥&ilv^re fujippiirignmight jbei t&fi c^ bfiiObe 
5>ilrQrd ^»ti^> }ia¥^ hmn origbally theiiirvnierklf 
3fkSi>Hldmdu£il, and^ a£br w«rdt ribsK . bsoDn^, 

by what gramiDaifians )caHi do AniKinoii«a£i) 
^^heonaiaA ol* ac fpQ6^r:jTh^(^0Td -gKoiif de* 
^SH^ngi oiot the name of aafufciftaipcQnbiiStfie 
<^|KK:QHar quality>0f!a iiibikaqsr^iiniiibfrdim 
^vi^ry ;^r(l ^a'r^ b^ft a genecal Aiqerd^iandxi^ 
^4ef ed as eqi^^lf af^fJic^lile^tQ anyai>t^[fiiB* 
.ftauc^ ppfle^^q^ ii$f/ the. (amdi^qbalkiyuoallie 
ffni^ ^ho :6rft ,dH^ingim(hed)7Aii j^mou^u^ 
j^kyJ^i^^piikj^tM^ bipiejqijjfei-ifed 

/©Shfjt- g)tj e^6 )lhatl»mreiiicrti ^cuBiifirpcxi wbi3h 
}))e^^ f^^^f^ tot f^a^c fit itiyl thk)a[i^latiqa» 
^^^lnftit?atmnjio£thisr nalEiey therc^^ &ij^ 

xbod degrcQ 

stibJD&lcn^d^ and iftuft'hscvie ^^tis^vi^l^gridb- 

aofol rThef.dlifesem nietrtfir '^jyStsmt^l^^ 
Xiofibgeneiltror (Adffittg; of ' cdmpiBtnSSti] md 

yllaiiDpe ievttri tbemi^ies of rf^e dlflfereilt «6tot]ii%, 
ath0Ji<a(l)hietapbyfkat ■efa^iioun^'kdjedi'^e, 
odoiid jkoixaifl&taied' j&c(in^&8 AVhit^h ' 1 Mh, 
yjtiAtiwk^ Jla^^gecp\(fi»«i b«gibi)i»]^ W' he 

^fymaaidi^tmdatlwi^d^e ^^OttU byiity tttelitfs 
cJbA^^dienfMwdsoftHe'estrlfelipiiiventlolii 'vv vd 

^^h'Wbopg iaanodiie): expedient fbrideh^ititlg^ljle 

seifrnou^iadj^^Urvie) and v^idh^^Uj^ld^ ty^'^ii^ 
.<!i»ittf^uO(«H hardfylfaai^ltf Ithe'iitift ^fdMhatiOh 
tel> jjiii^gim^ to be^vthoj^^ht^i befi^f ^h^. 
iirbls/ fi]qxidieBt^i»)it(PiaMk«rifo^[<kr}dfldh 
jnpdni iytp;iaoud}fi^bftftiitit)e4t|^IF,'l!ia!£«^^^tb 

331^^1* both 


botli f)f fek atid^ ef the wa«f of te a«« eih 
pfdSai by 4iftmet (eitnkiatidfid la theiMMM 
fuUbMivie, wkkfe dtMte objeas fa quiimi 
In L«^, fov exan^e, Ar^^ AgMr; ^flMi, 
/fun ; J»^Mfttc0f^ jM^Hca ; yidSus^ ^«lia ( ii|^ 
4PWhsy Luerefia^ dsc. detiole the quaMlits if 
mB^0 and female til the amma}i» ao^po'ltiWft ta 
whom fuck^ appellationa belong, mtlMM 
lieeding the addkicm of any ad§«dii(e ^ ibii 
|)urpofe. Or the ot^or hand, the nm9i§Jm 
rum^pratnm^ piau/irum^ deaoie by ^bAk'fMmh 
liar tenninadoa the total abfenec q€ fc^m4be 
^kr%TA i^bftances, wM^h tik^ toi# iem 
Botb iex^ aod thie waiK i^ aH iex^ bang «MR^ 
f«4b^ <^^Q^^i^^ aa qiialkihM ttpo^^ying «hI 
iHfeparabk from t^ partkul^ fi|frwitw ^ 
liliieh th^ bdong^ it was namrnl w ^mjffiA 
tbam ratl^r ^ a modiiicaaioii in tb>e^ wnjiif i|ki 
ftliKi^ than by smy genefat aad -ihUnail 
la^ofd expreffiire c^ this panicidaa %«piH t£ 
qfnaUty. Tlie exprdft^n b^aiti It^ia^ fnrttifiiii> 
in thk way, a much more eMft anttoBf^tn 
(he idea or objed wfaic^ i^ 4m€Ses, 4dw»yi^ 
the other. The ^uafiiy appnara^ » i^attKiei 
aji a modtficatiM of^tWiiftl^anica^aftdr^sii » 
thu6 eHjprefiedv in laogu^^ liy^a. i 
nf ^ noun fubftaaiii^e, ai^ii^ 
fubftance, the quality^ ^tt^4«da|e^ wxf^Jm^ 
this cafe, blended -{e^pther» if 1 may ia|i foi 


ife t^.€?treffi€% in the f^a^tma^kfitert aa^thfy^ 
J^fl$m^^^ be4flt the Qb^&^af34 ¥K th^M^ft. 

miua^ ^l difkinQkoat^ that. of, iful^nc^iafib 

m|i^:m#)e, ai¥l f^Sm^hi feeiO; tQ hane hem Aif- 

iMiei|%Tmarkd4 without the alTiilaaceof adh 

j#fti»fBi^ <)f of apy igenf ral «5^ dieaoii»g 

i|ll^4|i^ie3i|eafiv)e (pegi#s of qiiaUficatioa$. , 

r TjhfiWtarp GQiiMW^thaoitbcfc ihree genders 

Itt^aaqr of the lan^upgiBS yrith i^hich 1 am ac*- 

^0MiH«4} t^ M to jkjf the cXormadoa of 

XMMlAf -Aibftat^ive^caA* by itfelf, jMkL witboyC 

^ «C€sQm{Hiiii4««at,of adje<flive9» expre|$ up 

oilitf qita^tiea but thofe threevaboi^ meaUo%> 

(0d, the ^iiiaUcieii qC i^e, of fefus^A, oi "sm^ 

tSwrtisaleaarfiqnyilei, I ibotild iiQt, h<>w«rec» 

be imfnied^if^ i^. other UQguag€$ mi^ 

vrtikfa I am juptficqiftakbted^ the differeat fo?i^ 

jokwt^ of 8G^i|ft9 fubfta&tive £bould be capabjb; 

oft^^preiJBbg maay other difioreat quaUtks. 

T^4iff<arexiJt4t»iai^i^^^^ ^^d 

a£ fotiK^odi^ lM#li^e^ do« ia reality, fomer 

.tfOMKi esqpfi^r a gr^ varifty of diSereiit pa- 

di6nti«m i* tJHe iiibftai3«m 4epo^4 l^y thofe 

iilitlvatitibpolfibte, hbf/wttr^tt^lhaaoDVtMfah' 

.^nj^riaKIfonhpottit^ev^otfarigciat a^undbftiSulf 

daati aIiitoA> infiQite>!rirte(B7 lof ,qUall6itepi% 
^whifoluiiciiaEghttjt VEpemodiffdreaknootaiiiGF^iUe 
•JA)C9££xBj^l^ti3s■l^flp6(n§y aild^ SaUftimgUEfliritMm. 
.^Rhotajgb tbd dtiffiereht liafftnatldn ofmovuMdluli- 

xm^n^ # the /ant^e; f)fVk>M^»ij ^ifibijiSii^Ke 
!3f»f^»Wil?e lipttt^,t%Fy^tfe$(}tQrr§jft^|if>qc«jfi^ 

fiijasra $; A A This 

:oLANG-UA«E8i f ^355 

i ntiili-^rfMfidjai* in' t^ tert&ivs^a < of ^ khe 

«otfnriadjedi»e, acCQifding to the gender tafiuhe 

ifiibftimfivey which takes place in 'ill iche^xii- 

^^qr>lsuigUage{^ feems to have heaeslidtny* 

^c^idiia% for the fake* <af a' detain fi<a£b 

^l^jofofbondi,! of a oertaijia fpetieHtofi chyihe) 

.itlikh . te u Qatikrally ^ £b very^ <9greeab^ ' ib )tiie 

liiihiaimoeati 'rGendec, itisHtbi be^ obfepviey, 

-eauahoniplroperly bebbg; to a noud adjedvvi^, 

-^e ligfiificsaioci' lof which is aiway8']^cUely 

\tSti&mt'f4o tKfhixtever ii>ed<s oi fabftantives 

tojirapptteid. Wheix'We ii^^ a^grtat matt^ ^ 

^^s^f'^^'womdiMf^mmd gnot hasfiredl^Iyiehe 

&tti6^fld;eanibg hi ibottbcaHsst, add>the^i^ii«»de 

Jbf'thfe'fex iti the fut^efts to Whidi' k'Hiayfee 

'"Sailed; iirikes no* fbrt of d^er«ti@« in -its 

-4igtf}fi<iktroni MkgHusy nnipta^ mt^riUiity'iti 

'iMi firik 'infthni»/-att' \W*^^wKfeh e»pt^8 

^^ffttfeifdy-'th^ftSie qtiWVrty, afiii the bhanggvof 

-^lia^^rldliA^i^ki^s a^i:bmpanicd with nofdrl^f 

'^4^ri^tidftiMff^ th*e^ iheaning^ ^ Seie and gendfer 

Xi^ q£i^i^$^%^tii^ belong to fybfttoces',' but 

'^^ift>(!t^kftig'ld^t&ti qUatities of fubfttitides. 

-i^M^eb^aH tti:^qtiiilkjr, when contidei^ed in cdn- 

■?&Si€^ik tai^qattlifyingfottie particular fubjeft, 

'^ditt'itfeff 1)e Aoncfeived as the fubjear of any 

"^^^"fit^diiaKt^i though when confidered in aib- 

* ftbiaitWy.-, ^Nd'adjedive therefore can qtia- 

Jify any other adje^re. A great gwtiinan^ 

'"^ A A 2 means 


meaas a maa whfo is both ^^/r<z/ and gmd. 
Both the adjeijiiyes qualify the fut>ilantijfe j 
they do not ' qu^Ufy oac ^nQther, CHi/the 
ath er hactd, when we fay, the jS^r^qt goodnijS: 
of,tjllemcin, the wor4^(?p^///g/f dQnpting a q^^T| 
Hty considered, in .abfti:a£t>/ which may itfelf, 
be, the fubjeft of other qualities, is upori^tbat^ 
account capable of being qualified by the;yyor,(^ 
great. ^ - /.. i .. .. • ,. ..\ . , ^... , .y ^^ 
; If the; original invention oi np^i^s adJ9|tiv^ 
would be attended with fo m^iah ^ifHcjLilty^^ 
that of prejpofitions would, be accQrnp^n|ed 
with yet more* Every pTepofitioE^a^Lh^vflt 
already obferved, denoles fome r^elaticfn poqii-, 
d^red ip concrete with the qP^rel^tive objed. r 
Xhe . preppfition aiove^ for example, dpnptes 
the relation of Xuperiority, nrtt iri abftr^Q:, as 
it is expreffed by th«: mo^Afuperiqrlt^^ ^^\\^. 
copcrete with fpuae po-rejativp ^bied^-; jn tjji^, 
pjbraf?, f6r example,^, tbeti^e^abq^^^, the^fa^i 
the word abov.e . expreiT^?^ ra^ >%^f^!P> ; Fl^^^P?^ i 
between ithe /r^^ and the,<'^5f;^^;an^i^,e^^ 
this relation in cQOcrete \yjth th^ eq^r^lativ^^^ 
objed, tbf cave., A prep^fitio^ jalway^^^ 
quires, in order to compete the fj^nfe^^ ^^^ > 
other word, to come after it: as may be, ob-i 
fervediathis particular inftance, ^ Now* Ifay^., 
the original inypntion^orluch words woulqL^ 
require a yet greater effort of abftra^ton aai 



gcnetafization, tlian that of nouns aclje&ive. 
Firft of all^ a relation is, in itlelf, a more me- 
taphyfical object ttiati a quaiit:yl Nobody can'' 
be at a lofs to explain what is meant by a qua- 
lity^' but few people will fiiid themfelves able 
tb exp'refs, very diftin£lly, what'is underftoo^ 
byiVfelation. ; (^alities are aliiioft always the 
obj'6(Ss of oiir externkl fenfes ; relations never 
are. No wonder, therefore, that the one |et' 
of^bbje^is flioiild be fo much'more conipre- 
lienfible than ^he other. Secondly, thoiigU 
ptcjpdritions always exprefstj^e relation whicli 
tHey^aiid for, in concrete with' the co-^rela- 
tl^b' obje£t, tliey could not bave originally 
bi^eri' formed without a cdnfiderabie effort pf 
abttfaftioti. A prepofition denotes a rektiori 
and ridthing but a relation. But before men 
could' in ftitute a word, which figniiied a rela- 
ticin^ ^khd nothing but a relation, they miift^ 
haViei'beeii able,' iri fome meafure, td confider ' 
thJ^Jtelalioh^bm-aaedly fVom the related ob^ [ 
)£&$ ; ' iince the idea of thbfe objeds does not, 
in^anyfefpedlt, 'enter into the fignificatioh of 
thd' prepbfitidh^" The invention of fach a 
worcl^* t^erbfore, muft ^liave required a cbnfi- 
derable^'deg^^^^ ' abftra(3:ioru Thirctly, a 
pjr^poiitiori is from it& nature a general wor^^;^ 
which, from its very nrll mltitution, muft 
have been conudered as equally applicable 

(Ik i*)!j:VO ■ X / A A 

A A 3 to 

3^8 FOi^AtiON bF 

to djspy e^ any ^ ^het iimiraif ^ r^fcittdn. '\^he 
mivi wiio^fim mVSrited tlie «word^^3ov^. rtitiil 

"the ' relation otjuper^rit^ '&6^ kiid c^^s 
JLvJiich were fo'f elated', but'hi liiuft haif^fe^anb 
(^iftinguifKe^ this^elatioti frditS cither reUtMife, 
fuch as^ from, ^|j^ relatibn bfinf^Htirity^dk^ 
noted by tlie word belotv; f tditi the rda^fen 
dtjmtapojitioft^ exprefled by the w6td^%W!?, 
and the like. He muft hav6 cbncfHved •fl&is 
word, therefore, as exprcffive ofk parllailkr 
fort or fpecics of relation diftlnd fr6tfi ei^ 
other, which could not be dt5ne1;^l¥h6t^{afcl&i-» 
fiderable eiSbrt of comparifon and genei'allfct- 

. tion. -'\'^^-^^ 

Whatever were the difHculties,^ theli^fore, 

^ which embarrafled the fiirft^ itiV^rott^^^of 
^npuns adjedive, the fame, and' rniiiy' tiftfte, 
xnuft have embarrafled tha!t bf ' iilreji6ri88hs. 
tf mankind, therefore, iii the^firfP^lfei-Mtfon 
of languages^ feem t6 have; 'fo? fdni^TiJi^ 

^evaded the neceflfity of\'tidliy ^^?<^,^V 

varying the termination df tH^^fey^^b- 

ftances^ according as thefe variierd^ lrf'lHm%^ of 

|iheir moft impoftarit quilitife^^'liffie^ would 

' mucli mpreifinii'^^inieivest^ 

''i^^of eVa^ineJ tif lome'fMxri^mi**?^^ 

""^e p m^^ifticUK ihyei^ dP^epbfi. 

'• tions/ ^ 1flie^S^f8n^\ikiW^a#df^to%^^ 

- • guages 

^gqagesUacpptnyance of ,j)recifely the jfame 

f^nfJ- The. gemtiy? ,^p^^^4t^ 
, -Grpekrand. Latiu^ eyidently rfuppiy the place 
^qf the prq)pf^J^qns; W^^PJ a^variatiofi in th^e 
-npurvfubftant^Vip^ which l^^n'ds for the cb-re^^ 

.hetween what is, denoted by that. noun Tab- 

nftanMyej an4what is eKprefTed^p)^ fotne other 

. sWOrd:^ itiJ^e ijentencc, Iia thefe e^preioliqns, 

|pr e;i;ai;E)p|e9 fr;uStui arBori^^ the fruiyoj^ the 

fJ^pfrA^} /aferyf(erculiyjacredt(y^ the 

^^.-Mxia^pna inad? in the CQ- relative words, arior 

fdcid i&rW<w, je^^preft the fame relations which 

^t arp ^x^reffed ia Englifh by th^e pregofitioriP^^ 

and/0. -.>..' 

^jioiTp i?xpr^r? ^^relatipp |n this mani^e;r,^did 

^^not^.r^^ire apy.,efFoit of abllradion. ^ Rwas 

.3.111^91; hf^K, 9xpr?fled by a peculiar vford denot* 

^.4flg^i;i?latipn;^nd nothing but relatioiu Hiit^ljy 

, p^^^y^^^iqa^^pop the co- relative term. It%a8 

^.fflqprplfe^ ]^|:e, as ^t appears in nature^ pptas 

y^bpo^^th^pg (^p^rated and detachedp ^ui^^as 

.^rtl^orpiJIg^y minced and blended vvith itie co-^ 

Ki, .Ta expr^fs. i:elatiQn in this manner, 'did 

' }:^9A ^:?flf^^^ Wy^^;ff^^^ pf jg^P^^?!j?^li^'^r / The 
j',lij^oi;d? <'r^^W^o^ HircuUj while they involve 
rldn i^eir flgnifiJcat}p^ the fame relation ex- 

ir^rj^fied by. *^ EpgU,fl:f -preppfitiw ST ^^^4 '^t 
>-!./. A A 4 are 

3«g, FOJfcMyV.TION.OF 

; To ej^pt^s /elatfftR ift;|bi$^mapft^4wij»0fel 
rejjmfc any efFoif o( pQippa^^ 
arhoris and fferculi are not general worii^ihJtt. 
tei>de4,todpnpti^i*.parua>lar;fpq^Aiifif ^ela- 
tlofis \ybich the inyentors of thofei^prfffionft- 
nieant, in confeqyence of fon^esiprt crfiicftBteii 
parifon, tp feparateanddift'wgM^AftP'n^yj^fyi- 
otiier fort of rplation, Thcfij^ampJi^jin^^*- 
of this cpntriyanqg would fppn ., probably i)e 
fQllowed, and whoever had occafioottpexprers' 
a fii^ilar relation between any other Qb^e*£k8;i 
"w,oii|d be vei;y apt to do it by m%kin!g>a iflrfuM. 
lar yari^tion on the name of jtheiC(;HicJatiMe ; 
ob^^. This, I fay, wonld prohftbly^ Gttr4ii>eiLi 
ce^t^injy, l^appen ; but it wQMW,b4ppfift witfcrd 
oi^t «J5f |ptenti6t> , qr foyefigbfifi, rk)&tJwbo: 
firftTet the example, and who never rfBieaptitoi' 
eftaj^i^ 4fiy generai.rule. j ..'ITj^igpftMraiiriile 
WC)u|f| eftabU(h itfelf ,infc^ijbly^^5|d .byjlkwi ; 
d^gre^ s"^ in confequence o(, ; %; ]9,y!?j qfi m?(T, * 
Ic^Vj^^and, fimilarky of fqu;3.d,;,>]>{hiq^ i%i|l?!ei. 
fouiji^ponof by ffr tlj^ ^m%m^.M^'XH--i 

"^o .pjqu-pfsi ^^elatjoa, therefp?^„%iftj«5rIV' 

a^jqjf> ^Bi^h^ .n*n?e^Q^,5^h^j9(^r4^y^ql?j^7 

VaV.t.r ' requiring;" 

tion', ndr^ cbriipdrtfdn- 6f ltiiy'^Si(J^^ M^cSuld,^ at^', 
firfl, be triHch^ihi^re h^MrM m^^i^ 
exprefs it by thofeg^rieral'wdrds* tailed pre^ 
pdfi^dtis, ^f v^hlch tbe^ fitft'iftVeiAicih^ muft 

-iTtoe ^lAb&r Of dafcs h tdHferfeht iti'di^n-!' 
e«t kiiglft^s. > ' There arc fiVe iti thd b^ree^, ' 
fixin th^ l;atiii, aiKi there air'c fa!d to b6 Veil' 
ip/iheArm^ni^ii Jangtiage, It muft have iia- ' 
tuteJly bapp^ftieky tliat there ffiotild be d greaiej- 
Qp 4 firialbr tiuiriber of eifes, aciroi-diiig as iii ' 
tfec^ti^minatioiiB of nouns fubftaritlVe thfe^^ fiVft^ ^ 
fotme*s of apy language happened td fia^e ' 
effiabllflied a greater or a fmdller tiufttbei^W' 
yansitibtts, in order to expfefsthe drfFei^ehlt W4 * 
l^^tkbs f they/ had odcariori tp tal^ hbtice^dfi ^ 
bcfbwifeeil&hrentipil^ of thofc more^eif6irif ' 
^nd«bftra(& piiepd^tidtts which ciptaid fujiply'^ 
tKeinpla?^^^"^-^'^ '^^ '" - -' ^^' ' ' '^'^'l'!-/^:^' 
J ^v i^ ^ethaps, worth wiiile to dbfer ve -that ' 
thftit^ptepdfltions, which iri ihBdern htigiia^es'' 
hdld thfe palate of the ancient cafes, „ 4re of ajl ] 
ofW^rs^^ the mbft genera!, and abftra^,' jitid ' 
nSctapfcyfibal J dnd of cctafe^iience S;t^bUldi' 
probably be the laft invented/^ Aik ztijt miti^ 
pfi^cdmmdncatiitehers, ^WhatVeraltibh'is'^eSc- 
pe^>by the^ |3*epdMii 'm*bef'' ' Hfe Wiir 
';:nr:i' ;[::•': readily 


xeadlly^ anfwer, that iA fap&kiorkyk tBy the 
.ptrejiofitioti Uhkjof: He wiH as quickly jf^l^^ 
^h2it)o£ ir^iof^Uf*:. But affc him^ What wifc- 
tlonis cjtprdffesfl'by theprepafitionij/^/ afwi^jyT 
he has i]iot beforehaiui emp]oyqdJf£b thobghft 
a^good deal upon thcfe fohje<Sb$,/!yf)u-)iind)r 
fafely allow him a week to confideDiofjhis 
afifwdr. The ipr^poCiiioMaiovff andifd&wvdD 
not' denote any of the telations expi-efiad hy 
the cafefi iti the ancient langii^iges. Bui idle 
prepofition of denotes the fame relatlMt^ 
which is in them exprefled by the getiilive 
cafe ; and which it is eafy to obferve, fo^'la 
very mctaphyfical nature. The prfefK)fition 
bf denotes relation in general, confidered 4i 
concrete with the co-relative obje<a. itaiaiks 
that th^ nbun fubftantive which goes befo^ 
%, is fomehow or other related tothat ^hirfi 
comes after it, but without in any refpi^ 
afcertainStig, as is done by the pr^pofltiito 
^above^ what is the peculiar nature tof that re- 
flation. We often apply it, thetieforey «CP/e9k- 
j^efsthemoft becbuftl, tfte 

"ttidft (>J>p6fite relations^ agree To far that eacfe t>f 
them comprehends in it the genersil Idie^^r 
jTfature'df a relatiom We fay, ^the fatbef^f 

V /»i^l/5r^,M arid the pfefi r>f^ib^^^^ 
%fife ffelitiod itrWiiich the father ftafedsitf'cfee 

fofi isr/it is evident, a quhd oppofue>' rdfedtion 

to 'tliat{iii which tire fon lUnds'to thei fatjierr; 

iJisrt in 'Which the parts ftan^ to th? whole^ h 

i|ulte dppofite to, ti^t in /which tii^ 

^od^ to the part^. J^hetWsixd 0/4 hovr^wtt^ 

ferves very well to deacSie alLthofei xdUtioiw, 

b^caufe iti itfelf it dtaotea no particulars •r^sllh 

tlon, but ionJy relation iii g^rjii j and ib f^r 

NdS any p^ticular relation is cpJle<aed froipi 

fuch ^preffions, it is inferred by the min4, 

liotfirqm the prepofition itfelf, butfrpqi the 

jnirfwe an^d lairangem^nt of the fubftantives, 

cbe^wseji which the prepofition is|Jaced. . 

I Wh^ I have faid coacerning the prep9- 

itfitionj^^ may in fome meifure be ^ppli<?d\to 

:?tfifi/pre|)ofiuons to^foti withy by^ and to wh?$- 

jcvcr iothe? ptepofition? are made ufp oj^ jp 

5e40dera.laaguage$, to fupply the plac^.pf, the 

fimfjifiPt^ftlfes.. They all pf them expr^fev^ 

fi9i^i^4i and. metaphyiical r^latioi^i ^ !^hiiqh 

-ftnyf<niartjviift):Ake§. the trpuye^to jry it^ will 

.foidit ?^te^fnel5? di%ulttQ expref? by npijips 

*,fiihgknti\jg, in the feme inanAer as >^ei^^a^ 

)«3^i^is the; relation denoted by the pijeppfitip^ 

^alm^^ by : thte ,|K)up M^^^ 

vThgy, 11,11 M /howfev^r^ expj;ef§^ ^fon^e 

fpsci% relatianj,.an4 .^onfpqiijef^tly^ gcipqe 

v9C^^th«m(fo.. abfl^^ ^j tfees^prj^^fiti^p ^ 



'/•, i 

metaphyseal of all pVepofitibns, The prcpp- 
fi^oas^ therefore, which are capable of fyp* 
plying the place of the ancient cafes, being 
more abftra£l ^ tb^in %ht other prepofition^ 
t^'ouldiaatpraily bq of more difficult invention, 
Th|e relations at the fame tipe, which thq:(<P: 
prepofitions exprefs, are, of all others, ]ihpfp 
which we have mpft frequent occafion to 
mention. The prepplitions aboveyf^elow^ y^^^fi 
\piihin^ without yCgainJi^ &c. are ipuch mqre. 
rarely made ufeof, in modern languages, than^; 
the prepofitions of^ to^ fqr^ wifh^ Jrom^ bjfyr 
A p«:epdrition oi the former kind will not pc- j 
ciir twic^ in a page ; we can fcarce compoie 
a Cneie ientence without the affiftance of one 
or two or the latten If thefe latter prepofi,-i 
tlons, therefore, which fupply the place. of^the^., 
cafe?^ wquld be of fuch difficult inventpn pa , 
accpun|t pf their abftradtednefs, fom? e^po!^'; 
eri'tV to iTupply their place, muilliayp been jqf,. 
indiibenfable neceffity, on account of the fr^-j; 
quent pccaHon which men hajve to takeno^tice^, 
of the relations which thev denote. , But, 
th^re is no expedient fp obVioi^s, .^s |hat pf^^ 
varying the terminatipn of one pjf.^^etipjrincjl--^^ 

It, is, p?Agips, unnecpnary to ^Jbfervcv, that,, 
there are fome of the c^ifes ,in thp ancient knt, . 
guages; which, tor particular reafoas, cajmnot 

^ ' ' be 


be reprefented by any preppfitions. Thefe 
^retTie nominative, accufative,, and vocativ^ 
c^es. In thbfe modern languages which dH 
iidt admit of any fuchvarietjr in the terinina-^ 
labhs of their* nouns fubftantive, the correl^^ 
pohdeht relations areekpfefled by the place of 
thie words, and by the order alttd cbnftrjLidioA 
of the fentence. ' , \ * V 

As men have frequently occafioa to make 
mention of multitudes as well as of fingle obi- 
jeds, it became neceflary that they Ihould 
have fome method of exprejfTing , number. 
Number may be exprefled either by a particu- 
lar word,. expreffing number in general, fuch 
as the words Tna^y^ more^ &c. or by lonie var 
xiation upon the words which exprefs the 
thing? ntinjibered. It is this laft expedient 
which ipanklnd woiild probably have recburfe 
to, in the "infancy of language. Number, 
confidered in general, without relation to any 
particiilar fet of objeds numbered, is one of 
the nibft ; iib^^^^ and inetaphyfical ideas 
whiclh the mind of map! is capable of forming ; 
and, coiifequently^ is. not ^ an idea which 
wbiitd' readily occur to rude mortals, who 
werdjiW:" beginning to form a lapguagp. 
They would naturally, therefore, diftingui/h 
wHieti ttiey talked of a fihgle,Jind whfeA the^ 
talked l6f a iixultittide of objedsj^'not by any 

loiflra^ifia of the yvpcd i;/^h}cbk)fi|;c^^d t^ 
j(eQs pMoiberpd^ Henqc the origpgfv of ife^i^^^ 
gvl«r Sfi^ f>i«rai npmt)ers in all the aS3teif«f 
l*ngfi»g/es i f ^nd . tbc fem^ diftm«9iQ^ j»^ Jfkef 

at ljP4ft,initb*^ greater fal't&f iverfd^> //yiov^ 

• AI)ft)ripii«ivc and ui;icptepQtiad^^ I^PgU«g#> 

feehi to have a dtis^ as wtU ns^ |ih»»J^;fiiii»T 

ber. This is the cafe of the Grefek^candd^iiiii 

told iof the Hiebrow, c£ :th«r Ga(Md^i^sii of 

many other languages. li the iud^ beghp- 

nlriig&of fociety, r7/7f^ /wovand »«?rr, mi^-pcrf- 

fibly be all thenum'eral dilHniaLofas^Rrhhdirtoafl)- 

iinjj: would have any occafiotr to take ni^fe 

of; < T Tdiefe they would find it m6f e nat2ubA>iD 

eacpf^s by a variation npon ^ eTcry ^^laetdfflr 

moxrti fabftantive^ than by fudh ^neiafe^sttfij 

ifefkia'd words as onCi two, Jim^^dfoiir,^^^. 

Thefe words, though cuftom has rendered fte^m 

fatoili» to us, eij^pi^fs, perhaEp^, thevWoMub- 

-tife and refined 'abftr^diom: Whidh lhe';|nliSi 

^of man: is capable of formidg. Let any xjhe 

^cotifider. within himfeif^ fior l exaxriplp, ^i»lirat 

A be means by theiword *krehi whldx figmifies 

nekheri t h^e&vflBiliftgB^ not thx&a pcndei ; faor 

-tthr^ei liien/,! norlthrec hofcfeaii hut! tl^ee in 

tgehe^adc^ add heiv^lil 4bafily £itbfy liinileif tiiit 

a word, 


itimtS, ^hidci 'dteftotes fi^ vfery kettti)h}^itgl 
aK^ab6taaitthv could iiot be eUb'er a vtrj^'^ob- 
vidus Wa very early mvention. I have *e4d 

d^|]fdDfe dP^kj^refliQg'nb tti0r6tha:^!the thrt& 
i^ltintf die9faldiftinigkioil& huty^hkthktltm^ 

words, ©t^-by^Tiriatlons ilpoa the iJOui^ /ub* 
^a^u:<iref- dehmtog the things numberedi I do 
not rdrti«ttibtr to have miet with any thing 
^vrhichocould determine. 
la i&s^aU tbc fime relations which fubilA^ bo* 
^twigeti fihgie msy lUcewife fubfift betweeoaiii^ 
^aie^o^s iQbje(3:8, it \s evident there would be 
^unikmifor. the fame number of caieatin the 
idiEaliaad in. the plural, as in the fingul^^ 
.nnlBidicnr. ■ Hence tiie intricacy and coinpldscr 
m^io£dtieidecIen%)ns In all the ancient Unr 
igv^g^i . Jn iheiGreek there are five cafes in 
.fti^lv^ the. three numbers, confequettdy fif- 
itmU^iMiJi ^;..u ' .. " >-■■ .•- : r 

-aLMom>nti$ ,ik^jd£live, in the ancient laft^ 
Igrtftgeai .varied xbeir tfermlriations according to 
^tfee gejader^ of -iJie^fuhftMitive to which they 
jwfeoe ^pplied^ fo did ^ they* Ukewife^ according 
gfoii^ci daiefvai^dvdte number; /Every. noun 
ladje^iiTO: j iflD t&e Oreek language^ theref ore» 
Aihavsngcbree genders, and three numbers^ aiid 
3£t)ei€3yf(ttiAi(^ac&iiui^ cooii^f^rgd 

I' "J V.J 7^1^ * as 

3^8 FORMAtlO»OF 

as havtog fi\re stfui fortf (Menetoft vattrntibos^ 
Th« Hril formecs of koguiifp^ fei^nti M hate ra* 
ried the termination of the adfe^^e^aceofding 
to the cafe and the number of theftthftantfye, 
for the fame resfcm wbtch^ maite them Varjri it 
according to the gender; the love ill aftalogf^ 
and of a certain regmlarity of fousEbd. In ^im 
fignification of adjediwes there is neitheir calt 
nor niimfaer, and the meaning of fuch^wotdt 
is always preeifelyithe Jame, &|)tiyttliftattd«' 
ing all the variety of termination uiider whldkJ 
they appear- Magnus vir^ magMt viri^ 0tag^ 
no^um virorunt^ a great num^ of a great man^ 
of grtaV n^n; in all theie eKpreffioos.^ 
^ords mognuss ^Mgni^ magnorum^ as wdlmj 
the W&rdr great^ have precifely one aad ^t». 
fame fignification, thooigh the fubftaotkre^io 
which they are applied have not. Tim d^ • 
ferenee of termination in the noisa ad^c<fl«fe 
is accompanied with no fort of xli^S^eace m 
the meaning. An adjedive denotes the qua- 
lification of a noun fubftantive. &it the 
difierent relations in which that noun fubftaa* 
tivemay occafionally ftand, can mafce no fort/ 
of difference upon its qualifioati<»u* 

If the declenfions of the aaeietit langii^es 
are fo very complex, their conjugations ane 
infinitely more fo. And the caii^>iexnd& oi ^ 
the one, is founded upon the fame pi^df»ie 

' with 

LANGUAGtS. ^36^ 

wkh that of the dfherj the dirfEculty of farm** 
mgy m the beginmngs df langiiage, abftraS 
and general terms. 

Verbs muft neccflkrily have been coSval 
with the very firft attempts towards the f6rm- 
atioti of language. No ai&rmation ean be ex-^ 
preffed withont the aflGiftance of fonfte verb. 
We never fpeak, but in order to exprefe our 
apimon that fotnething either is or is not. 
;^t the word denoting this event, or this 
matter of fadt, which is the fubjed of our 
affirmation, muft always be a verb. 

Imtperfonal verbs, which exprefs in one 
word a complete event, which preferve in the 
cxpreffion that perfedl (implicity and unity, 
which there always is in the objed and in the 
idea, and. which fuppofe no abftradion, or 
metaphyfical divifion of the event intq its fe- 
veral conftituent members of fubje<ft and attri- 
bute, would, in all probability, be the fpecies 
of verbs firft invented. The verbs pluit^ it 
rains; mngity it fnows ; ton at ^ it thunders ; 
lucety it is day ; turbatur^ there is a confujion ; 
&c. each of them exprefs a complete affirm- 
ation^ the whole of an event, with that per- 
fect fimpltcity and unity with which the mind 
cdtlceives it in nature. On the contrary, the 
phrafes, Alexander ambulat^ Alexander walks ; 
Petrusfedet^ Peter Jits ^ divide the event, as'it 

VOL, II, B B were, 

^0iifilfi)i0) tyBolpgrtav..tlli^sp^dnoarBfi>bjoa^ 
^9^5% ;^Wriiu|gt ipK,mj«|eri if ^n«fi«rot^- 

fedly and completely one fimple concepd(9^ 
ai^tt^^t^;9f^4Je^iVfeT\np;;.rV?f^Ucii\g. ^\'S^ 4tvi- 
gpfi of this , ev|?0^t,i:^5?^oj)9,,ifit<3,ti5yj^np|irfe^ 

i.9)pj;rfp(aU!in of, languggie,: '^feigJitirt^Jftrt Jtjsfej 
a§, .uppjji n^iany. otjh.^!: o<3caC0a«»,rfeg|dleBiEbfiia 
ij^mber, pf wprds^it^ei-wffi*! <iCLfiO§,3i«hiofe 
C9aid',expr^^,4 pgci?;the ,wM«(Wltf^r,^^^^ 
ttft^as mpa^t, to,^):^ afli?tne(J^ ^^E5*r3fi.b(W^ 
H^uft^o,bfcrye I^pw mu^h OLore Cunpli«*sj5(tbfe'te 
iSji|j.]the ijatpral e;j?preffio|i,^^/(,; thirift ifblte 
inpre artificial e^xpreflions, ;/«!?^jir^:)4fe?»^i3-^ 
r^t^JqlU^ or temp^as efi. pluimayXbcMefihais 
Wjf^jff.,,, In, thefe two laft>'!W^«fis«te4>'dw 
fijpjxpl^.^yejot, or tnatter gf ; fa<a„iS;ari;iS4!aily) 
fpUt f^nd4iyi4e4 jun.the Qne<ijil:a*lTO/}<,iaiH«r 
ofji^eriij^p th?ee p^^5. M §acbij^|higia i^'i^j 
e:!fpreirpjd by f fort pf gr*mip^<»l ^^ifrQftffitftT'i 
ojUpn, pf .wbicli,; th^ fignifiwjai^^ istcfoHa^ 
uppn a 9ei,t4ft n3L,et;apjbyfijC%| ^ng^j^fe^ogiiH^ir 
cpmponfjqtji p^r.l§ pf .the. .ide^ ,^preflr§4/ byi thei 

vi^f^'j>li(^ g;im fir^, verbs* $l?pr8l6w^psiro 

hap^,,.ey€^ die, j^f| wojp^s,, Bftadfi i*^rf*a tbfjj 

bVginnbg^ , jpf ^laiiguage,, ,wQ^ldi^,ii^ all fiphm 

l^^ty j)^" fijch j|i^p^rirpnal^yerbi?,j;rit,,?s ^| 

' ferved 

Ipataij&ariiHsi i<hat fhenrafliaail Wofds #ttigir 
iftDgdage^ &om< tHitich all^ < the ^UBi^ dti! ' dk- 
riwfd,' art «iri3Ptfrertt i^erfts'an^- Iiiij;iarlcftidl 

^erb^j -'''-'-' '•'''''''-' ■•''"-' x''-*''-'^'?"^'-*-* bf!*> yi-^-'''* 

iSf !4anga%t?; tfi6(b itii^fetfo'ft'at t€Ji1^ Idiibiilii 

aUycfafuittipe^oBfai Vfeifbi' atttl that if dehoted, 
dot'th&fedttiiiig df 'f«iTOetMBg iii geiierkl, as at * 
^ef^^tJoft'the comiag^ of ia piiiiictrTat bbj^d, 
^fefef'a<ft&^i/W^ The fi*ft favage MVefntdra 
of idiigflag(»i W6 ^aii fupjpdfe, When' thiey bfc 
fb^^ «h^ ap^piPoJioh tjf this i^Mblis iSiriiiik^ 
W^&la^aftoMtdto crjr'diit to brie ittotfifef, 
i>dki^'ikait^Ut^iJlfelfd« x^mtjy tiM that' ihlS 
tnbtd t^Mxi' exptttfliid i a coinpl^tld ^(ent^'^^^h- 
<Hitr4h^iiiffifttin^e^-6f -kny filhfen ' < Aft6l'wa'pdi;• 
vttfe«io|l theJJtorthep p^o^rai of taiigiiaglei' 
tliey ba4!b^utt-to give -ni^tofes to piMctilat 
ftA(fttt«tii§, 'livfefefi^Vtt' Ihltjr bbferVel ^hr ap- 
]^aeh bf ' atif ' btliee 'tc*Hblk4)Bj«ja:,<'^he^ 
^^feli^^ialkt&M^r J6i6 thtikKaihte *f thit dbjfeai,' 
td'itli^'Woi^i*<*^/>, 'iind' cty 6\xtvemt iirfus^ 

tfedi 66^-^ fi^7'^l^'6bteg;of 'ahy terrf-' 

Wg^iSl^^i diid^'iibi Ifaetel^ thfe'coi^teg bftiie' 

ifx^i ' It %our^^6WrtHet^fbit,^'expn^fe, <iior 

1)5^T'> 8^3 the 


,the • coming pf a particular bbj.e£t, but (he 
.conning of an obje(^ of a particular kind. 
.Uaving become riox^ general in its fignifica- 
tion, it could no logger reprefent any parti- 
cular diftindt event by itfelf, and without 
jtjiae aflifta,nce of a nqup, fubftantive, which 
might ferve to alc^rtain and. determine its 
figni^c^tion* It would now, therefore, have 
Jb^coiQe a perfoEial inilead of an imperfonal 
veirh. We way eafily conceive how, in the 
" further progrefs of fociety, it might ftill 
grow more general in its fignificatiqaa, and 
comp to fignify, sua at prefent, the appro^h 
of any thing vfhateyer, whether good, bad, 
pr indifFsrent. 

It is probably in fome fuch mamiei: as this, 
tl^ajt almoft ^11 verbs have become perfonal, 
^nd that mankind have learnt by degrees to 
fpllt and divide almoll every eveat into a 
great number of metaphyfical parts, expreffed 
by tjie difftr^nt parts ©f fpeech, varioufly 
combined in the diflfereat menp^b^rs of. every 
phrafe and fentence *. The f^jixG &i:t of pro- 


• As the for greater part of vert)s exprefs, at prefent, not 
^n €vettt but the attribute of an event, and eo^fequentlj, 
require a fubjed, or noiiiinative cafey to complete their figni- 
fication, fome grammarians not having attended to this pro- 
grefs of nature, and being defirous' to make their common 
rules quite unircrfyt, aad without any exception, have infifted 
' . - .i I that 


grefs feems to have been made iti tlie art of 
fpeaking as in the art of writing. 'When 
mankind fir ft began to attettipt to fexjireifd 
their ideas by writing, every chdrader repre- 
fented a whble word. But the number of 
words being aimdft infinite, the niemory 
found itfelf^ quite loaded and opprefled by Hie 
multitude of charaders v^^hich it was obliged 
to retain. NecelTity taught them, therefore; 
to divide words into their cletnents, and to 
invent charaders which fhould reprefent, ndt 
the words themfelves, but th^ elements of 
\^hich they were compofed. In confeqiieriei 
of this' invention, every particular word cafmi 
to be reprefented, not by one charatSler, biit 
by a multitude of charadters ; and the expref- 
fion of it 'in v^iting became much more intri- 
cate and cbmplex than bcfbre. But th^oiigh 
particular words were thus reprefented by a 
greater humber of charadet-s, the whole lan- 
guage was exprefled by a much fmaller, and 
about Four arid twenty letters Were found ca- 
pable of fuppfjrihg the place of that immenft 

that all verbs, required a npminatlve, either cxpreiTed or un- 
derftopcl j and have, accordingly, ppt themfelves to the tor- 
ture to find fome awkward nominatives to thofe few verbs, 
which ilill expreffing a complete event, plainly admit of none; 
Pluiiy for exiample, according to Sanaiusi means pluvia fluit, 
in Euglxfli, the r^ln rms..^ See San^il Minerva, 1. 3. c. i. 

B B 3 multitude 

J74 F(»ilfi[ATrrOtfvJ)F 

diii^^^ ^4of ^la^gu^^io;' tadeoi KbemiitOiihaiM ^atT 
tempted iito iicpjffcfei^everyirparlticqlar erentl^ 
\7lu^b th^^ad rocbaf^oh^idr la(kelciimii3eri«tf$r 
by^;a piavtkillar WiDirdiwfh^ ^prefkdiait toc^Tt 
tbi' vifhoie ctf that le^eht. > Butia^ tJaejaiiftAeib 
of Wof ds > muft, ) 4n thiy f cafoy /bavt i hec^aafo 
really infinite, in ^roiifequencci^f iflltfitrcrfiy' 
infinite variety of events, impii; £duml!7tbet&-j 
felvdsv piutlyi .compelled by vneEifBtiy^L/iiid 
partly condiiQ;ed hy najtiire/ to/dliviilfeiqvtaryi 
event ^ntoi what inay:foec&lled its/ mle^jkphj^c|l> 
^lefloien^Syandtamilitut&woixis^ viiiqkk ^Q»l«lr 
&]lote 9ot ib much the events^a? Ihciolefltilii^^ 
€*^hich tlwyi vincfB ccsmpofe^ :TimcQxpr^f? 
ffda.;ofieyery particijdar evtent^ bij^wftitliilB^ 
inatmqr inore int/ri^atei aBd)Coinpl^,3J^£tf ^^^ 
t^^/4iole fyfteq[i< vofi the] laHgtiage biefianif^vfc^^ 
^ohieventi, mdre jconobftfed, i oiODe l^^^^ r^ 
tained^^and\ comprehended* f , .\.,\ .bjfmfflx 

r Whenc vfiijifi^.irom) being. OJ?igii«lHyrf ipapSRi 
fohaliHha!aithuSi!by)«l!ietdivi6QR,jfif tj^^i^v^ 
ifatoiks? inctaphyfical >^kmiS^i^ b^ 
f6ttfel,4t58 natfJTflfl tafuppp^thi^tbey/jRAu^^^^ 
flrit^t^fflttde*feo£ in the tbiri^pcrfote fwgirftei 
Nd^ ve|b ist eyeri dfed irtf^fcaifdly ju/ fJuK^afta 
^age^j ifidr^ i fo /;fiu? Jasi I knowi r rm 2^Uy i<«h?fi 
ftioderaf^ tjoogmi. /But ia tbeii m^p^wl^A^ 

-■'-r^ >. 1 1 guages, 

guagfi^ 'wben^vfer day yt^rb is ufedii^ipeFfon^^ 
ally^kiis'aJwHys m the riakd pcriba fingulai?* ; 
Tfce i»rniiiTEitiOH>df thofe ^crbs, which-iire ftill- 
ajwsr^s imperfonal^ k conftaptly the (4ine 
ii^h thm dF Ihe third perfoii fiogular of per-/ 
S^rnd Verbs] -^.ht donlideration of thefe cir-^ 
ctdsftawcesi, joined to the naturdnefe of the 
tiiift^itfdfr>rhayiferve to convince us that 
v^ybsifirft tecame perfonal in what is now 
ca4iednllffaliir<i perlpnifingiikn 
b (But 'pfil the; « vent, or mi^tter of fad, which 
i^TKsprefiediby a vcrby may be affirmed either 
6£o\h[Qi pe^bmivho fpeaks or of the perfoa 
ti«^l«^& fpofcrni -to, as well as of fome thirdk 
fbcUm: ot^ obpeft; dt becaraie neceflary to > &U 
tTjwcfn'foitt^^^ method of exja-effing thefc tv/0 
pe^uttaisfiebddnsnof the eventi In thcJEngHlfe 
te^^ttgelhlf w^xAnwioilly dttDne, by pnefixt^ 
^^'^fe«^tttricaHed;thd pei^fonal/pronoiHis^ to 
tie? gfc&l*la«WJrd ^kblck ncxpreflfcs the oeyint 
affirmed. I came ^ yckcame^bip or itl 
ttilfe^hckfesijl^ eiyenti of hstving comfili^'in 
tS^ fii«i^ }^m6d; of:4!l!ie/ Ipeakidrj in:ah6 
fex^J/^l'^^^fon fpoken tojlatiie thirds 
A^^ftjftie ^ i^lM&rtpeffi^n oc ol)jc«5trr .The firft 
ft^tfiiftf J ^ knguage^ Stiiriay iibeLiiaagiriedt 

ilf^lhthe fifc^e-maflnerecherfiwolfifftf^t/^ 
p^honn^)^ thiB^fatiiie f erininatifc^jafi the jl^h» 
,2:^2-^3 B B 4 which 


which expireflecj the third perfon fmgular, 
might haye: fa^d egp venitj tu vemt^ as well as 
ilk Of illu^v^nit. Apd I m^ke no doubt but 
they WOUI4 have fJonp fo, if at the time \Yhea 
they had firfl; pccafipp to,exprefs th^fe rela- 
tipns of the verb, ^here had beqn apy fuch 
words as either f^ or tu in their lapgU^gc* 
But i;:^ this e^^rly period of the.langiiiage which 
we are now cade?ivouring to defcrib.e$ it is 
extremely improbable that any fucli word$ 
v;oul4 be known. Though cuftom has now 
rendered them familiar to us, they, both of 
them, exprefs ideas extremely m^taphyfical 
and abftraft. The word /, for example, is a 
word of a very particular fpecies.^ "^yiiatever 
ji^peaks may denote itfelf by this perfonal pror 
noun. The word /, therefore, 13 a general 
word capable of being predicated, as the 
logicians fay, of an infinite yariqty of obj eds, ; 
It (iiffers, however, from all other general 
words in this refped; that the objecis of, 
which it may be predjcjated,, dp not form any 
particular fpecies of ol;)je6:s dlftinguifhed from* 
all others, :Th(Ej wpr4 /, does not, like thc: 
word tifariy denote ^ pa^rtiqular claft of objqds, 
feparated from al| peculiar qjuaUtieSr 
of their'own. It is far frpm being the name^^ 
of a fpecies, but, or^, the contrary, whjer^^verr 
it is madq ufe of, it 4way§,4?Wte^8ta^pr^if^ ^9^^ 



dividual, the particular perfon who thca 
fpeaks. ' It -may be faid to be, at once, both 
what the logicians call, a fingialar, and what* 
they call, a common term ; and to join in its 
fignification the feemihgly opipofite qualities 
of the'riioft precife individuality, and the molt 
exteinfive generalization. This word, there- 
fdte^, 'ekpFieffingfo veiY abftrafl: and metaphy- 
{ical'an itJea, Would not eafily or readily occur 
to the firft formefrs of language. What are 
called the perfohal pronouns, it may be ob- 
fdrVeti, are among the laft words cJ^ which 
children learn to make ufe. A child, fpeak- 
irig^of ififelf, fayj^, Billy walks ^ Billy Jits ^in^ 
AtAdbd'malky Ifiti As in the beginnings of 
lairgiiage, therefore, mankind feem to have 
eVa^^eid the invention of at leaft the more ab- 
{fCtiOi prepofttions, and to have expreffed the 
fame rektions which thefe now ftand for, by 
v&tying thet^f-minatron of the co-relative term^ 
fd they like wife would naturally attempt to 
evade the tleceffity of inventing thofe more ab- 
ilfadt pronouns by varying the termination of 
thfe verb, according as the event which it ex- 
preffed was intended to be affirmed of the firft, 
fefcond,: et third jf>crfon. This feems, accord- 
ingly, to be tlie uriiverfal pra<aice of all the 
aflcient lihguages. In Latin veni^ venijlty ve^ 
mt^ fuJOScieiitly denote, without any other 
* addition, 

3f8 roRMAtioii or 

adflkidti, fhe'difFerent eVertti dk^refled b^ tKe 
Engnffilphrkresi /r^^, j'<?//^^»i^, iJt or fl^^rJi?^/ 
Th^^^b' wcmTd, fot iKe fatrie VfeiFolf; i^^ 
it^'lteFmihktiOfi; ^acc6rdiri^ ' as 'tRfe' eVfent^^^ 
ii?fetiata'td fee'^triMcd of rtie firft, kd6vtd^6if^ 
tHtt^jiefte^plhral; ^tid what is 'd^|)i^ffe(i'^' 
bjf^He Eil^Ifln pl^tafes, '-te*^ t^i;^, ye caine] 'tbif 
^i/zri:^; wottl^ be denoted by tbeLa?ih^V^^ 
v'enlmtiSy vefiijiis^venertint/' Tbbfe pri'Mii^e 
languages too,^ wbich, upori afccouVir of tfie^ 
difficulty of inven^in^ nurneral names, haiP 
inti-bduc^d a duil, as well as a plural numbeii^ 
iriitb Vhe dedenfion of their nouhs fiibftanSv^," 
wciuM probably from analogy do' the Taffiid'' 
thihgf in the cbnjugations of their v^rbii. 
And thus in all thofe original languag^^f ^^^^ 
might expea to find, at lead fi.^, rf libf '^fit*^ 
or nine variations, in the termination of evfery 
verb, according as the event Whicli if denoTea^ 
was meant to be affirmed of the firftj ifecbn^"^ 
or third perfons fingular, dtiat, or plural!^ 
Thefef variations again being repeated, albiig 
with others, through all its ditfer^nFt^ttfes^^ 
thVough all its diffident mo^es, 'and ihrduga^ 
all Its diBferent voices, muft nebeJftaHIjr fikvc^ 

Twdered their conjugations ftilTmoife Intric^ie,' 
ariti cbinf^lex than their dedenficyds." ' '^"^ ^ ' ' 

'liti|guage WouM probably ^aVe eoli^'iieil^ 
upon 'this fbodng in all ciiimt^e^ 'fi^or^oof^^ 

^^^ ' ever 

fio>?^ af^4 oCfSW^Mg^tipps, ,b^^ vta jji^ f,j)fRfl^j 

t^^Uhrpne.jinptlTer, !QC!wfiQ^ie4T)l)y th^tiWf iHWj; 
o^4feTeqt natipns. As loi^g.^as ,aiiy Jjaq^q^fj 
^ya? XpoVe by thpie only whp W^rne^ itfA^.j 
tKi^r iofj^cy^ the iptricacypf its ^edenfipiis 
aM c/PiPljLigatiiOM, could occajfiopnp grea.t jeno- 
baj:ial|(pent,, The. far gre«ijter part pfthpfpT 
•v^|^9^ hjid pcfiafiQft tp fpeak i^ had acquired, i^,, 
?it|fp;y9,ryj early a period of thei^ livj^s, ,fo i^^.- 
fenfihj^jand, by fuch flow degree?, tl^at th^jr,, 
wjgjTf^ ^ fcarcq ;ever, frpfibjl,e, xrf ^thi9 di^qulty., , 
Bu!^ ,1^)16^1^!^° nations pajcpe to bemixe^ ^^frf' 
bn^^anpthpri fiUijer by conqueftipr' ^igr^^iGn,^^ 
t^e ,(vafq,J?f<^^ .^lYery digjerent. . :)£a^|i,,^-Ti 
tionj. jn, prd^f to,, , rn^p itfelf intelligible ^^ 
tljp|fe^wijt^wh9qi it wa^ 
cc^yerring^ v^oai]^ be oblige^ to leaf a th!^4aiV" 
gqage of the other. The great(er,part,of in-^ 
diyidjials jt9P,,|[je,?rnipg the ^n 
|)5?' artj ,^^pn6^ntwg tp it;? rudi^j^nt^^^^, 
fi^ltpjir^fijples, but by f^fe-^nd |:iyV|i^ji^^yj^ 
co^r^piily |»ej^r<l w 9onyerr^^ipn».v^ii}}l4, jb^j^ 
declenfions ,^nd conj>g;^tiopfj, , ,T|j^)r j^ppf^,^ 
ci^df^your. th?Tffore, ,to ,%jp^,,,4gfif- 






could afFord ' theih. Th^ir ignorance of die 
declcnfions they would naturally fupply by 
the ufe of prepofitions ; and a Lombard, who 
was attempting to fpeak Latin, and Waited tb 
exprefs that fuch a perfon was a citizen bf 
Rome, or a behefadlor to Rome, if he ha|)- 
pened not to be acquainted with the genitive 
and dative cafes of the word Rofna^ w6iild 
naturally exprefs himfelf by prefixing the 
prepofuions ad and de to the nominative ; 
and, inftead of Romce^ would fay, ad Rornd 
and de Roma. Al Roma and di Roma^ziC'^ 
cordingly, is the manner in which the pre- 
fent Italians, the defcendant^ of the ancient 
Lombards and Romans, exprefs this arid all 
other fimilar relations. And in this manner 
prepofitions feem to have been introduced, In 
the room of the ancient declenfions. The 
fame alteration has, I am informed, been jii'^ 
duced, upon the Greek language, fince ffed 
taking of Conftantinople by the Turks. Thd 
words are, in a great riieafure, the fanie as 
before; .but the grammar^ is efitirely lol^, 
prepofitions having come in the place 6f th^ 
old declenfions. This change is uridodbt^dl]^ 
t fimplification of the language, in pbiitt of 
rudiments and principle, h introduces^ &•» 
'ftcad of a great variety of aeclenfioni,^ one 
univei^fel decfenfion, which is the fame irt 

IQ every 


every word^ of whatever gender, number, or 
termination. , 

A fimilar expedient enables mem, in the 
fituation above mentioned, to get rid of al- 
moft the whole intricacy of their cot\jugations. 
Thpre is in every language of a verb, known by 
the name of the fubftantive verb ; in Latin, 
^w; in Englifti, J am. This verb denotes 
nrpt the exiftence of any particular event, but 
exiftence in general. It is, upon this account 
the moft abftraa and metaphyfical of all 
verbs j and confequently, could by no means 
be a wjord of early invention. When it came 
to be invented, however, as it had all the 
, tenfes and moods of any other verb, by being 
joined with the paflTive participle, it was. ca- 
pable Qf fupplying the place of the whole 
jpa^ve voice, and of rendering thi^ part of 
t^ir conjugations as fimple and uniform as 
t^e ufe ,of prepofitions had rendered their de- 
ql^fions. A Lombard, who wanted to fay, 
f am Iqved^ but could not recoUeft the word 
ftmor^ naturally endeavoured to fupplyhisig- 
np^fince, by fieiyijag ego fum amatus. lo fono 
jn^atOy is, at this day the Italian expreflion, 
whipji co^efponds to theEnglifh phrafe above 
xa;ientiQned*. . : 
^... The j§j|nQtber, verb, which, in the fame 
pm^pjaer^jruij? thfjQiigh jdl languajge^ andi 
V, ^ . . which 

4«2 rdiC-ikkfi-bk'or 

5«i^ Biv^1ktti^'iv6/d of thfe'e^jklfn^^iitm 

xapAbte 6f'fuj3plyjwg a grfc«^itt'6f thtf aSlW 
- boicc,' A» tbet Aabft^Atitd verb iiaU'fiiij^U^d'ffi^ 
^wiioiei of the i^f&te.^ A liOtttbkid,'' wbd 
"iffAoted vtb tfaf, / blad > /ovn/^ > bub. <;buMo^^e 
^olk^ th$i Mioffd amaveram'vmald vtx^ie^ 
fSm^O: fiiippl5P,tJie place of it, by ftpagnqther 
^^ <^a^eb0it amafwny or eg<t babiii amatuin oif 
^fvd| cfftnaio^^ oif ,il>! tf^^; amato^ are thct, comw 
^ock^eRt, jltaUan t^^x^ffvam at thi^i dA7.>f Ami$ 
^V)^^j;>n the intermixture of ^)&itntiia(taqa8. 
with one another, the conjugations^! ky means: 
^o^iTerent' auxitiary Terbsr weecrMadid fto 
ftppQIich tovrar^s t)i^-criinftl|(ift]i; flAdi^uhk 
fpj^no^ of the declf nficNpS* ; hn enortne:' 

, iftSS'^e?^' ^ i^ay hstijiidvdoiisraifoeal niaawt 
ij9i that the mc»<5 firnplei awy Ungi^fe i«:ini 
ij^eoDjfpfttipo, the i^aore, ?fl«ij)le» itrouft bftr 
i^^Us.declejafiiQPs an^ cpajwgi«ions;jira94 Wb 
th^ 9omrary, th^.fliQKAfirppteit is ' 4of!> 
cl^^fiqii^ f^n4 c(>|ijugatioa9, %\i» idpjre «Qmp)iB«i 
it^ifi^ |g jn lt8,cw?»pp§tio8^,, , :-,< • U ' 


fiom "the, primitjve jarg^p 9/r ^l^q^i^fandgr*^ 

^ff^QUffrtb^rnfelyea^ a^dthatwben theyhsd 
Qg;^fiop .fo? a ine^ word, ttey i«rere not ac- 
99J|otxiedg aa we^arc, to bofraw it from forae 
£(ftc4igG language, but to form it, either by 
QOrfipofitioni or derivation frbm fottic othct 
vkordor words, in their own. The declen-^ 
fionsoand conjugations, therefore, of thd 
(Ear^k are much more complex than thoft di' 
aBoytOiher European language with Whidhtlf 
amcaeqcrainted. • "^ 

^^^Thie^Icatiii is a compafition of theGfeefc 
anduofitfe^ apciertt Tufcari languages, its^^de- 
clenfiops and conjugations kccofdih^Iy' ate 
nmcte lefe^^^oftKj>lex^ than ihbft of th^'Grefek ; 
itnhas d)^f 1 4hie ^d#al niimber in both. ^ Its 
ytiMiiSvd t^'^i^tvt mood tdiftinguitied bjr 
any ^6uliaf-'t«?aWnatJob. The^'ha^e'liuf 
oii futtfife.- 'O^ey have-iio aorift diftynft^ 
f«ftiqatlft ;:) ^^6i4^.petfe^^^^^ 
middle voice ; and^Y^a ififehy^cf ^thcS^ ^fes 


in the paffivervoice are eked out, in the fame 
manner as in the modern languages, by the 
help of the fubftantive verb joined to the 
paffive participle. In both the voices,; the 
number of infinitives and participles is mi^ch 
fmaller in the Latin than in the Qreefc* 

The French ai>d Italian languages are each 
of them compounded, the one of the Latin, 
and the language of the ancient Franks, the 
other of the fame Latin, and the language of 
the ancient Lombards. As they are both of 
them, therefore, more complex in their cma^ 
pofition than the Latin, fo are they likewise 
more fimple in their declenfions and ccm^^^ 
tions. With legard to their declenfioos, they 
have both of them loft their cafes aHoge^ 
ther ; and with regard to their conjt^atian^ 
they have both of them loft the whole of lire 
paffive^ and fome part of the aflive v«e», of 
their verbs. The want of the ps&ve voice 
they fupply entirely by the {vh&saAivexMA 
joined to the pajHive participle ; and tbey 
make out part of the aid^ive^ in tke &me 
manner, by the help of die poffefixve v^rb aanl 
the fame paflive parti€^>k* 

The Englifh is compounded cf the^Fcendb 
and the ancient Saxoa laoguajg^^ T^ 
French was iotrodfeiced Into^ Bxita4miiy^iiie 
Normaa conquo^i and cMMliaiiedi la^ 



time of Ed>vafd IIL to be the fole language of 
the law as well as the principal language of 
the court. The Engli(h, which came to be 
fpoken afterwards, and' Which continues to be 
fpoken now, is a mixture of the ancient Saxon 
and this Norman French. As the Englifli 
language, therefore, is more complex in its 
compofition than either the French or the 
Italian, fo is it likewife more fimple in its de- 
clertfions and conjugations. Thofc two lan- 
guages retain, at leaft, a part of the diftinc- 
lion of genders, and their afdjedlives vary their 
termination according as they are applied to 
a mafculineor to a feminine fubflantive. But 
there is no fuch diftindton in the Englifh Ian- 
guage, whofe adjeftives adipit of no variety 
of termination. The French and Italian lan- 
guages have, both of them, the remains of a 
conjugatioii ; and all thofe tenfes of theadive 
voice which caanot be exprefled by the pof- 
feffive verb joined to the paffive patticiple, as 
well as many of thofe which can, are, in 
thofe languages, marked by varyrng the termi- 
nation of the principal verb. But almoft all 
thofe other tenfes are in the Englifli eked out 
by other auxiliary verbs, fo that there is in 
this langua^fcarce even the remains of a con* 
jugatioiu Ilo^c; I kvtd^ laving^ are ail the 
varieties of termination which the greater part 
VOL. II. c c of 


of Englifb vetb« adfrnit oLt > • All ^ie* different 
ft>a(iiftqAtiQni8 of meaBiijgy whidbiSteinj^ot bfAkx- 
pr4(&dJl?7Ji«^Qf tlk(0^tiiTw terialiinadohd,^fif^ 

tpipnp^ flfnf, pr,Qf }j^C:pttJi€n3U Twckamxiliary 
veirbs &Rplf rftU *hft i4«licieD(ije&/ofi(tlKC)ifrptulh 
and [ Itgli^^|Cpfl]uga49fi3^4rj^irfQq«iroi) moxt 
th^p^ .Ijfftlf ^ dpRfg^sto fuf^lydt^fciofizthe 
^9gHA^io>?T)?i.cH>r befi^ arid 

poffeflive Vie^ U^,, itoJc?^! Hjfe ^fdl/^^jcrfi^/gupifltf, 
M^^^f Jba^kJbq^l4il<^m^ couldi;\ Itrnj^) mi§bL 

mpre finale jp Jts xudifn^OteArtd^riomplefii 
J^^ in p^9jp»QjtifPn ^ itj grP;W?i(ma5e 9p9l|)j0Cf 
in jil^jjj9p^p9fi^iop,^ i^n4 the f^na^i itibiri^ihal 
happcn^cj, iji^ iti .i^w^hicfe jcprositajs^j^ t happteM 
\vith, r^atf^^pi^ipii^jhA^^^ «ftg*i«^'^irj&lLiiBli(- 
chfneSi,.^,^ ge^ef^^y, 3hp».|fiiift^iDircnfE0^ 
extr^ply C(?^p^>f jn :tJ>^if!i|?fiiidpk8,^(rHnd 
there is often a partipulftr < primt^lei oflmo> 
tion fpj: ^c^y^ryp^i^cg^j^Cijnoy^ifeikfWia^ 
it! ^3.4nl5eft4e4 X*WijP^«W pOTftmm aSilfi-^ 

may ^Jcy^ /?^PPHs4 asy9>Lf6r0d^«:« {fwdrdivrf 
thpfp jnx9[yeq[>ent8<j\ &flid ^4lusbth«f raiaainiii 
beqpm;^ogP?!dtf2^1y iSipfe /jap^oifioi^iiftiD^ej 

an,dif6v§f(^p^ripR^§fi]^3na®i^ indjiagifai^ 

in ttlj;^'i^i9€o,in|i^er»oevi«cyj ofi cbwy? 

. 1 nount 

: I}«NGUAOESl 3&7 

sajlyf e^spreflcBrby/a pardxralar diftia^Jifeotd, 

^Butr)|furf(DBcdilIgU3l^ that 

^e! i feu io£ /'v#or dsi i wias McapaWe^ rf^ ^fiifffllving 
4hc:^pfliceidf all that linllmte Atimheir;) ibd that 
f43un OP ifive pr6pofitioti«^ ' arid haflf a ■ d 
aiixiiiaryi verb«i iwefe capitblei of khlWtrfng 
ibbe endiof aill ' the' declen^dns ^ and of all the 
J^vq ugatlojifi in the aticiettt kngaages* 
«\ \B« thwfimpfificatkm of languages, though 
ifearifeg] psrha|>8, from fimilar caufes, has by 
jaolqnMattp >fimilar effeds with the cbrref- 
|)Qifnf(kci« finapHficalten' of machines. ^ The 
Iraipiifidatioiiof xa^achines renders, theto more 
and| fn6r<|yerfe£t, but thiis fimpHfifcatibil of 
theffiidli^nertts^Jof l*nguages t-ertderg them more 
andiimore dittpcrfed, arifd left ptioper for 
immy.aofrpheipprpofes of language .'^ ahd this 
fontfie foUpwiog reafona. ^ -- 

,i vEirft ofaWp^angu^tf^ a^e :by this ftrtiplifi- 
catiiin «ndi»d fedt^^prolix; feverid wprds 
hkyinrg*pOG»8i^ Jiite«flkf y 4<y exptefe v^hat tbuld 
vliavbrbeeiki «»pl«^d<by a firiglfe%6t^d before. 
TAribthe wbtdsuilfc/ kftd i3^i-irt the Latin, 
ifbfl^cicntljraftrotnjiwithdat arty addition; what 
%9hiibn tibe/ol)jd(Bt-rigbifikl i^ uftderftbodto 
f^^fw^btthe okjciasf^l^ptelfed' by! the other 
trwds itL> ihe^knmiGe^ Bin: to eij!prefs the 
» c c 2 iame 


by- foar diflfercnt tworda, JJbo^^,,l^qp^^lQ^f(ff 

Itnfai ;^iala^ccei^ar!y tjo take rany ^fv?i«?; i tp"fl^P^v 
how much thie.proiiKneJfjj.-ni^iir.qlfiy^t?. j^^^^ 
eloquence of all modern languages. How' 
much the beauty of -any ^cxprelfion depends 
upon its concifenefs, is well known to thofe 
^1?Phahisiv^ anyex/pcriencc baoorji^o^tiipg.^ 
-'^^iSiciondly, this fiitipUficadbDQ\9f the pji^ij^* 
iJ5lt^^<2)filanguage8! Benders themrJefs i*gf?i§^f>le 
taf^tfie^^gafTj The viiricty of ^erfflinatSpjHi ]ljc^ tjie 
^G^ethmid Latiii^io(tflaiioned^)by their^fJ^fr^- 
^fibilsJiaiid conjugatioDiaiy ^VQ^ 4; fvvi^f.t(^f^to 
riiieif-fettguagei/aitb^h« uafcrtPWf^ f^o flyrs, 
lahd a variety unknpwnjAo ?tay ;<?rt^er j:\ipder,a 
• liangAiage;! - In i ppLntjof fwe^ta^|»,\ tl^e vltajian, « 
j)erba|)^^ TOarjr ftirpaf^ tht^ l^ipj^/and arli^pft 
feqdai tfe^rGreek?; bWiiiEV p^ij^l iqf .v^iety^ it 
1s^^rea% inferidrioihoiiht .: ,> ^v^ .f . 
' T?h4ikllyy(tt^^ ngtf pixlj rqa- 

dtrs the founds of our language Ufs agreeable 




tdjflfe eSr, 'butft alfb' tlgft4*ati^s ti$ fi^dfti dif- 

inahy ^c^Aiib a J^arfittiJair^frtlia^^h^tliOUgh 
rti^^^' itii^M dFfcrl fee^ie^d^^in atlbthdi* with 
liitidfl 'liidf e? htixky. 'Iti thfe Gf eek%ild likin^ 
thbii^h t!he -' atlj^aiJve^ and fobftafitlire :werfe 
f^^af^te^ 'fVbtt^ atiothfef,- thfe^c(^i^f{>ohd- 

ffiiitiia! tie^i^ertce, ^nd the feparatlbn did* not 
ii ecf^ffaFiiy dicafibn ahy ^ fort' - tif conf u frori* 
¥l^uS^hli;Hefeftlitte'6fVlrgHi ^ ^ 

nOil] uJ 

.'^r •' ).'' ^!; ;»■•. 

we dl^jh 'fee that te reforf to ^reci^iami sinA 
-fif^ki^ m^figi^ though r the related wot4*: are 
'"lfe|i^a^^d ftobi one another by the inter y(ent;p|i 
^ livt^at cfthers^ b^caufe the tei:«nija*|:jipn?, 
'fh^^ing* 'tUe/<son'e%on^ of tiiieir^cafe9, 

detei^m^Fid'^hete nxvti^ reference, rB*it4fwc 
^t^fef-lsib tratiflMetlii^ line literally ijit/tj EngUiSi^ 
^iitt:^ ftiy ,^ ' ^iPyK^is^^ ihmof Jpreadmg\ r!eqlinlnfg 
'Wnder^th^ [/haik^be^ib^^ OEdipjus hiiBcfelf cpujd 
'iibt 'mirke^ fenfe of it 5^ becaufe there ist'h^re no 
'ilifiei-eAde bf termination, to detetmime wh^ch 

fubftantive each adjedive belongs t.<?A It i^ 

tbfe iktKt Cfilfte with regard: to ^wcrbv/ iaJiatin 


WCoowrttfencye^f^E ij^pibigimy , ^ in ' ztij phti of 
$Hu^ fotUeboe. kI Qot Lmi nMnglifii rks platde 'is 
l^mt>ftlAlv^^ pjecifely dwerml^di- It ^!¥rtift 
fe41pvJtte3fubjcai¥e,aiAprfciad<i tbe bbj^iS^e 

^MMntmy the itteamiig ii^prteife1*j^^fli6^ lame, 
and btk& termination fixe^ Joto %i$ bii the 
fiiflFcrer in both cafed. Butltf'EhgUlh y()i&/r 
heaX RoBeffj 2itid Robert beat^obn), bttVfe by 
no means the fame fignificatioh.' The placer 
therefore of the three principal members of th« 
phrafe is in the Engliih^ and for the famerea- 
fonin theFfench and Italiah languages, almoft 
always precifely determined; whereas in the 
ancient languages a greater latitude is allowed, 
an4^^lif jplacc of thofe mcmbef«t)is c^fteoyjij a 
glTfSjat^ jPK^fiurie^ indififerent. v W.^ muAi have 
rqg^ujfciftQ : JHfoxace, iq. ox^m cTtMi AwtQ^et 
fQiui^.pa^^ pf Miltoi) V ii wa^ trapftftt^n ;i ? . , 

> r "S|Vi)0, jTipw^ enjfiiys thw:/5f^dnlmi^ all tgoRJ^ t u - in ' 

\;^ Hopes ^^^^^^^ .(^ y :,_ 

^' Unthindfal— " '\ .,. ■ 



are yerCi^s which ;ti^ b iiaipoflibi^efto biterrpiftt 

no .ry^Sfifi oiip ilingaiagB^l by/^whktei a«*^ 

o% J f^©), iq6^!tfQi;yirrtbat|, ia. the t^ fecond viln^ 
al^ayi^^ %^^t<y \ akvjo^s j^miiaWtii rcfenfed Lto 
/^^riarth? thkd, and not^tor^iAo in'the*fiittM^ 
lippi^itfc itvV in^.the LaH^^^ fccwie^d, affi thii^ 

is 4,hun^(teptly pljip.i^,,, :-.^ -..'"A i.'i.i -H- *.rTT on 

i.nTiiftiV^WI^^:T^^?W»^^rt^ri!W^ jd) Ot not 

Speratte 2 nefcius aurac fallacis; t ^ .,^. ..' 


!:, .i ^.1 i-i' i' ' -' J. ■7-' r- :-»:>! : uvjJ ia:)i'>iir: 

Becau/e^the ctetmioatlons iri^tfre LatlA titoi' 
mkie^ tl^ tiefer/nce df ek^ih' a^^QiVS'^d^'^s^ 
pl-c^pi^r fiibfttfntti^; whkh i^ ^ iinpbffift^if^PdF ' 
any thing in^lhfe^fegliQitbtlo/^ feLdt^-ftittth ' 
this power of tranfpofmg the order of their 
words mufthive ^ftfdtitated the^ «)mp6Mion 
of the ancient!$i both ili V^f fe 'a«ayr6fe.'can 
hardly be imagined^ "'T^at it liyil^^ 
have facilitated their verfification it is ncedlefs 
to obferve j and in profe, whatever beauty 



depends upon the arrangement and conftruo 
tion of the feveral members of the period, 
mufl to them have been acquirable with much 
more eafe, to much greater perfedion, than 
it can be to thofe whofe expreffion is con- 
ftantly confined by the prolixnefs, conftraint, 
and monotony of modern languages. 


Strallaii and Prefloa 



^ -^At 

'-^:^^^ >